*Project Gutenberg*. Public domain.

It is not difficult to understand why, in spite of this, we feel constrained to call the propositions of geometry “true.” Geometrical ideas correspond to more or less exact objects in nature, and these last are undoubtedly the exclusive cause of the genesis of those ideas. Geometry ought to refrain from such a course, in order to give to its structure the largest possible logical unity. The practice, for example, of seeing in a “distance” two marked positions on a practically rigid body is something which is lodged deeply in our habit of thought. We are accustomed further to regard three points as being situated on a straight line, if their apparent positions can be made to coincide for observation with one eye, under suitable choice of our place of observation.

If, in pursuance of our habit of thought, we now supplement the propositions of Euclidean geometry by the single proposition that two points on a practically rigid body always correspond to the same distance (line-interval), independently of any changes in position to which we may subject the body, the propositions of Euclidean geometry then resolve themselves into propositions on the possible relative position of practically rigid bodies.* Geometry which has been supplemented in this way is then to be treated as a branch of physics. We can now legitimately ask as to the “truth” of geometrical propositions interpreted in this way, since we are justified in asking whether these propositions are satisfied for those real things we have associated with the geometrical ideas. In less exact terms we can express this by saying that by the “truth” of a geometrical proposition in this sense we understand its validity for a construction with rule and compasses.

Of course the conviction of the “truth” of geometrical propositions in this sense is founded exclusively on rather incomplete experience. For the present we shall assume the “truth” of the geometrical propositions, then at a later stage (in the general theory of relativity) we shall see that this “truth” is limited, and we shall consider the extent of its limitation.

Notes

*) It follows that a natural object is associated
also with a straight line. Three points A, B
and C on a rigid body thus lie in a straight line
when the points A and C being given, B is chosen such
that the sum of the distances *ab* and BC is as
short as possible. This incomplete suggestion
will suffice for the present purpose.

## THE SYSTEM OF CO-ORDINATES

On the basis of the physical interpretation of distance
which has been indicated, we are also in a position
to establish the distance between two points on a
rigid body by means of measurements. For this
purpose we require a " distance " (rod S) which is
to be used once and for all, and which we employ as
a standard measure. If, now, A and B are two
points on a rigid body, we can construct the line joining
them according to the rules of geometry ; then, starting
from A, we can mark off the distance S time after
time until we reach B. The number of these operations
required is the numerical measure of the distance
*ab*. This is the basis of all measurement
of length. *