The Letters of Horace Walpole, Earl of Orford — Volume 1 eBook

The Letters of Horace Walpole, Earl of Orford — Volume 1 by Horace Walpole, 4th Earl of Orford

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Table of Contents

Table of Contents
Section Page

Start of eBook1
CHAPTER 8.—­1011
(See Reminiscences, p. 97.)101
Information about Project Gutenberg (one page)570
(Three Pages)572

Page 1


CHAPTer 1.—­67 Motives to the Undertaking-Precedents-George the First’s Reign-a Proem to the History of the Reigning House of Brunswick-The Reminiscent introduced to that Monarch-His Person and Dress-The Duchess of Kendal-her Jealousy of Sir Robert Walpole’s Credit with the King-the Intrigues to displace him, and make Bolingbroke Minister

Chapter 2.—­73 Marriage of George the First, while Electoral Prince, to the Princess Sophia Dorothea-Assassination of Count Konigsmark-Separation from the Princess-Left-handed espousal-Piety of the Duchess of Kendal-Confinement and Death of Sophia Dorothea in the Castle of Alden-French Prophetess-The King’s Superstition-Mademoiselle Schulemberg-Royal Inconsistency-Countess of platen-Anne Brett-Sudden Death of George the First

Chapter 3.—­79 Quarrel between George the First and his Son-Earl of Sunderland-Lord Stanhope-South Sea Scheme-Death of Craggs-Royal Reconcilement-Peerage Bill Defeated-Project for seizing the Prince of Wales and conveying him to America-Duke of Newcastle-Royal Christening-Open rupture-Prince and Princess of Wales ordered to leave the Palace

CHAPtER 4.—­83 Bill Of Pains and Penalties against Bishop Atterbury-Projected Assassination of Sir Robert Walpole-Revival of the Order of the Bath-Instance of George the First’s good-humoured Presence of Mind

Chapter 5.—­86
Accession of George the Second-Sir Spencer Compton-Expected
Change in Administration-Continuation of Lord Townshend -and
Sir Robert Walpole by the Intervention of Queen Caroline-Mrs.
Howard, afterwards Countess of Suffolk-Her character by
Swift-and by Lord Chesterfield

Chapter 6.—­89
Destruction of George the First’s Will.

Chapter 7.91 History of Mrs. Howard, afterwards Countess of Suffolk-Miss Bellenden-Marriage with Colonel John Carnl)bell, afterwards Fourth Duke of Argyle-Anecdotes of Queen Caroline-Her last Illness and Death-Anecdotes of Sarah, Duchess of Marlborough-Last Years of George the Second-Mrs. Clayton, afterwards Lady Sundon-Lady Diana Spencer-Frederick, Prince of Wales-Sudden Removal of the Prince and Princess from Hampton Court to St. James’s-Birth of a Princess-Rupture with the King-Anecdotes of Lady Yarmouth

CHAPTER 8.—­101

George the Second’s Daughters-Anne, Princess of Orange-Princess Amelia-Princess Caroline-Lord Hervey-Duke of Cumberland

Chapter 9.—­103
Anecdotes of Sarah, Duchess of Marlborough-and of Catherine,
Duchess of Buckingham

Extracts from the letters of Sarah, duchess of Marlborough, to the earl of Stair, illustrative ofThe reminiscences.” (Now first PUBlished) 111

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Lettersof Horace walpole.

(Those Letters now first collected are marked N.)


1.  To Richard West, Esq.  November 9.-Picture of a University life.  Cambridge sophs.  Juvenile quadruple alliance—­121


2.  To George Montagu, Esq.  May 2.-Marriage of Frederick, Prince of Wales, with the Princess Augusta of Saxe Gotha—­122

3.  To the same, May 6.-Pleasures of youth, and youthful recollections—­123

4.  To the same, May 20.-Jaunt to Oxford.  Wrest House.  Easton Neston.  Althorp—­124

5.  To the same, May 30.-Petronius Arbiter.  Coventry’s Dialogue between Philemon and Hydaspes on False Religion.  Artemisia—­ 126

6.  To Richard West, Esq.  Aug. 17.-Gray, and other schoolfellows.  Eton recollections.  Course of study at the University—­127


7.  To George Montagu, Esq.  March 20.-French and English manners contrasted—­128

8.  To the same.-Feelings on revisiting Eton—­129


9.  To Richard West, Esq.  April 21.  Paris society.  Amusements.  Funeral of the Duke de Tresmes.  St. Denis.  Church of the Celestins.  French love of show.  Signs.  Notions of honour—­130

10.  To the same.-, Description of Versailles.  Conventof the Chartreux.  History of St. Bruno, painted by Le Soeur.  Relics—­ 132

11.  To the same, June 18.-Rheims.  Brooke’s “Gustavus Vasa”—­ 134

12.  To the same, July 20.-Rheims.  Compiegne.  Self-introduction—­134

13.  To the same, Sept. 28.-Mountains of Savoy.  Grande Chartreuse.  Aix.  English visitors.  Epigram—­136

14.  To the same, Nov. 11.-Passage of Mount Cenis.  Cruel accident.  Chamberri.  Inscription.  Pas de Suza.  Turin.  Italian comedy.  “L’Anima Damnata.”  Conversazione—­138

15.  To the same.-Bologna.  Letter-writing.  Curl.  Whitfield’s Journal.  Jingling epitaph.  Academical exercises at the Franciscans’ church.  Dominicans’ Church.  Old verses in a new light—­140


16.  To the same, January 24.-Florence.  Grand Duke’s gallery.  Effect of travel.  English and Italian character contrasted.  Story of the prince and the nut—­142

17.  To the same, February 27.-Florence.  The Carnival.  Character of the Florentines.  Their prejudice about nobility.  Mr. Martin.  Affair of honour—­143

18.  To the Hon. Henry Seymour Conway, March 6.-Complaints of his not writing.  Attachment to Florence—­145

19.  To richard West, Esq.  March 22.-Description of Siena.  Romish superstitions.  Climate of italy.  Italian customs.  Radicofani.  Dome of Siena.  Inscription.  Entrance to Rome—­146

20.  To the same, April 16.-Rome.  Ruins of the temple of Minerva Medica.  Ignorance and poverty of the present Romans.  The Coliseum.  Relics—­148

21.  To the Hon. H. S. Conway, April 23.-Society at Rome.  The Moscovita.  Roman Conversations.  The Conclave.  Lord Deskford—­ 150

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22.  To Richard West, Esq., May 7.-The Conclave.  Antiquities of Rome.  State of the public a century hence—­152

23.  To the same, June 14.-Naples.  Description of Herculaneum.  Passage in Statius picturing out this latent city—­153

24.  To the Hon. H. S. Conway, July 5.-Reasons for leaving Rome.  Malaria.  Radicofani described.  Relics from Jerusalem.  Society at Florence.  Mr. Mann.  Lady pomfret.  Princess Craon.  Hosier’s ghost.  The Conclave.  Lord Chancellor Hardwicke—­155

25.  To Richard West, Esq.-Medals and inscriptions.  Taking of Porto Bello.  The Conclave.  Lady Mary Montagu.  Life at Florence—­159

26.  To the Hon. H. S. Conway, Sept. 25.-Character of the Florentines.  Lady Mary Wortley Montagu described.  Sortes Virgiliane—­161

27.  To Richard West, Esq.  Oct. 2.-Effect of travel- A wedding at Florence.  Addison’s Italy.  Dr. Cocchi.  Bondelmonti.  A song.  Bronzes and medals.  Tartini.  Lady Walpole.  Platonic love—­163

28.  To the same, Nov.-Disastrous flood at Florence—­166


29.  To the Rev. Joseph Spence, Feb. 21.-Hopes to renew in England an acquaintance begun in Italy.  Owns him his master in the antique—­[N.) 168

30.  To the Hon. H. S. Conway, March 25.-Rejoices at George Selwyn’s recovery And at the result of Mr. Sandvs’ motion for the removal of Sir Robert Walpole.  Middleton’s Life of Cicero--169

31.  To Richard West, Esq., May 10.-His opinion of the first act of West’s tragedy of Pausanias.  Description of Rome during fair-time—­170

32.  To Sir Horace Mann, Sept.-Calais on his return to England.  Amorevoli.  The Viscontina.  Passage to Dover.  Comfort and snugness of English in country towns.  The distinction of “meddling people” nowhere but in England.  Story of Mr. Pope and the Prince of Wales—­172

33.  To the same, Oct.-Corsica.  Bianca Colonna.  Baron Stosch, and his Maltese cats—­174

34.  To the Hon. H. S. Conway.-On his return to England.  Changes produced by travel—­175

35.  To Sir Horace Mann, Oct. 8.-Illness of Sir Robert Walpole.  The Opera.  Sir Benjamin Keene.  Dominichino’s Madonna and Child.  Lady Dorothy Boyle.  State of parties—­176

36.  To the same, Oct. 13—­178

37.  To the same, Oct. 19.-Unfavourable state of his father’s health—­178

38.  To the same, Oct. 22.-Duel between Winnington and Augustus Townshend.  Long Sir Thomas Robinson.  Mrs. Woffington.  “Les Cours de l’Europe”—­179

39.  To the same, Nov. 2.-Sir Thomas Robinson’s ball.  The Euston embroil.  The Neutrality.  “The Balancing Captain,” a new song—­182

40.  To the same, Nov. 5.-Opera House management—­186

41.  To the same, Nov. 12.-Admiral Vernon.  The Opera.  The Viscontina—­187

42.  To the same, Nov. 23.-Spanish design on Lombardy.  Sir Edward Walpole’s courtship.  Lady Pomfret.  “Going to Court.”  Lord Lincoln.  Paul Whitehead.  “Manners”—­189

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43.  To the same, Nov. 26.-His mother’s tomb.  Intaglio of the Gladiator—­191

44.  To the same, Dec. 3.-Admiral Haddock.  Meeting of Parliament.  State of parties.  Colley Cibber—­192

45.  To the same, Dec. 10.-Debate on the King’s speech.  Westminster petition.  Triumph of Opposition.  “Bright Bootle”—­ 194

46.  To the same, Dec. 16.-Chairman of election committees.  Ministry in a minority—­197

47.  To the same, Dec. 17.-Warm debates in Westminster election committee.  Odd suicide—­199

48.  To the same, Dec. 24.-Anecdote of Sandys.  Ministerial victory.  Debates on the Westminster election.  Story of the Duchess of Buckingham.  Mr. Nugent.  Lord Gage.  Revolution in Russia—­201

49.  To the same, Dec. 29.-The Dominichino.  Passage of the Giogo.  Bubb Doddington.  Follies of the Opposition—­206


50.  To Sir Horace Mann, Jan. 7.-Reasons why he is not in fashion.  His father’s want of partiality for him.  Character of General Churchill.  Vote-trafficking during the holidays.  Music party.  The three beauty-Fitzroys.  Lord Hervey.  Hammond, the poet.  Death of Lady Sundon.  Anecdotes—­207

51.  To the same, Jan. 22.-House of Commons.  Merchants’ petition.  Leonidas Glover.  Place Bill.  Projected changes.  King’s message to the Prince.  Pulteney’s motion for a secret committee on Sir Robert Walpole’s conduct.  New opera—­212

52.  To the same Feb. 4.-Sir Robert’s morning levees.  His resignation.  Created Earl of Orford—­218

53.  To the same; Feb. 9.@Political changes.  Opposition meeting at the Fountain.  Cry against Sir Robert.  Instructions to members.  Lord Wilmington first lord of the Treasury.New ministry.  Crebillon’s “Sofa”—­220

54.  To the same, Feb. 18.-Rumoured impeachments.  Popular feeling.  “The Unhappy Favourite.” “broad Bottom” ministry. the Prince of Wales at the King’s levee. sir Robert takes his seat in the HOuse of Lords.  Grand masquerade—­224

55.  To the same, Feb. 25.-House of Commons.  Shippen.  Murray.  Story of Sir R. Godschall.  Impeachments.  Changes.  “England in 1741,” by Sir C. H. Williams—­227

56.  To the same, march 3.-Merchants’ petition. leonidas Glover.  New Story of the Lord mayor. speech of Doddington.  Heydon election.  “The broad Bottom.”  Duchess of Marlborough’s Memoirs.  Lord Oxford’s sale.  New opera.  Sir robert at richmond—­229

57. to the same, March 10.-The coalition.  Motion for a committee of inquiry into the last twenty years thrown out.  Duke of Argyle resigns.  Old Sarah’s Memoirs—­234

58.  To the same, march 22.-Queen of Hungary’s successes.  Lord Oxford’s sale—­237

59. to the same, March 24.-Secret Committee to inquire into the conduct of the Earl of Orford appointed.  Horace WAlpole’s speech on the occasion—­238

60.  To the same, april 1.-Secret Committee balloted for. court and Opposition lists.  Bill for repealing the Septennial Act rejected—­241

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61.  To the same, april 8.-lady Walpole’s extravagant schemes.  Subsidy for the Queen of Hungary.  Lord Orford’s crowded levees.  Rage of the mob against him.  Place Bill rejected by the Lords—­243

62.  To the same, April 15.-Progress of the Secret Committee.  Committal of Paxton—­246

63.  To the same, april 22.- Secret Committee.  Examination of Sir John Rawdon.  Opening of Ranelagh Gardens—­247

64.  To the same, April 29.-Preparations for war in Flanders.  Examinations before the Secret Committee.  Scuffle at the Opera—­249

65.  To richard West, Esq., may 4.-Anxiety for the recovery of his health and spirits.  The age most unpoetical.  Wit monopolized by politics.  Royal reconciliation.  Asheton’s sermons. (Death of Mr. West)—­251

66.  To sir Horace mann, May 6.-Florentine nobility.  Embarkations for Germany.  Doings of the Secret committee. the opera—­252

67. to the same, May 13.-first report of the Secret Committee.  Bill to indemnify evidence against Lord orford brought in—­254

68.  To the same, May 20.-Indemnity Bill carried in the Commons.  Party dinner at the Fountain.  Place Bill.  Mr. Nugent’s attack on the bishops—­254

69.  To the same, May 28.-Ranelagh.  Vauxhall.  Mrs. Clive.  “Miss Lucy in town.”  Garrick at Goodman’s Fields:  “a very good mimic; but nothing wonderful in his acting.”  Mrs. Bracegirdle. meeting at the Fountain.  The Indemnity Bill flung out by the Lords.  Epigram on Pulteney.  Committee to examine the public accounts.  Epigram on the Indemnity Bill.  Kent and symmetry.  “The Irish Beggar”—­256

70.  To the same, June 3.-Epigram on Lord Islay’s garden upon Hounslow Heath—­260

71.  To the same, June 10.-Lady Walpole and her son.  Royal reviews.  Death of hammong.  Process against the duchess of Beaufort—­261

72.  To the same, June 14.-Peace between Austria and Prussia.  Ministerial movements.  Perplexities of the Secret Committee.  Conduct of Mr. Scrope.  Lady Vane’s adventures—­263

73.  To the same, June 25.-successes of the Queen of Hungary.  Mr. Pulteney created Earl of Bath—­265

74.  To the same, June 30.-Second Report of the Secret Committee.’  The Pretender.  Intercepted letters.  Lord Barrymore—­267

75. to the same.-Lines on the death of Richard West, Esq.  “A Receipt to make a lord”—­269

76.  To the same, July 7.-New Place Bill.  General Guise.  Monticelli—­271

77.  To the same July 14.-Ned and Will Finch.  Lord Sidney Beauclerc.  Pulteney takes up his patent as Earl of Bath.  Ranelagh masquerade.  Fire in Downing Street—­273

78.  To the same.-Prorogation.  End of the Secret Committee.  Paxton released from Newgate.  Ceretesi.  Shocking scene of murder.  Items from his grandfather’s account-book.  Lord Orford at court—­275

79.  To the same, July 29.-About to set out for Houghton.  Evening at Ranelagh with his father.  Lord Orford’s increasing popularity.  “The Wife of Bath.”  Cibber’s pamphlet against Pope.  Doddington’s “Comparison of the Old and New Ministry”—­ 278

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80.  To the same,-New ballads.  Lord Orford at Houghton—­279

81.  To the same, Aug. 20—­280

82.  To the same, Aug. 28.-Marshal Belleisles, Cardinal Tencin.  “Lessons for the Day.”  “An honourable man”—­281

83.  To the same, Sept, 11.-Visit to Woolterton.  A Catalogue of New French Books”—­284

84.  To the same, Sept. 25.-Admiral Matthews.  The King’sJourney to Flanders.  Siege of Prague.  History of the Princess Eleonora of Guastalla.  Moli`ere’s Tartuffe—­285

85.  To the same, Oct. 8.-Siege of Prague raised.  Great preparations for the King’s journey to Flanders.  Odes on Pulteney.  Story of the Pigwiggins.  Fracas at Kensington Palace—­287

86.  To the same, Oct. 18.-Admiral Matthews.  “Yarmouth Roads.”  A ballad, by Lord Hervey—­289

87.  To the same, Oct. 23.—­293

88.  To the same, Nov. 1.-The King’s levee and drawing-room described.  State of parties.  A piece of absence.  Duc d’Arembery—­294

89.  To the same, Nov. 15.-Projects of Opposition Lord Orford’s reception at the levee.  Revolution in the French court.  The Opera.  Lord Tyrawley.  Doddington’s marriage—­296

90.  To the same, Dec. 2.—­House of Commons.  Motion for a new secret committee thrown out.  Union of the Whigs—­298

91.  To the same, Dec. 9.-Debate on disbanding the army in Flanders.  “Hanover"-the word for the winter—­299

92.  To the same, Dec. 23.-Difficulty of writing upon nothing—­ 301


93.  To Sir Horace Mann, Jan. 6.-Admiral Vernon.  Reply of the Duchess of Queensberry—­302

94.  To the same, Jan. 13.-House of Commons.  Case of the Hanover ’Forces.”  Difficulty of raising the supplies.  Lord Orford’s popularity—­304

95.  To the same, Jan. 27.-Accession of the Dutch to the King’s measures—­306

96.  To the same, Feb. 2.  Debate in the Lords on disbanding the Hanoverian troops—­308

97. to the same, Feb. 18.—­309

98.  To the same, Feb. 24.’  Austrian victory over the Spaniards in Italy.  King theodore’s Declaration. handle and the Opera—­ 309

99.  To the same, March 3.-Death of the Electress.  Story of Lord Hervey.  The Oratorios—­310

100.  To the same, March 14.-Duel between his uncle Horace and Mr. Chetwynd.  Death of the Duchess of Buckingham—­311

101.  To the same, March 25.-Epidemic.  Death of Dr. Blackburne, Archbishop of York—­314

102.  To the same, April 4.-Funeral of the Duchess of Buckingham—­315

103.  To the same, April 14.-Army in Flanders.  King Theodore.  The Opera ruined by gentlemen directors.  Dillettanti Club.  London versus the country—­317

104.  To the same, April 25.-Departure of the King and Duke of Cumberland from the army in Flanders.  The Regency.  Princess Louisa and the Prince of Denmark.  Lord Stafford and Miss Cantillon.  Irish fracas.  Silvia and Philander—­318

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105.  To the same, May 4.-King Theodore.  Admiral Vernon’s frantic speech.  Ceretesi.  Low state of the Opera.  Freemasonry--320

106. to the same, May 12.-Death of the Duchess of Kendal.  Story of Old Sarah.  Maids of honour—­322

107.  To the same, May 19.-Mutiny of a Highland regiment—­323

108.  To the same, June 4.-Marriages, deaths and promotions.  Sale of Corsica—­324

109.  To the same, June 16.-expected battle in Flanders.  Alarms for Mr. Conway.  Houghton gallery.  Life of Theodore—­326

110.  To the same, June 20.-Visit to Euston.  Kent.  Anecdote of Lord Easton.  Lady Dorothy Boyle—­328

111.  To the same, June 28.-Batttle of Dettingen.  Conduct of the King.  Anecdotes—­329

112.  To the same, July 4.-Further anecdotes of the battle.  Public rejoicings.  Lines on the victory.  Halifax’s poem of the battle of the Boyne—­331

113. to the same, July 11.-another battle expected—­333

114. to the same, July 19.-Conduct of General Ilton.  “The Confectioner”—­334

115.  To the same, July 31.-the temporizing conduct of the Regency.  Bon-mot of Winnington—­335

116.  To the same, Aug. 14.-Arrival of the Dominichini.  Description.  Pun of Madame de S`evign`e—­336

117.  To John Chute, Esq., Aug. 20.-Life at Houghton.  Stupifying qualities of beef, ale, and wine.  The Dominichini—­ [N.) 338

118.  To Sir Horace Mann, Aug. 29.-Undoubted originality of the Dominichini.  Mr. Pelham first lord of the treasury—­340

119.  To the same, Sept. 7.-The marrying Princesses.  French players at Cliefden.  Our faith in’politics.  Story of the Duke of Buckingham.  Extraordinary miracle—­341

120.  To the same, Sept 17.-The King and Lord Stair—­343

121.  To the same, Oct. 3.-Journey to town.  Newmarket described.  No solitude in the country.  Delights of a London life.  Admiral Matthews and the Pope.  Story of Sir James of the Peak.  Mrs. White’s brown bob.  Old Sarazin at two the morning.  Lord Perceval’s “Faction Detected.”  Death of the duke of Argyle—­344

122.  To the same, oct. 12.-Conduct of Sir Horace’s father.  The army in Flanders in winter quarters.  Distracted state of parties.  Patapaniana.  Imitation of an epigram of martial—­347

123.  To the Same, Nov. 17.-the King’s arrival and reception.  His cool behaviour to the Prince of Wales.  Lord Holderness’s Dutch bride.  The Prince of Denmark. the Opera—­349

124.  To the same, Nov. 30.-Meeting of Parliament.  Strength of Opposition.  Conduct of Lord Carteret.  Treasury dishclouts.  Debate on the Address—­351

125.  To the same, Dec. 15.-Debates on the Hanoverian troops.  Resignation of Lord Gower.  Ministerial changes.  Sandys made a peer.  Verses addressed to the House of Lords, on its receiving a new peer—­352

126.  To the same, Dec. 26.—­354


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127.  To Sir Horace Mann, Jan. 24.-The Brest fleet at sea.  Motion for continuing the Hanover troops carried by the exertions of Lord Orford—­356

128.  To the same, Feb. 9.-Appearance of the Brest squadron off the Land’s End.  Pretender’s son at Paris—­358

129.  To the same, Feb. 16.-French squadron off Torbay.  King’s message concerning the young Pretender and designed invasion.  Activity and zeal of Lord Orford—­359

130.  To the same, Feb. 23.-Welsh election carried against Sir Watkyn Williams.  Prospect of invasion.  Preparations—­361

131.  To the same, March 1.-The French expected every moment.  Escape of the Brest squadron from Sir John Norris.  Dutch troops sent for.  Spirit of the nation.  Addresses.  Lord Barrymore and Colonel Cecil taken up.  Suspension of the Habeas Corpus.  The young Pretender—­361

132.  To the same, March 5.-Great storm.  French transports destroyed, and troops disembarked—­363

133.  To the same, March 15.-Fears of invasion dispelled.  Mediterranean engagement.  Admiral Lestock—­364

134.  To the same, March 22.-French declaration of war.  Affair in the Mediterranean.  Sir John Norris.  Hymeneals.  Lord Carteret and Lady Sophia Fermor.  Doddington and Mrs. Behan—­ 365

135.  To the same, April 2.—­366

136.  To the same, April 15.-Nuptials of the great Quixote and the fair Sophia.  Invasion from Dunkirk laid aside—­367

137.  To the same, May 8.-Debate on the Pretender’s Correspondence Bill—­369

138.  To the same, May 29.-Movements of the army in Flanders.  Illness of his father.  Death of Pope.  Mr. Henry Fox’s private marriage with Lady Charlotte Lenox.  Bishop Berkeley and tar-water—­370

139.  To the same, June 11.-Successes of the French army in Flanders.  State of the combined army.  And of our sea-force—­ 372

140.  To the same, June 18.-Return of Admiral Anson.  Ball at Ranelagh.  Purchase of Dr. Middleton’s collection.  Lord Orford’s pension—­373

141.  To the Hon. H. S. Conway, June 29.-Eton recollections.  Lines out of a new poem.  Opinion of the present great men.  Ranelagh described—­[N.] 375

142.  To Sir Horace Mann, June 29.-Cluster of good news.  Our army joined by the dutch.  Success of the King of Sardinia over the Spaniards.  The Rhine passed by Prince Charles.  Lines on the death of Pope.  Epitaph on him by Rolli—­ 377

143.  To the Hon. H. S. Conway, July 20.-Happiness at receiving a letter of confidence.  Advice on the subject of an early attachment.  Arguments for breaking off the acquaintance.  Offer of the immediate use of his fortune—­379

144.  To Sir Horace Mann, July 22.-Letter-writing one of the first duties.  Difficulty of keeping up a correspondence after long absence.  History writing.  Carte and the City aldermen.  Inscription on Lady Euston’s picture. lady Carteret.  Epigram on her—­381

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145.  To the same, Aug. 6.-Marquis de la Ch`etardie dismissed by the Empress of Russia.  The Grifona.  Lord Surrey’s sonnets—­ 383

146.  To the same, Aug. 16.-Preparations for a Journey to Houghton.  Rule for conquering the passions.  Country life. king of Prussia’s address to the people of England.  A dialogue on the battle of Dettingen—­385

147.  To the same, Sept. 1.-Victory at Velletri.  Illness of the King of France.  Epigram on Bishop Berkeley’s tar-water—­387

148.  To the Hon. H. S. Conway, Oct. 6.—­388

149.  To Sir Horace Mann, Oct. 6.-Self-scolding.  Neapolitan expedition—­390

150.  To the same, Oct. 19.-Defeat of the King of Sardinia. loss of the ship Victory, with Sir John Balchen.  Death of Sarah of Marlborough, the Countess Granville, and Lord Beauchamp.  Marriage of Lord Lincoln.  French King’s dismissal of Madame de Chateauroux.  Discretion of a Scotch soldier—­391

151.  To the same, November 9.-Lord middleton’s wedding.  The Pomfrets.  Lady Granville’s At Home.  Old Marlborough’s will.  Glover’s Leonidas—­393

152.  To the same, Nov. 26.-History of Lord Granville’s resignation.  Voila le monde!  Decline of his father’s health.  Outcry against pantomimes.  Drury Lane uproar.  Bear-garden bruisers.  Walpole turned popular orator—­394

153.  To the same, Dec. 24.-Conduct of the King.  Prostitution of patriots.  List of ministerial changes.  Mr. Pitt declines office.  Opposition selling themselves for profit.  The Pretender’s son owned in France—­397


154.  To Sir Horace Mann, Jan, 4.-Complains of dearth of news.  His ink at low water mark.  Lord Sandwich’s first-rate tie-wig.  Lady Granville’s assemblies.  Marshal a prisoner at Hanover—­ 399

155.  To the same, Jan. 14.-M. de Magnan’s history.  Prince Lobkowitz.  Doings of the Granville faction.  Anecdote of Lord Baltimore.  Illness of Lord Orford.  Mrs. Stephens’s remedy.  Sir Thomas Hanmer’s Shakspeare.  Absurd alteration therein—­400

156.  To the same, Feb. 1.-Variety of politics.  Lord Granville characterized.  Progress of the coalition—­402

157.  To the same, Feb. 28.-Alarming illness of Lord Orford.  Success of the coalition. situation of the Pelhams.  Masquerade at the Venetian ambassadress’s.  Lady townshend’s ball.  Marshal Belleisle at Nottingham. matrimonials on the tapis—­404

158.  To the same, march 29.-Death of Lord Orford.  Inquiry into the miscarriage of the fleet in the action off Toulon.  Matthews and Lestock.  Instability of the ministry.  Thomson’s Tancred and Sigismunda.  Glover’s Leonidas.  The Seasons.  Alenside’s Odes.  Quarrel between the Duchesses of Queensberry and Richmond.  Rage for conundrums—­406

159.  To the same, April 15.-Reflections on his father’s death.  Compliments paid to his memory.  Mediterranean miscarriages—­ 410

160.  To the same, April 29.-Disadvantages of a distant correspondence.  Death of Mr. Francis Chute, and of poor Patapan.  Prospect of a battle in Flandders.  Marshal Saxe—­411

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161.  To the same, May 11.-Battle of Fontenoy.  Bravery of the Duke.  Song, written after the news of the battle, by the Prince of Wales—­412

162.  To George Montagu, Esq., May 18.-Condolence on the death of Mr. Montigu’s brother at Fontenoy—­415

163.  To Sir Horace Mann, May 24.-Popularity of the Duke of Cumberland.  Lady Walpole.  Story of Lord Bath’s parsimony—­415

164.  To George Montagu, Esq. may 25.-Family at Englefield Green.  Sir Edward Walpole.  Dr. Styan Thirlby—­416

165.  To the Hon. H. S. conway, May 27.-Despairs of seeing his friend a perfect hero. the Why!—­417

166.  To sir Horace Mann-Recommendatory, of Mr. Hobart, afterwards Lord Buckinghamshire—­418

167. to the same, June 24.-Expected arrival from Italy of the sister-Countess.  Surrender of the citadel of tournai.  Defeat of Charles Lorrain.  Revolution of the Prince of Wales’s court.  Miss Neville.  Lady Abergavenny—­419

168. to George Montagu, Esq.  June 25.-Mistley, the seat of Mr. Rigby, described.  Fashionable at Homes.  Lady Brown’s Sunday parties.  Lady Archibald hamilton.  Miss Granville.  Jemmy Lumley’s assembly—­421

169.  To the Hon. H.S.  Conway, July 1.-Tournai and Fontenoy.  Gaming act—­422

170.  To Sir Horace Mann, July 5.-Seizure of Ghent and Bruges by the French—­424

171.  To the same, July 12.—–­425

172. to George Montagu, Esq.  July 13.-Success of the French in Flanders.  Lord Baltimore.  Mrs. Comyns—­427

173.  To sir Horace Mann, July 15.—­428

174.  To the same, July 26.-Projected invasion.  Disgraces in Flanders—­430

175.  To George Montagu, Esq.  AUg. 1.-Portrait of M. de Grignon.  Livys patavinity. marshal Belleisle in London.  Duke of Newcastle described.  Duches of Bolton’s geographical resolution—­431

176.  To sir Horace Mann, Aug. 7.-Rumours of an invasion.  Proclamation for apprehending the Pretender’s son—­432

177.  To the Rev. Thomas Birch, Aug. 15.-Respecting a projected History of George the Second—­434

178.  To Sir Horace Mann, Sept. 6.-Landing and progress of the young Pretender.  His manifestoes—­435

179.  To the same, Sept. 13.-Progress of the rebellion.  The Duke of Newcastle’s speech to the Regency—­436

179a.  To George Montagu, Esq., Sept. 17.—­ (Transcriber’s note:  this letter appears in the text but was omitted from the printed table of contents—­438

180.  To the same, Sept. 20.-Edinburgh taken by the rebelsOur strength at sea.  Plan of raising regiments.  Lady Orford’s reception in England.—­439

181.  To the same, Sept. 27.-Successes of Prince Charles in Scotland—­441

182.  To the same, Oct. 4.-Operations against the rebels.  Spirited conduct of the Archbishop of York—­443

183.  To the same, Oct. 11.-Death of Lady Granville—­445

184.  To the same, Oct. 21.-Excesses of the rebels at Edinburgh.  Proceedings in Parliament—­446

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185.  To the same, Nov. 4.-State of the rebellion.  Debates respecting the new raised regiments.  Ministerial changes—­447

186.  To the same, Nov. 15.-Disturbance about the new regiments.  Advance of the rebels into England.  Their desperate situation.  Lord Clancarty—­449

187.  To the same, Nov. 22.-The rebels advance to Penrith.  The Mayor of Carlisle’s heroic letter, and surrender of the town.  Proceedings in Parliament—­451

188.  To the same, Nov. 29.-,rhe sham Pretender.  Lord Derwentwater taken.  The rebels at Preston.  Marshal Wade—­453

189.  To the same, Dec. 9.-Conduct of the rebels at Derby.  Black Friday.  Preparations for a French invasion Rising spirit of the people—­455

190.  To the same Dec. 20.-Flight of the rebels from Derby.  Capture of the Martinico fleet.  Debate on employing the Hessian troops.Marriage of the Duchess of Bridgewater and Dick Lyttelton.  A good Irish letter—­457


191.  To Sir Horace Mann, Jan. 3.-Recapture of Carlisle.  General Hawley.  Preparations at Dunkirk.  Ministerial movements—­460

192.  To the same, Jan. 17.-The rebels fortifying themselves in Scotland.  Hawley’s executions.  Anecdotes of him.  The French invasion laid aside—­461

193.  To the same, Jan. 28.-Battle of Falkirk—­463

194.  To the same, Feb. 7.-Plight of the rebels.  The new regiments.  Confusion at court—­464

195.  To the same, Feb. 14.-Insurrection in the closet.  The Pelhams throw up the seals.  Reconciliation and return to office.  History—­466

196.  To the same, March 6.-Reunion of the dispersed clans.  Lord Lovat—­469

197.  To the same, March 21.-The rebels take Fort Augustus.  The Prince of Wales’s new opposition—­470

198.  To the same, March 28.-The rebels out of spirits.  Lady Walpole.  Peggy Banks.  The opera.  Shocking murder—­471

199.  To the same, April 15.-The rebellion at its last gasp.  Supplies from France taken.  Hanoverian troops.  Trial of Hawley.  Marriage of Lord Kildare.  An odd discovery.  Strange event—­473

200.  To the same, April 25.-Battle of Culloden.  Escape of the young Pretender.  Fireworks and illuminations.  Death of Mr. Winnington—­476

201.  To the same, May 16.-End of the rebellion.  Old Tullybardine.  Lords Kilmarnock, Balmerino, and Ogilvie prisoners.  Antwerp taken—­478

202.  To George Montagu, Esq.  May 22.-Visit to Langley.  The Sidney Papers.  Sir Philip’s defence of the Earl of Leicester—­ 479

203.  To the same, June 6.-Character of the Prince of Hesse.  Fame of the Violette—­480

204.  To Sir Horace Mann, June 6.-Marriage of the Princess Mary to the Prince of Hesse—­482

205.  To George Montagu, Esq.  June 12.-Anecdotes of the Prince of Hesse.  Lady Caroline Fitzroy.  Dick Edgecumbe—­483

206.  To the same, June 17.-Prospect of Peace.  Death of Augustus Townshend—­484

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207.  To Sir Horace Mann, June 20.-Battle of Placentia.  Old Tullybardine and Lord Cromartie in the Tower.  Death of Jack Spenser—­485

208.  To George Montagu, Esq.  June 24.-Ministerial changes.  Arrival of rebel prisoners.  Jack Spenser’s will.  Lady Townshend’s bon-mots.  Anecdotes of Lords Bath and Sandys, and the Duke of Cumberland—­486

209.  To the same, July 3.-Promotions and marriages—­487

210.  To Sir Horace Mann, July 7.-Lord Lovat, and Murray, the Pretender’s secretary,taken.—­488

211.  To the same, Aug, 1.-Trials of the rebel Lords.  Description of Lords Kilmarnock, Cromartie, and Balmerino.  Intercessions in their behalf.  Confessions of Murray—­489

212.  To George Montagu, Esq.  Aug. 2.-Trials of the rebel Lords.  Anecdotes—­494

213.  To the same, Aug. 5.-Discoveries of Murray.  Lady Cromartie’s petition.  Anecdotes of the rebel lords.  The Duke of Cumberland’s ball—­495

214.  To George Montagu, Esq.  Aug. 11.-Lord Cromartie’s pardon.  Lady Caroline Fitzroy’s marriage—­497

215.  To Sir Horace mann, Aug. 12.-Opera squabbles.  The Violette.  Lord Sandwich’s embassy.  Marriage of Lady Charlotte Fermor, and of the Princess Louisa to the King of Denmark.  Wanderings of the young Pretender.  Conduct of the rebel Lords.  Story of Lord Balmerino—­497

216.  To George Montagu, Esq.  Aug. 16.-Anecdotes of the rebel Lords under sentence—­500

217.  To Sir Horace Mann, Aug. 21.-Account of the execution of Lords Balmerino and Kilmarnock—­501

218.  To the same, Sept. 15.-Lady Orford and Mr. Shirley—­504

219.  To the same, Oct. 2.-Arrival of Mr. Chute from Italy.  Mr. Whithed described—­506

220.  To the Hon. H. S. Conway, Oct. 3.-Enclosing Gray’s Ode on a distant Prospect of Eton College—­507

221.  To Sir Horace Mann, Oct. 14.-Defeat of the allies in Flanders.  Capitulation of Genoa.  Acquittal of Cope.  General Oglethorpe’s sentence—­508

222.  To the Hon. H. S. Conway, Oct. 24.-Campaign in Scotland—­ 509

223.  To George Montagu, Esq.  Nov. 3.-His Epilogue to Tamerlane—­510

224.  To Sir Horace Mann, Nov. 4.-Ministerial changes.  Lord Chesterfield accepts the seals.  Expedition to Quiberon.  Admiral Matthews’s court-martial—­511

225.  To the same, Nov. 12—­513

226.  To the same,, Dec. 5.-Marriages.  Reformations in the army.  Arrest of Orator henley. theatricals—­514

227.  To Sir Horace Mann, Dec. 25.-Trial of Lord Lovat.  Mr.Davis’s copy of the Dominichino—­515


228.  To Sir Horace Mann, Jan. 27.-The Prince’s new Opposition--517

229.  To the same, Feb. 23.-The Opera.  Debates on places and pensions.  Lord Kildare’s marriage.  Panciatici.  Anecdotes of Lord Holderness and Lord Hervey—­519

230. to the same, March 20.-Lord Lovat’s trial.  Anecdotes—­521

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231.  To the same, April 10.-Account of Lord Lovat’s execution.  The Independents.  Tottering state of the ministry.  Civil war in the house of Finch—­522

232.  To the Hon. H. S. Conway, April 16.-Mutability of fame and popularity.  Lord Lovat’s burial.  Story of George Selwyn.  Debate on the Heritable Jurisdictions Bill—­525

233.  To Sir Horace Mann, May 5.-The new Stadtholder.  Scotch Clanships Bill.  Bill for allowing counsel to prisoners on impeachments for treason.  Resignations.  Holland House—­526

234.  To the same, May 19.-Anson’s victory.  Death of Captain Grenville.  Mr. Dayrolies—­527

235.  To the same, June 5.-Sudden dissolution of Parliament.  Rumoured ministerial changes.  Purchase (of Strawberry Hill—­ 528

236.  To the Hon. H. S. Conway, June 8.-Description of Strawberry Hill.  Dissolution of Parliament.  Measures for carrying elections—­530

237.  To Sir Horace Mann, June 26.-Election tumults.  Sir Jacob Botiverie’s peerage.  The Duchess of Queensberry at court.  Instance of English bizarrerie—­531

238.  To George Montagu, Esq.  July 2.-Ill success of the army in the Netherlands.  Battle of Laffeldt.  Gallant conduct of Mr. Conway.  Naval captures—­533

239.  To Sir Horace Mann, July 3.-Battle of Laffeldt.  Capture of the Domingo fleet.  Progress of the elections—­534

240.  To the same, July 28.-Piedmontese victory over the French.  Death of the Chevalier Belleisle—­535

241.  To the same, Sept. 1.-Bergen-op-Zoom.  Sir James Grey.  Pantiatici—­536

242.  To George Montagu, Esq.  Oct. 1.-Cardinal Polignac’s Anti-Lucretius.  George Selwyn.  Anecdotes—­537

243.  To Sir Horace Mann, Oct. 2.-Capture of Bergen-op-Zoom.  Character of Mr. Chute.  Chit-chat.  Anecdote of Lord Bath—­537

244.  To the same, Nov. 10.-Admiral Hawke’s victory.  Meeting of the new Parliament.  The musical clock—­539

245.  To the same, Nov. 24.-Meditates a journey to Florence.  Congress at Aix-la-Chapelle.  Ministerial interference in the Seaford election.  Mr. Potter.  Lady Mary Wortley Montagu’s Eclogues—­539


246.  To Sir Horace Mann, Jan. 12.-General dispositions for war.  Diplomatic Changes.  Lord and Lady Coke.  Matrimonial fracas—­541

247.  To the same, Jan. 26.-Mr. Legge’s embassy to the King of Prussia.  Mr. Villiers.  Ministers triumphant in Parliament.  Admiral Vernon’s letters—­542

248.  To the same, Feb. 16.-Resignation of Lord Chesterfield.  Ministerial changes.  Hitch in Mr. Legge’s embassy.  Discontents in the army.  Public amusements.  Comedy of the Foundling—­544

249.  To Sir Horace Mann, March 11.-Prevalence of miliary fever.  Death of the Marquis of Powis.  Private theatricals.  Attempt to damn the Foundling.  Animosities in the House of Commons.  Buckingham assizes.  The Duchess of Queensberry’s masquerade—­545

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250.  To the same, April 29.-Peace of Aix-la-Chapelle.  Masquerade at the Hay market—­547

251.  To George Montagu, Esq.  May 18.-Lord Anson’s voyage with Lady Elizabeth Yorke.  His voyage.  Anecdotes.  Marshal Wade’s house—­549

252.  To the same, May 26.-Ranelagh.  Anecdotes.  Sir Thomas Bootle.  Story of Prince Edward—­550

253.  To the same, June 7.-The Duke of Newcastle’s journey to Holland.  Strawberry Hill,” the old name of his house—­551

254.  To the Hon. H. S. Conway, June 27.-His rural occupations.  Lord Coke.  Friendly advice from White’s.  F`ete at Vauxhall—­ (N.). 553

255.  To SirHorace Mann, July 14.@The Duke of Newcastle’s travels.  Anecdote—­554

256.  To the same.-Bad state of Lord Orford’s health.  Reflections.  Has finished his Aedes Walpolianae.  Improvements at Strawberry Hill—­555

257.  To George Montagu, Esq.  July 25.-Account of a visit to Nugent.  Family of the Aubrey de Versa, Earls of Oxford.  Henningham Castle Gosfield—­556

258.  To the same, Aug. 11.-Anecdotes of the House of Vere.  Kitty Clive.  Garrick and Lee.  Visit to Esher.  Claremont House.  Mrs. Pritchard—­558

259.  To the Hon. H. S. Conway, Aug. 29.-His progress in planting.  Anticipations of future discoveries—­561

260.  To George Montagu, Esq.  Sept. 3.-Bonmot of the duke of Cumberland.  “The new light.”  Whitfield and the Methodists.  Smell of thieves.  Story of Handsome Tracy.  Gray, the worst company in the world—­563

261.  To Sir Horace Mann, Sept. 12-Death of Bishop Gibson—­565

262.  To George Montagu, Esq.  Sept. 25.-Disinterested friendship. passage in Chillingworth.  The Duchess of Ireland’s Hennins, or piked horns—­566

263.  To the Hon. H. S. Conway, Oct. 4.-Meeting of Parliament.  Preparations for proclaiming the peace.  Lady Cadogan—­567

264.  To George Montagu, Esq.  Oct. 20—­568

265.  To Sir Horace Mann, Oct. 24.-Adventure of Milord Richard Onslow.  Character of lord Walpole.  Unpopularity, of the peace.  Death of old Tom Walker—­569

266.  To the same, Dec. 2.-The King’s return.  Prospects of a stormy session.  League Of the tories with the Prince’s party.  Bon-mots of Mr. Chute.  The Opera.  Pertici.  Lord Marchmont and Hume Campbell.  Treason at Oxford—­570

267.  To the same, Dec. 11.-Imprisonment of the young Pretender at Vincennes.  Death of the proud Duke of Somerset; his will.  Bon-mot of John Stanhope. hogarth at Calais—­571

268.  To the same, Dec. 26.-Improvements at Strawberry Hill.  Diplomatic movements.  Old Somerset’s will.  Trial of the Vice-Chancellor of Oxford.Story of sir William Burdett—­574


The letters of Horace Walpole, Earl of Orford, as hitherto published, have consisted of,-

1.  The letters contained in the quarto edition of his works, published in the year 1798.

Page 15

2.  His letters to George Montagu, Esq. from 1738 to 1770, which formed one quarto volume, published in 1818.

3.  His letters to the Rev. William Cole and others, from 1745 to 1782, published in the same form and year.

4.  His letters to the Earl of Hertford, during his lordship’s embassy to Paris, and also to the Rev. Henry Zouch, which appeared in quarto, in 1825.

And 5.  His letters to Sir Horace Mann, British Envoy at the Court of Tuscany, from 1741 to 1760, first published in 1833, in three volumes octavo, from the originals in the possession of the Earl of Waldegrave; edited by Lord Dover, with an original memoir of the author.

To the above are now added several hundred letters, which have hitherto existed Only in manuscript, or made their appearance singly and incidentally in other works.  In this new collection, besides the letters to Miss Berry, are some to the Hon. H. S. Conway, and John Chute, Esq. omitted In former editions; and many to Lady Suffolk, his brother-in-law, Charles Churchill, Esq., Captain Jephson, Sir David Dalrymple, Lord Hailes, the Earl of Buchan, the Earl of Charlemont, Mr. Gibbon, Mr. Pitt, afterwards Earl of Chatham, George Hardinge, Esq., Mr. Pinkerton, and other distinguished characters.  The letters to the Rev. William Cole have been carefully examined with the originals, and many explanatory notes added, from the manuscript collections of that indefatigable antiquary, deposited in the British museum.

Besides being the only complete edition ever published of the incomparable letters of this “prince of epistolary writers,” as he has been designated by an eminent critic, the present work possesses the further advantage of exhibiting the letters themselves in chronological order.  Thus the whole series forms a lively and most interesting commentary on the events of the age, as well as a record of the most important transactions, invaluable to the historian and politician, from 1735 to 1797-a period of more than sixty years.

To Lord Dover’s description of these letters (1) little need be added.  Of Horace Walpole it is not too much to say, that he knew more of the Courts of George I., George ii., and George iii., during the early years of the last monarch, than any other individual; and, though he lived to an extreme age, the perpetual youthfulness of his disposition rendered him as lively a chronicler when advanced in life, as when his brilliant career commenced.  It is to this unceasing spring, this unfading juvenility of spirit, that the world is indebted for the gay colours with which Walpole invests every thing he touches.  If the irresistible court beauties-the Gunnings, the Lepels, and others-have been compelled, after their hundred conquests, to yield to the ungallant liberties of Time, and to Death, the rude destroyer, it is a delight to us to know that their charms are destined to bloom for ever in the sparkling graces

Page 16

of the patrician letter-writer.  In his epistles are to be seen, even in more vivid tints than those of Watteau, these splendid creatures in all the pride of their beauty and of their wardrobe, pluming themselves as if they never could grow old, and casting around them their piercing glances and no less poignant raillery.  But Horace Walpole is not content with thus displaying his dazzling bevy of heroines; he reveals them in their less ostentatious moments, and makes us as familiar with their weaknesses as with the despotic power of their beauty.  Nothing that transpired in the great world escaped his knowledge, nor the trenchant sallies of his wit, rendered the more cutting by his unrivalled talent as a raconteur.  Whatever he observed found its way into his letters, and thus is formed a more perfect narrative of the Curt-of its intrigues, political and otherwise-of the manoeuvres of statesmen, the cabals of party, and of private society among the illustrious and the fashionable of the last century, at home and on the continent-than can elsewhere be obtained.  And how piquant are his disclosures! how much of actual truth do they contain! how perfectly, in his anecdotes, are to be traced the hidden and often trivial sources of some of the most important public events!  “Sir Joshua Reynolds,” say the Edinburgh reviewers, “used to observe, that, though nobody would for a moment compare Claude to Raphael, there would be another Raphael before there was another Claude; and we own, that we expect to see fresh Humes and fresh Burkes, before we again fall in with that peculiar combination of moral and intellectual qualities to which the writings of Horace Walpole owe their extraordinary popularity.”

As a suitable introduction, prefixed to the whole collection of letters, are the author’s admirable “Reminiscences of the Courts of George the First and Second,” which were first narrated to, and, in 1788, written for the amusement of Miss Mary and Miss Agnes Berry.  To the former of these ladies the public is indebted for a curious commentary on the Reminiscences, contained in extracts from the letters of Sarah Duchess of Marlborough, to the Earl of Stair, now first published from the original manuscripts.  Of the Reminiscences themselves it has been truly observed, that, both in manner and matter, they are the very perfection of anecdote writing, and make us better acquainted with the manners of George the First and Second and their Courts, than we should be after perusing a hundred heavy historians.

Of the most valuable of all Walpole’s correspondence-his letters to Sir Horace Mann-the history will appear in the following Preface to that work, from the pen of the lamented editor, the late Lord Dover:-

“In the Preface to the ’Memoires of the last Ten Years of the Reign of George ii. by Horace Walpole, Earl of Orford,’ published in the year 1822, is the following statement:-

“’Among the papers found at Strawberry Hill, after the death of Lord Orford, was the following memorandum, wrapped in an envelope, on which was written, Not to be opened till after my will.”

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“’In my library at Strawberry Hill are two wainscot chests or boxes, the larger marked with an A, the lesser with a B:- I desire, that as soon as I am dead, my executor and executrix will cord up strongly, and sell the larger box, marked A, and deliver it to the Honourable Hugh Conway Seymour, to be kept by him unopened and unsealed till the eldest son of Lady Waldegrave, or whichever of her sons, being Earl of Waldegrave, shall attain the age of twenty-five years; when the said chest, with whatever it contains, shall be delivered to him for his own.  And I beg that the Honourable Hugh Conway Seymour, when be shall receive the said chest, will give a promise in writing, signed by him, to Lady Waldegrave, that he or his representatives will deliver the said chest, unopened and unsealed, by my executor and executrix, to the first son of Lady Waldegrave who shall attain the age of’ twenty-five years.  The key of the said chest is in one of the cupboards of the green closet, within the blue breakfast room, at Strawberry Hill; and that key, I desire, may be delivered to Laura, Lady Waldegrave, to be kept by her till her son shall receive the chest.’  “‘March 21st, 1790.’”

(Signed) HonHorace walpole, earl of orford.’  Aug. 19, 1796.’

“In obedience to these directions, the box described in the preceding memorandum was corded an(] sealed with the seals of the Honourable Mrs. Damer and the late Lord Frederick Campbell, the executrix and executor of Lord Orford, and by them delivered to the late Lord Hugh Seymour, by whose representatives it was given up, unopened and unsealed, to the present Earl of Waldegrave, when he attained the age of twenty-five.  On examining the box, it was found to contain a number of manuscript volumes and other papers, among which were the Memoires now published.’ "

“The correspondence of Horace Walpole with Sir Horace Mann, now first published, was also contained in the same box.  It appears that Walpole, after the death of Sir Horace, became again the possessor of his own letters.  He had them copied very carefully in three volumes, and annotated them with short notes, explanatory of the persons mentioned in them, with an evident view to their eventual publication.  “It is from these volumes that the present publication is taken.  The notes of the author have also been printed verbatim.  As, however, in the period of time which has elapsed since Walpole’s death, many of the personages mentioned in the letters, whom he appears to have thought sufficiently conspicuous not to need remark, have become almost forgotten, the Editor has deemed it necessary to add, as shortly as possible, some account of them; and he has taken care, whenever he has done so, to distinguish his notes from those of the original author, by the letter D. placed at the end of them.

Page 18

“This correspondence is perhaps the most interesting one of Walpole’s that has as yet appeared; as, in addition to his usual merit as a letter-writer, and the advantage of great ease, which his extreme intimacy with Sir Horace Mann gives to his style, the letters to him are the most uninterrupted series which has thus far been offered to the public.  They are also the only letters of Walpole which give an account of that very curious period when his father, Sir Robert Walpole, left office.  In his letters hitherto published, there is a great gap at this epoch; probably in consequence of his other correspondents being at the time either in or near London.  A Single letter to Mr. Conway, dated ’london, 1741,’-one to Mr. West, dated ’May 4th, 1742,’-(none in 1743,) and one to Mr. Conway, dated ‘Houghton:  Oct. 6th, 1744,’ are all that appear till ‘may 18th, 1745,’ when his letters to George Montagu recommence, after an interval of eight years.  Whereas, in the correspondence now published, there are no less than one hundred and seventeen letters during that interval.

The letters of Walpole to Sir Horace Mann have also another advantage over those of the same author previously published, namely, that Sir Horace’s constant absence from home, and the distance of his residence from the British Islands, made every occurrence that happened acceptable to him as news.  It) consequence, his correspondent relates to him every thing that takes place, both in the court and in society,-whether the anecdotes are of a public or private nature,-hence the collection of’ letters to him becomes a most exact chronicle of the events of the day, and elucidates very amusingly both the manners of the time, and the characters of the persons then alive.  In the sketches, however, of character, which Walpole has thus left us, we must always remember that, though a very quick and accurate observer, he was a man of many prejudices; and that, above all, his hostility was unvarying and unbounded with regard to any of his contemporaries, who had been adverse to the person or administration of Sir Robert Walpole.  This, though an amiable feeling, occasionally carries him too far in his invectives, and renders him unjust in his judgments.

“The answers of Sir Horace Mann are also preserved at Strawberry Hill:  they are very voluminous, but particularly devoid of interest, as they are written in a dry heavy style, and consist almost entirely of trifling details of forgotten Florentine society, mixed with small portions of Italian political news of the day, which are even still less amusing than the former topic.  They have, however, been found useful to refer to occasionally, in order to explain allusions in the letters of Walpole.

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“Sir Horace Mann was a contemporary and early friend of Horace Walpole. (2) He was the second son of Robert Mann, of Linton, in the county of Kent, Esq.  He was appointed in 1740 minister plenipotentiary from England to the court of Florence-a post he continued to occupy for the long period of forty-six years, till his death, at an advanced age, November 6, 1786.  In 1755 he was created a baronet, with remainder to the issue of his brother Galfridus Mann, and, in the reign of George the Third, a knight of the Bath.  It will be observed that Walpole calls his correspondent Mr. Mann, whereas the title-pages of’ these volumes, and all the notes which have been added by the editor designate him as Sir Horace Mann.  This latter appellation is undoubtedly, in the greater part of the correspondence, an anachronism, as Sir Horace Mann was not made a baronet till the year 1755; but, as he is best known to the world under that designation, it was considered better to allow him the title, by courtesy, throughout the work.

“As the following letters turn much upon the politics of the day, and as the ignoble and unstable Governments which followed that of Sir Robert Walpole are now somewhat forgotten, it may not be unacceptable to the reader to be furnished with a slight sketch of the political changes which took place from the year 1742 to the death of George the Second.

“At the general election of 1741, immense efforts were made by the Opposition to the Walpole administration to strengthen their phalanx-great sums were spent by their leaders in elections, and an union was at length effected between the Opposition or ‘Patriots,’ headed by Pulteney, and the Tories or Jacobites, who had hitherto, though opposed to Walpole, never acted cordially with the former.

“Sir Robert, upon the meeting of Parliament, exerted himself with almost more than his usual vigour and talent, to resist this formidable band of opponents; but the chances were against him.  The timidity of his friends, and, if we may believe Horace Walpole, the treachery of some of his colleagues, and finally the majority in the House of Commons against him, compelled him at length to resign; which he did in the beginning of February, 1742.  Upon this step being taken, and perhaps even before it, the Duke of Newcastle and Lord Hardwicke, the two most influential members of Sir Robert Walpole’s cabinet, entered into communication with Mr. Pulteney and Lord Carteret, the leaders of the regular Opposition, with a view of forming a government, to the exclusion of the Tories and Jacobites, and even of part of Mr. Pulteney’s own party.  The negotiation was successful; but it was so at the expense of the popularity, reputation, and influence of Pulteney, who never recovered the disgrace of thus deserting his former associates.

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“In consequence of these intrigues, the King agreed to send for Lord Wilmington, and to place him at the head of the ministry.  It is remarkable that this man, who was a mere cipher, should have been again had recourse to, after his failure in making a government at the very commencement of the reign of George the Second, when his manifest incapacity, and the influence of Queen Caroline, had occasioned the remaining of his opponent Sir Robert Walpole in power.  With Lord Wilmington came in Lord Harrington, as president of the council; Lord Gower, as privy seal; Lord Winchilsea, as first lord of the admiralty; Lord Carteret as secretary of state; the other secretary being the Duke of Newcastle, who had been so under Walpole; Lord Hardwicke continued chancellor; and Samuel Sandys was made chancellor of the exchequer.  Several of the creatures of Pulteney obtained minor offices:  but he himself, hampered by his abandonment of many of his former friends, took no place; but Only obtained a promise of an earldom, whenever he might wish for it.

“These arrangements produced, as was natural, a great schism in the different parties, which broke out at a meeting at the Fountain Tavern, on the 12th of February, where the Duke of Argyll declared himself in opposition to the new government, upon the ground of the unjust exclusion of the Tories.  The Duke of Argyll subsequently relented, and kissed hands for the master-generalship of the ordnance, upon the understanding, that Sir John Hinde Cotton, a notorious Jacobite, was to have a place.  This the King refused; upon which the Duke finally subsided into Opposition.  Lord Stair had the ordnance, and Lord Cobham was made a field-marshal and commander of the forces in England.  This latter event happened at the end of the session of 1742, when Lord Gower and Lord Bathurst, and one or two other Jacobites, were promoted.  It was at this period (July, 1742), that the King, by the advice of Sir Robert Walpole, who saw that such a step would complete the degradation Of Pulteney, insisted upon his taking out the patent for his earldom and quitting the House of Commons; which he did with the greatest unwillingness.

“On the death of Lord Wilmington, in July 1743, Mr. Pelham was made first lord of the treasury and chancellor of the exchequer (from which office Sandys was dismissed), by the advice of Sir Robert Walpole, and instead of Lord Bath, who now found that his adversary had really turned the key upon him, (3) and that the door of the cabinet was never to be unlocked to him.  The ministry was at this time, besides its natural feebleness, rent by internal dissensions; for Lord Carteret, who, as secretary of state, had accompanied the King abroad in 1743, had acquired great influence over his royal master,-and trusting to this, and to the superiority of his talents over his colleagues, his insolence to them became unbounded.  The timid and time-serving Pelhams were quite ready to

Page 21

humble themselves before him; but Lord Carteret was not content with this:  he was not content, unless he showed them, and made them feel, all the contempt he entertained for them.  In addition to these difficulties, Lord Gower resigned the privy-seal in December 1743, upon the plea that no more Tories were taken into office; but probably more from perceiving that the administration could not go on.  Lord Cobham also resigned, and went again into opposition.

“Finally, in November 1744, the greater part of the cabinet having previously made their arrangements with the Opposition) joined in a remonstrance to the King against Lord Carteret, and offered, if he was not dismissed, their own resignations.  After some resistance, the King, again by the advice of Lord Orford, yielded.  Lord Carteret and his adherents, and those of Lord Bath, were dismissed, and a mixed government of Whigs and Tories was formed.  Mr. Pelham continued first minister; the Duke of Dorset was made president of the council; Lord Gower again took the privy-seal, which had been held for a few months by Lord Cholmondeley; the Duke of Bedford became first lord of’ the admiralty; Lord Harrincton secretary of state; Lord Chesterfield, Lord Sandwich, George Grenville, Doddington, and Lyttelton, and Sir John Hinde Cotton, Sir John Philipps, and some other Tories, had places.  But though the King had dismissed Lord Carteret (now become Earl of Granville) from his councils, he had not from his confidence.  He treated his new ministers with coldness and incivility, and consulted Lord Granville secretly upon all important points.

“At length, in the midst of the Rebellion, in August 1746, the ministry went to the King, and gave him the option of taking Pitt into office, which he had previously refused, or receiving their resignations.  After again endeavouring in vain to form an administration through the means of Lord Granville and Lord Bath, the King was obliged to consent to the demands of his ministers-and here may be said to commence the leaden rule of the Pelhams, which continued to influence the councils of this country, more or less, for so many years.  Pitt took the inferior, but lucrative office of paymaster; and from this time no material change took place till the death of Mr. Pelham, in March 1754, unless we except the admission of Lord Granville to the cabinet in 1751, as president of the council; an office which he contrived, with an interested prudence very unlike his former conduct, to retain during all succeeding ministries-and the getting rid of the Duke of Bedford and Lord Sandwich, of whom the Pelhams had become jealous.

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The death of Pelham called into evidence the latent divisions and hatreds of public Men, who had been hitherto acting in concert.  Fox and Pitt were obviously the two persons, upon one of whom the power of Pelham must eventually fall.  But the intriguing Duke of Newcastle hated, and was jealous of both.  He, therefore, placed Sir Thomas Robinson in the House of Commons, as secretary of state and leader, and made Henry Bilson Legge chancellor of the exchequer, while he himself took the treasury-leaving Fox (4) and Pitt in the subordinate situations they had hitherto held.  The incapacity of Sir Thomas Robinson became, however, soon so apparent, that a change was inevitable.  This was hastened by a temporary coalition between Fox and Pitt, which was occasioned, naturally enough, by the ill-treatment they had both received from the Duke of Newcastle.

“At length the latter reluctantly consented to admit Fox into the cabinet, in 1755.  Upon this, Pitt again broke with Fox, and went with his friends into opposition, with the exception of Sir George Lyttelton, who became chancellor of the exchequer.  The new government, however, lasted but one session of parliament-its own dissensions, the talents of its opponents, and the dissatisfaction of the King, who had been thwarted in his German subsidiary treaties, aiding in its downfall.

“The Duke of Devonshire, who had been very active in the previous political negotiations, was now commissioned, in 1756, by the King to form a government.  The Duke of Newcastle and Fox were turned out, and Pitt became lord of the ascendant.  But the King’s aversion to his new ministers was even greater than it had been to his old; and in February 1757, he commissioned Lord Waldegrave to endeavour to form a government, with the assistance of Newcastle and Fox.  In this undertaking he failed, very mainly through the irresolutions and jealousies of Newcastle.  Thus circumstanced, the King, however unwillingly, was obliged to deliver himself up into the hands of Pitt, Who (in June, 1757) succeeded in forming that administration, which was destined to be one of the most glorious ones England has ever seen.  He placed himself at the head of it, holding the situation of secretary of state and leader of the House of Commons, leaving the Duke of Newcastle at the head of the treasury, and placing Legge again in the exchequer.  This administration lasted till the reign of the succeeding sovereign.”

To his edition of the Letters to Sir Horace Mann, Lord Dover appended illustrative notes, which are retained in the present.  Of the manner in which his lordship executed the office of editor and annotator, the Edinburgh Review thus speaks, in a brilliant article on those Letters, which appeared in the number of that work for January 1834:-"The editing of these volumes was the last of the useful and modest services rendered to literature by a nobleman of amiable manners, of untarnished public and private character, and of

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cultivated mind.  On this, as on other occasions, Lord Dover performed his part diligently, judiciously, and without the slightest ostentation.  He had two merits, both of which are rarely found together in a commentator:  he was content to be merely a commentator,-to keep in the background, and to leave the foreground to the author whom he had undertaken to illustrate. yet, though willing to be an attendant, he was by no means a slave; nor did he consider it as part of his editorial duty to see no faults in the writer to whom he faithfully and assiduously rendered the humblest literary offices.”

It remains only to add, that the original notes of Horace Walpole are throughout retained, undistinguished by any signature; whereas, those of the various editors are indicated by a characteristic initial, which is explained in the progress of the work.

January, 1840.

(1) Sketch of the Life, etc.

(2) The coincidence of remarkable names in the two families of Mann and Walpole, would lead one to imagine that there was also some connection of relationship between them-and yet none is to be traced in the pedigree of either family.  Sir Robert Walpole had two brothers named Horace and Galfridus-and Sir Horace Mann’s next brother was named Galfridus Mann.  If such a relationship did exist, it probably came through the Burwells, the family of Sir Robert Walpole’s mother.

(3) “Sir Robert Walpole’s expression, when he found that Pulteney had consented to be made Earl of Bath.”

(4) “Fox was secretary at war.”


To the first edition of Lord Orford’s works, which was published the year after he died, no memoir of his life was prefixed:  his death was too recent, his life and character was too well known, his works
     too popular, to require it.  His political Memoirs, and
the collections of his Letters which have been subsequently published, were edited by persons, who, though well qualified for their task in every other respect, have failed in their account of his private life, and their appreciation of his individual character, from the want of a personal acquaintance with their author.

The life contained in Sir Walter Scott’s Biographical Sketches of the English Novelists labours under the same disadvantages.  He had never seen Lord Orford, nor even lived with such of his intimates and contemporaries in society as survived him.

Lord Dover, who has so admirably edited the first part of his correspondence with Sir Horace Mann, knew Lord Orford only by having been carried sometimes, when a boy, by his father Lord Clifden to Strawberry Hill.  His editorial labours with these letters were the last occupation of his accomplished mind, and were pursued while his body was fast sinking under the complication of disease, which so soon after deprived Society Of One Of its most distinguished members,

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the arts of an enlightened patron, and his intimates of an amiable and attaching friend.  Of the meagreness and insufficiency of his memoir of Lord Orford’s life prefixed to the letters, he was himself aware, and expressed to the author of these pages his inability then to improve it, and his regret that circumstances had deprived him, while it was yet time, of the assistance of those who could have furnished him with better materials.  His account of the latter part of Lord Orford’s life is deficient in details, and sometimes erroneous as to dates.  He appears likewise to have been unacquainted with some of his writings, and the circumstances which led to and accompanied them.  In the present publication those deficiencies are supplied from notes, in the hands of the writer, left by Lord Orford, of the dates of the principal events of his own life, and of the writing and publication of all his works.  It is only to be regretted that his autobiography is so short, and so entirely confined to dates.  In estimating the character of Lord Orford, and in the opinion which he gives of his talents, Lord Dover has evinced much candour and good taste.  He praises with discrimination, and draws no unfair inferences from the peculiarities of a character with which he was not personally acquainted.

It is by the Review of the Letters to Sir Horace Mann, that the severest condemnation has been passed and the most unjust impressions given, not only of the genius and talents, but of the heart and character, of Lord Orford.  The mistaken opinions of the eloquent and accomplished author (5) of that review are to be traced chiefly to the same causes which defeated the intentions of the two first biographers.  In his case, these causes were increased, not only by no acquaintance with his subject, but by still farther removal from the fashions, the social habits, the little minute details, of the age to which Horace Walpole belongs,-an age so essentially different from the business, the movement, the important struggles, of that which claims the critic as one of its most distinguished ornaments.  A conviction that these reasons led to his having drawn up, from the supposed evidence of Walpole’s works alone, a character of their author so entirely and offensively unlike the original, has forced the pen into the feeble and failing hand of the writer of these pages,-has imposed the pious duty of attempting to rescue, by incontrovertible facts, acquired in long intimacy, the memory of an old and beloved friend, from the giant grasp of an author and a critic from whose judgment, when deliberately formed, few can hope to appeal with success.  The candour, the good-nature of this critic,-the inexhaustible stores of his literary acquirements, which place him in the first rank of those most distinguished for historical knowledge and critical acumen,-will allow him, I feel sure, to forgive this appeal from his hasty and general opinion, to the judgment of his better informed mind, on the peculiarities of’ a character often remarkably dissimilar from that of his works.

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Lord Dover has justly and forcibly remarked, “that what did the most honour both to the head and the’ heart of Horace Walpole, was the friendship which he bore to Marshal Conway; a man who, according to all the accounts of him that have come down to us, was so truly worthy of inspiring such a decree of affection.” (6) He then quotes the character given of him by the editor of Lord Orford’s works in 1798.  This character of Marshal Conway was a portrait drawn from the life, and, as it proceeded from the same pen which now traces these lines, has some right to be inserted here.  “It is only those who have had the opportunity of penetrating into the most secret motives of his public conduct, and into the inmost recesses of his private life, who can do real justice to the unsullied purity of his character;-who saw and knew him in the evening of his days, retired from the honourable activity of a soldier and of a statesman, to the calm enjoyments of private -life; happy in the resources of his own mind, and in the cultivation of useful science, in the bosom of domestic peace-unenriched by pensions or places-undistinguished by titles or ribbons-unsophisticated by public life, and unwearied by retirement.”

To this man, Lord Orford’s attachment, from their boyish days at Eton school to the death of Marshal Conway in 1795, is already a circumstance of sufficiently rare occurrence among men of the world.  Could such a man, of whom the foregoing lines are an unvarnished sketch-of whose character, simplicity was one of the distinguished ornaments-could such a man have endured the intimacy of such an individual as the reviewer describes Lord Orford to have been?  Could an intercourse of uninterrupted friendship and undiminished confidence have existed between them during a period of nearly sixty
             years, undisturbed by the business and bustle of
middle life, so apt to cool, and often to terminate, youthful friendships?  Could such an intercourse ever have existed, with the supposed selfish indifference, and artificial coldness and conceit of Lord Orford’s character?

The last correspondence included in the present publication will, it is presumed, furnish no less convincing proof, that the warmth of his feelings, and his capacity for sincere affection, continued unenfeebled by age.  It is with this view, and this alone, that the correspondence alluded to is now, for the first time, given to the public.  It can add nothing to the already established epistolary fame of Lord Orford, and the public can be as little interested in his sentiments for the two individuals addressed.  But, in forming a just estimate of his character, the reader will hardly fail to observe that those sentiments were entertained at a time of life when, for the most part, the heart is too little capable of expansion to open to new attachments.  The whole tone of these letters must prove the unimpaired warmth of his feelings, and form a striking contrast to the cold harshness

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of which he has been accused, in his intercourse with Madame du Deffand, at an earlier period of his life.  This harshness, as was noticed by the editor of Madame du Deffand’s letters, in the preface to that publication, proceeded solely from a dread of ridicule, which formed a principal feature of Mr. Walpole’s character, and which, carried, as in his case, to excess, must be called a principal weakness.  “This accounts for the ungracious language in which he so often replies to the importunities of her anxious affection; a language so foreign to his heart, and so contrary to his own habits in friendship.” (7)

Is this, then, the man who is supposed to be “the most eccentric, the most artificial, the most fastidious, the most capricious of mortals? -his mind a bundle of inconsistent whims and affectations-his features covered with mask within mask, which, when the outer disguise of obvious affectation was removed, you were still as far as ever from seeing the real man."-"Affectation is the essence of the man.  It pervades all his thoughts and all his expressions.  If it were taken away, nothing would be left.” (8)

He affected nothing; he played no part; he was what he appeared to be.  Aware that he was ill qualified for politics, for public life, for parliamentary business, or indeed for business of any sort, the whole tenor of his life was consistent with this opinion of himself.  Had he attempted to effect what belongs only to characters of another stamp -had he endeavoured to take a lead in the House of Commons-had he sought for place, dignity, or office-had he aimed at intrigue, or attempted to be a tool for others-then, indeed, he might have deserved the appellation of artificial, eccentric, and capricious.

>From the retreat of his father, which happened the year after he entered parliament, the only real interest he took in politics was when their events happened immediately to concern the objects of his private friendships.  He occupied himself with what really amused him.  If he had affected any thing, it would certainly not have been a taste for the trifling occupations with which he is reproached.  Of no person can it be less truly said, that “affectation was the essence of the man.”  What man, or even what woman, ever affected to be the frivolous being he is described?  When his critic says, that he had “the soul of a gentleman-usher,” he was little aware that he only repeated what Lord Orford often said of himself-that from his knowledge of old ceremonials and etiquettes, he was sure that in a former state of existence, he must have been a gentleman-usher,-about the time of Elizabeth.

In politics, he was what he professed to be, a Whig, in the sense which that denomination bore in his younger days,-never a Republican.

In his old and enfeebled age, the horrors of the first French revolution made him a Tory; while he always lamented, as one of the worst effects of its excesses, that they must necessarily retard to a distant period the progress and establishment of civil liberty.  But why are we to believe his contempt for crowned heads should have prevented his writing a memoir of “Royal and Noble Authors?” Their literary labours, when all brought together by himself, would not, it is believed, tend much to raise, or much to alter his opinion of them.

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In his letters from Paris, written in the years 1765, 1766, 1767 and 1771, it will be seen, that so far from being infinitely more occupied with “the fashions and gossip of Versailles and Marli than with a great moral revolution which was taking place in his sight,” he was truly aware of the state of the public mind, and foresaw all that was coming on.

Of Rousseau he has proved that he knew more, and that he judged him more accurately, than Mr. Hume, and many others who were then duped by his mad pride and disturbed understanding.

Voltaire had convicted himself of the basest of vain lies in the intercourse he sought with Mr. Walpole.  The details of this transaction, and the letters which passed at the time, are already printed in the quarto edition of his works.  In the short notes of his life left by himself, and from which all the dates in this notice are taken, it is thus mentioned: 

“Although Voltaire, with whom I had never had the least acquaintance, had voluntarily written to me first, and asked for my book, he wrote a letter to the Duchesse de Choiseul, in which, without saying a syllable of his having written to me first, he told her I had officiously sent him my works, and declared war with him in defence ‘de ce bouffon de Shakspeare,’ whom in his reply to me he pretended so much to admire.  The Duchesse sent me Voltaire’s letter; which gave me such a contempt for his disingenuity, that I dropped all correspondence with him.”

When he spoke with contempt of d’Alembert, it was not of his abilities; of which he never pretended to judge.  Professor Saunderson had long before, when he was a lad at Cambridge, assured him, that it would be robbing him to pretend teaching him mathematics, of which his mind was perfectly incapable, so that any comparison of the intellectual powers of the two men” would indeed be as “exquisitely ridiculous” as the critic declares it.  But lord Orford, speaking of d’Alembert, complains of the overweening importance which he, and all the men of letters of those days in France, attributed to their squabbles and disputes.  The idleness to which an absolute government necessarily condemns nine-tenths of its subjects, sufficiently accounts for the exaggerated importance given to and assumed by the French writers, even before they had become, in the language of the Reviewer, “the interpreters between England and mankind:”  he asserts, “that all the great discoveries in physics, in metaphysics, in political science, are ours but no foreign nation, except France, has received them from us by direct communication:  isolated in our situation, isolated by our manners, we found truth, but did not impart it.” (9) It may surely be asked, whether France will subscribe to this assertion of superiority, in the whole range of science!  If she does, her character has undergone an even greater change, than any she has yet experienced in the course of all her revolutions.

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lord Orford is believed by his critic to have “sneered” at every body. sneering was not his way of showing dislike.  He had very strong prejudices, sometimes adopted on very insufficient grounds, and he therefore often made great mistakes in the appreciation of character; but when influenced by such impressions, he always expressed his opinions directly, and often too violently.

The affections of his heart were bestowed on few; for in early life they had never been cultivated, but they were singularly warm, pure, and constant; characterized not by the ardour of passion, but by the constant preoccupation of real affection.  He had lost his mother, to whom he was fondly attached, early in life; and with his father, a man of coarse feelings and boisterous manners, he had few sentiments in common.  Always feeble in constitution, he was unequal to the sports of the field, and to the drinking which then accompanied them, so that during his father’s retreat at Houghton, however much he respected his abilities and was devoted to his fame, he had little sympathy in his tastes, or pleasure in his society.  To the friends of his own selection his devotion was not confined to professions or words:  on all occasions of difficulty, of whatever nature, his active affection came forward in defence of their character, or assistance in their affairs.

When his friend Conway, as second in command under Sir John Mordaunt, in the expedition to St. Maloes, partook in some degree of the public censure called forth by the failure of these repeated ill-judged attempts on the coasts of France, Walpole’s pen was immediately employed in rebutting the accusations of the popular pamphlet of the day on this subject, And establishing his friend’s exemption from any responsibility in the failure.  When, on a more important occasion, Mr. Conway was not only dismissed from being Equerry to the King, George iii., but from the command of his regiment, for his constitutional conduct and votes in the House of Commons, in the memorable affair of the legality of General Warrants for the seizure of persons and papers, Walpole immediately stepped forward, not with cold commendations of his friend’s upright and spirited conduct, but with all the confidence Of long-tried affection, and all the security of noble minds incapable of misunderstanding each other, he insisted on being allowed to share in future his fortune with his friend, and thus more than repair the pecuniary loss he had incurred.  Mr. Conway, in a letter to his brother, Lord Hertford, of this period, says “Horace Walpole has on this occasion shown that warmth of friendship that you know him capable of so, strongly, that I want words to express my sense of it;” (10) thus proving the justice he did to Walpole’s sentiments and intentions.

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In the case of General Conway’s near relationship and intimacy from childhood, the cause in which his fortunes were suffering might have warmed a colder heart, and opened a closer hand, than Mr. Walpole’s:  but Madame du Deffand was a recent acquaintance, who had no claim on him, but the pleasure he received from her society, and his desire that her blind and helpless old age might not be deprived of any of the comforts and alleviations of which it was capable.  When by the financial arrangements of the French government, under the unscrupulous administration of the Abb`e Terray, the creditors of the state were considerably reduced in income, Mr. Walpole, in the most earnest manner, begged to prevent the unpleasantness of his old friend’s exposing her necessities, and imploring aid from the minister of the day, by allowing him to make up the deficit in her revenue, as a loan, Or in any manner that would be most satisfactory to her.  The loss, after all, did not fall on that stock from which she derived her income, and the assistance was not accepted; but Madame du Deffand’s confidence in, and opinion of, the offer, we see in her letters.

During his after life, although no ostentatious contributor to public charities and schemes of improvement, the friends in whose opinion he knew he could confide, had always more difficulty to repress than to excite his liberality.

That he should have wished his friend Conway to be employed as commander on military expeditions, which, as a soldier fond of his profession, he naturally coveted, although Mr. Walpole might disapprove of the policy of the minister in sending out such expeditions, surely implies neither disguise, nor contradiction in his opinions.

The dread which the reviewer supposes him to have had, lest he should lose caste as a gentleman, by ranking as a wit and an author, he was much too fine a gentleman to have believed in the possibility of feeling.  He knew he had never studied since he left college; he knew that he was not at all a learned man:  but the reputation he had acquired by his wit and by his writings, not only among fine gentlemen, but with society in general, made him nothing loath to cultivate every opportunity of increasing it.  The account he gave of the idleness of his life to Sir Horace Mann, when he disclaims the title of “the learned gentleman,” was literally true; and it is not easy to imagine any reason why a man at the age of forty-three, who admits that he is idle, and who renounces being either a learned man or a politician, should be “ashamed” of playing loo in good company till two or three o’clock in the morning, if he neither ruins himself nor others. (11) He wrote his letters as rapidly as his disabled fingers would allow him to form the characters of a remarkably legible hand.  No rough draughts or sketches of familiar letters were found amongst his papers at Strawberry Hill:  but he was in the habit of putting down on the backs of letters or on slips of paper, a note of facts, of news, of witticisms, or of any thing he wished not to forget, for the amusement of his correspondents.

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After reading “The Mysterious Mother,” who will accede to the opinion, that his works are “destitute of every charm that is derived from elevation, or from tenderness of sentiment?” (12)

But, with opinions as to the genius, the taste, or the talents of Lord Orford, this little notice has nothing to do.  It aims solely at rescuing his individual character from misconceptions.  Of the means necessary for this purpose, its writer, by the “painful preeminence” of age, remains the sole depositary, and being so, has submitted to the task of repelling such misconceptions.  It is done with the reluctance which must always be experienced in differing from, or calling in question, the opinions of a person, for whom is felt all the admiration and respect due to super-eminent abilities, and all the grateful pride and affectionate regard inspired by personal friendship.

M. B. October 1840.

(5) T. Babbington Macaulay.

(6) Sketch of the Life of Horace Walpole, by Lord Dover.  See vol. i.

(7) See Preface to Madame du Deffand’s Letters, p. xi.; and vol. ii. of this collection.

(8) See Edinburgh Review, vol. lviii. p. 233.

(9) Edinburgh Review, vol, lviii. p. 233.

(10) See vol. iii.

(11) See Edinburgh Review, vol. lviii. p. 232.

(12) Ibid., p. 237.

Second Advertisement

The last volume will be found to contain upwards of one hundred letters, introduced into no former edition of the Correspondence of Horace Walpole.  The greater part of them were written between the years 1789 and 1797, and were addressed to the Miss Berrys, during their residence in Italy.  They embrace most of the leading events of the first five years of the French Revolution; and wherever the facts detailed in the letters have appeared to require elucidation or confirmation, the Editor has generally had recourse to M. Thiers’s useful “History” of that great event; which has recently appeared in an English dress, accompanied with notes and illustrations, drawn from the most authentic sources.

While the last volume was at press, the Editor was favoured with a letter from the Right Honourable Sir Charles Grey, relative to the share which he considers Mr. Walpole to have had in the composition and publication of the Letters of Junius.

Albany Street, Regent’s Park,
October 28, 1840.

To the editor of the letters of Horace walpole,
earl of orford.


1.  Before your last volume is published, I am desirous of stating to you some of the considerations which, more than seventeen years ago, led me to the belief I still entertain, that Walpole had a principal share in the composition and publication of the Letters of Junius:  though I think it likely that Mason, or some other friend corrected the style, and gave precision and force to the most striking passages.

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2.  It was in 1823, whilst I was residing in India, that Lord Holland’s edition of Walpole’s Memoires of the Last Ten Years of the Reign of George the Second suggested to me this notion; and it was shortly afterwards communicated to several of my friends.  The edition of Junius which I had with me, was that of Mr. Woodfall the younger, in three volumes; and I am not at present by any means satisfied that all the letters which the editor assigns to Junius were written by him:  but in this hasty notice I must proceed upon the supposition that they were.

3.  It will be remembered that the Memoires were composed by Walpole in secrecy, and that he left them in a sealed box, which, by his will, was forbidden to be opened till many years after his death.  The letters from which the corresponding passages are given below are all published as Letters of Junius by Mr. Woodfall, and are of dates later than the time when Walpole wrote his Memoires; but half a century earlier than the time when they were printed.

Note by the transcriber:  there follows a table, in which letters of Junius are presented for comparisons side by side with writings of Walpole.  I have changed the format to present them in sequence.  Return to text.

Junius:  I own, my lord, that yours is not an uncommon character.  Women, and men like women, are timid, vindictive, and irresolute.  Woodfall’s Junius, vol. ii, p. 168.

Walpole:  As it is observed that timorous natures like those of women are generally cruel, Lord mansfield might easily slide into rigour, etc.-Walpole’s Memoires, vol. ii. p. 175.

Junius:  Without openly supporting the person, you (Lord Mansfield) have done essential service to the cause; and consoled yourself for the loss of a favourite family by reviving and establishing the maxims of their government.-vol. ii, p. 182.

Walpole:  The occasions of the times had called him (Lord Mansfield) off from principles that favoured an arbitrary king-he still leaned towards an arbitrary government.-vol. ii. p. 266.

Junius:  You (Lord Mansfield) would fain be thought to take no share in government, while in reality you are the mainspring of the machine.-vol. ii. p. 179.

Walpole:  Pitt liked the dignity of despotism; Lord Mansfield the reality.-Vol. ii. p. 274.

Junius:  You secretly engross the power, while you decline the title of minister.-vol. ii. p.179.

Walpole:  He was timid himself, and always waving what he was always courting.-Vol. ii. p. 336.

Junius:  In council he generally affects to take a moderate part.-vol. ii. p. 354.  At present there is something oracular in the delivery of my opinion.  I speak from a recess which no human curiosity can penetrate.-vol. i. p. 314.

Walpole:  The conduct was artful, new and grand:  secluded from all eyes, his (Lord Chatham’s) orders were received as oracles.-vol. ii. p. 347.

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Junius:  Our enemies treat us as the cunning trader does the unskilful Indian. they magnify their generosity when they give us baubles of no proportionate value for ivory and gold.-vol. ii. p. 359.

Walpole:  They made a legal purchase to all eternity of empires and posterity, from a parcel of naked savages, for a handful of glass beads and baubles.-Vol. i. p. 343.

Junius:  If you deny him the cup, there will be no keeping him within the pale of the ministry.-vol. ii. p. 249.

Walpole:  Where I believe the clergy do not deny the laity the cup.-Letter to Montague.  He took care to regulate his patron’s warmth within the pale of his own advantage.-Memoires, vol. ii. p. 197.  Come over to the pale of loyalty.-vol. i. p. 282.

Junius:  Honour and justice must not be renounced although a thousand modes of right and wrong were to occupy the degrees of morality between Zeno and Epicurus.  The fundamental principles of Christianity may still be preserved.-vol. ii. p. 346.

Walpole:  The modes of Christianity were exhausted.-Vol. ii. p. 282 To mark how much the modes of thinking change, and that fundamentals themselves can make no impression.-vol. ii. p. 265.

Junius:  He (the duke of Bedfor) would not have betrayed such ignorance or such contempt of the constitution as openly to avow in a court of judicature the purchase and sale of a borough.  Note.- In an answer in chancery in a suit against him to recover a large sum paid him by a person whom he had undertaken to return to parliament for one of his Grace’s boroughs.  He was compelled to repay the money.-vol. i. p. 576.

Walpole:  Corruption prevailed in the House of Commons.  Instances had been brought to our courts of judicature how much it prevailed in our elections.  Note.-The Duke of Bedford had received 1500 pounds for electing Jefrery French at one of his boroughs in the west; but he dying immediately, his heir sued the Duke for the money, who paid it, rather than let the cause be heard.

Junius:  The Princess Dowager made it her first care to inspire her son with horror against heresy, and with a respect for the church.  His mother took more pains to form his beliefs than either his morals or his understanding.-vol. iii. p. 408.

Walpole:  >From the death of the Prince the object of the Princess Dowager had been the government of her son; and her attention had answered.  She had taught him great devotion, and she had taken care that he should be taught nothing else.-Vol. i. p. 396.

Junius:  That prince had strong natural parts, and used frequently to blush for his own ignorance and want of education, which had been wilfully neglected by his mother and her minion.

Walpole:  Martin spoke for the clause, and said, “The King could not have a separate interest from his people, the Princess might; witness Queen Isabella and her minion Mortimer."-Vol. i. p. 118.

Transcriber’s note:  the following paragraph is surrounded by asterisks. it appears to be a comment by the letter writer, sir charles Grey, rather than either Junius or Walpole.

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Our great Edward, too, at an early period, had sense enough to understand the nature of the connexion between his abandoned mother and the detested Mortimer.

Junius:  when it was proposed to settle the present King’s household as Prince of Wales, it is well known that the Earl of Bute was forced into it in direct contradiction to the late King’s inclination. vol. ii. .-

Walpole:  Fox had an audience.  The monarch was sour, but endeavoured to keep his temper, yet made no concessions; no request to the retiring minister to stay.  At last he let slip the true cause of his indignation:  “You,” said he, “have made me make that puppy Bute groom of the stole."-Vol. ii. p. 92.

Though too long to be cited in these hurried notes, there are several other passages in which the coincidence of sentiment and expression and of the order in which the thoughts and arguments are ranged, is very remarkable:  and the difficulty of accounting otherwise for such coincidences between the Letters of Junius and the unpublished and secret Memoires of Walpole, first made me suspect that the two names might belong to one and the same person-Horace Walpole the younger.

4.  Being led by this conjecture to examine the other works of Walpole, I found, in them also, many echoes, as it were, of the voice of Junius, which it is singular should not have been more observed.  No One, I think, can collate the concluding portion of Walpole’s letter to Lord Bute, of February 15, 1762, and the latter part of the eulogium of Junius on Lord Chatham, without being struck by the similarity of manner and tone; and by the identity of that feeling, which, in both cases, prompts the writer, whilst he is elaborating compliments, to defend himself jealously against all suspicion of flattery or interested motives.

Transcriber’s note:  there follows a comparison of material from Junius and Walpole, set out in parallel columns.  I have changed these to a sequential arrangement.

Junius:  I did not intend to make a public declaration of the respect I bear Lord Chatham.  I well knew what unworthy conclusions would be drawn from it.  But I am called upon to deliver my opinion, and surely it is not in the little censure of Mr. Home to deter me from doing signal justice to a man who, I confess, has grown upon my esteem.  As for the common, sordid views of avarice, or any purpose of vulgar ambition, I question whether the applause of Junius would be of service to Lord Chatham.  My vote will hardly recommend him to an increase of his pension, or to a seat in the Cabinet.  But if his ambition be upon a level with his understanding; if he judges of what is truly honourable for himself with the same superior genius which animates and directs him to eloquence in debate, to wisdom in decision, even the pen of Junius shall contribute to reward him.  Recorded honour shall gather round his monument, and thicken over him.  It is a solid fabric, and will support the laurels that adorn it.  I am not conversant in the language of panegyric.  These praises are extorted from me; but they will wear well, for they have been dearly earned.-Vol. ii. p. 310.

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Walpole.  I did not purpose to tempt again the patience of mankind.  But the case is very different with regard to my trouble.  My whole fortune is from the bounty of the Crown and from the public:  it would ill become me to spare any pains for the King’s glory, or for the honour and satisfaction of my country; and give me leave to add, my lord, it would be an ungrateful return for the distinction with which your lordship has condescended to honour me if I withheld such trifling aid as mine, when it might in the least tend to adorn your lordship’s administration.  From me, my lord, permit me to say these are not words of course, or of compliment, this is not the language of flattery:  your lordship knows I have no views; perhaps knows that, insignificant as it is, my praise is never detached from my esteem:  and when you have raised, as I trust you will, real monuments of glory, the most contemptible characters in the inscription dedicated by your country, may not be the testimony of, my lord, your lordship’s most obedient humble servant.-Letters, vol. iii.

I have neither time nor space for going much farther into this part of the subject; but there is one circumstance which, in its application to the supposition that Francis was Junius, is too remarkable to be passed over.  Sir Philip Francis supplied Mr. Almon with reports of two speeches of Lord Chatham, in one of which there is this passage, “The Americans had Purchased their liberty at a dear rate, since they had quitted their native country and gone in search of freedom to a desert.”  Junius, about three weeks before, had said, “They left their native land in search of freedom, and found it in a desert;” and it has been inferred from this, that the words in the speech were not Lord Chatham’s, but the reporter’s, and that Sir Philip Francis was Junius.  But it happens that Walpole, in his Royal and Noble Authors, some years earlier than either the letter of Junius or the speech of Lord Chatham, had said of Lord Brooke, that he was on the point “Of seeking liberty in the forests of America.”

5.  If we turn from a recollection of the words to a consideration of the peculiarities of the style of Junius, I think it will be agreed that the most remarkable of all is that species of irony which consists in equivocal compliment.  Walpole also excelled in this; and prided himself upon doing so.  Are we not justified in saying, that of all who, in the eighteenth century, cast their thoughts on public occurrences into the form of letters, Junius and Walpole are the most distinguished! that the works of no other prose writer of their time exhibit a zest for political satire equal to that which is displayed in the Letters of Junius, and in the Memoires and Political Letters of Walpole and that the sarcasm of equivocal praise was the favourite weapon in the armoury of each, though it certainly appears to have been tempered, and sharpened, and polished with additional care for the hand of

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Junius?  When did Francis ever deal in compliment or in equivoque?  In his vituperation there was always more of fury than of malice:  but Junius and Walpole were cruel.  Madame du Deffand says to the latter, “Votre plume est de fer tremp`e dans de fiel.”  I have sometimes thought that clever old woman either knew or suspected him to be Junius.  She uses in one place the unusual expression, “Votre `ecrit de Junius:”  and if Walpole was Junius, some of the most carefully composed letters in 1769 and 1771 were written in Paris ; where, indeed, it would seem that Junius, whoever he was, collected the materials for the accusation with which he threatened the Duke of Bedford, and which he evidently knew to be untrue.

6.  It has sometimes been said, that the Letters of Junius must have been written by a lawyer, and they were at one time attributed even to Mr. Dunning.  The mistakes which I am about to notice, trifling as they may be, make it impossible that any lawyer should have been the author; and it appears to me that not only is there a considerable resemblance in those mistakes which I adduce of Walpole’s, but that the affectation in both of employing legal terms with which they were not familiar, and of which they did not distinctly apprehend the meaning, is very remarkable.  Junius thought De Lolme’s Essay deep,” (13) and talks of property which “savours of the reality:”  (14) he misapplies that trite expression of the courts, bona fide:  (15) misunderstands mortmain, (16) and supposes that an inquisitio post mortem was an inquiry how the deceased came by his death. (17) Walpole talks of “the purparty of a wife’s lands;” of “tenures against which, of all others, quo warrantos are sure to take place;” (18) of the days of soccage,” which he supposes to be obsolete; and of a fera naturae.

Transcriber’s note:  Again there are a few passages from Junius and Walpole compared in parallel columns, which I present below in sequence.

Junius:  You say the facts on which you reason are universally admitted:  a gratis dictum which I flatly deny.-vol. ii. p. 143.

Walpole:  This circumstance is alleged against them as an incident contrived to gain belief, as if they had been in danger of their lives.  The argument is gratis dictum.-Works, vol. ii. p. 568.

Junius:  They are the trustees, not the owners of the estate. the fee simple is in us.- vol.-vol. i. p. 345.

Walpole:  Do you think we shall purchase the fee simple of him for so many years?-Letters, vol. ii.

7.  Walpole’s time of life, his station in society, means of information, and habits of writing much, and anonymously, and in concealment, all tally with the supposition of his being Junius.  So do his places of residence, when that part of the subject is carefully examined.

8.  It is an odd circumstance that Walpole, who makes remarks on every thing, makes no remark on Junius.  If he ever expressed an opinion of him in his letters to any of his numerous correspondents, those letters have been suppressed.  There are fewer letters of his in the years during which Junius was writing, than in any others.

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9.  Walpole’s quarrel with the Duke and Duchess of Bedford, and The party whom he calls “the Bedford court,” and Junius “the Bloomsbury gang,” would account for the rancour of the letters of the latter to the Duke.

10.  Walpole’s dislike and opinion of the Duke of Grafton, which is nowhere more remarkably expressed than in a letter published for the first time in your third volume, coupled with his friendship for the first Duchess of Grafton, fall in with the attacks of Junius on the Duke.

11.  The Memoires of Walpole show an enmity to Lord Mansfield almost equal to that of Junius.

12.  Turning from these to a person in a different station, we find, on the part of Walpole, (and, by-the-by, of Mason too,) a sort of spite against Dr. Johnson; and in the works of Walpole, selected by himself for publication after his death,’ there is a high-wrought criticism and condemnation of the style of Johnson, which I cannot help believing to have been conceived in revenge of the well-known handling of Junius in Johnson’s pamphlet on the Falkland Islands.  “Let not injudicious admiration mistake the venom of the shift for the vigour of the bow,” is said by Johnson of Junius:  and Walpole says of Johnson, that “he destroys more enemies by the weight of his shield, than with the point of his spear.”

13.  There is a host of small facts which might be adduced in support of what I have advanced.  Any one who has leisure to examine the voluminous works of Walpole, and who can lend his mind to the inquiry, will find them crowd upon him.  Let me mention one well known occurrence.

Junius says, in the postscript of a private note to Mr. Woodfall, Beware of David Garrick.  He was sent to pump you, and went directly to Richmond to tell the King I should write no more.”  He then directed Woodfall to send the following note to Garrick, but not in the handwriting of Junius:-"I am very exactly informed of your impertinent inquiries, and of the information you so busily sent to Richmond, and with what triumph and exultation it was received.  I knew every particular of it the next day.  Now, mark me, vagabond!  Keep to your pantomimes, or be assured you shall hear of it.  Meddle no more, thou busy informer!  It is in my power to make you curse the hour in which you dared to interfere with Junius.” (19)

Mr. Woodfall remarks on this, that Garrick had received a letter from Woodfall, (the editor of the newspaper in which the letters of Junius first appeared,) before the above-note of Junius was sent to the printer, in which Garrick was told, in confidence, that there were some doubts whether Junius would continue to write much longer.  Garrick flew with the intelligence to Mr. Remus, one of the pages to the King, who immediately conveyed it to his Majesty, at that time residing at Richmond; and from the peculiar sources of information that were open to this extraordinary writer, Junius was apprised of the whole transaction on the ensuing

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morning, and wrote the above postscript, and the letter that follows it, in consequence.  Now all that appears to Mr. Woodfall the younger. to be so wonderful in these circumstances is very easily explained, if we suppose Walpole to have been Junius.  Strawberry Hill is very near Richmond Park, and Walpole had many acquaintances amongst those who were about the King; whilst his friend, Mrs. Clive, the actress, who lived in the adjoining house to his own, and her brother, Mr. Raftor, who frequently visited her, both belonged to Garrick’s company.

But I have extended this letter too far.  My purpose was merely to invite your attention to a subject of some literary interest, which you have peculiar opportunities of examining; and to enable you, if you should think fit, to draw to it the attention of the public also.  I am, Sir, Your obedient servant, Chas. EDW.  Grey. 20.  Albemarle Street, October 24, 1840.

(13) Woodfall’s Junius, vol. i. p. 385.

(14) Ibid. p. 312.

(15) Ibid. p. 311.

(16) Ibid., vol. ii. p. 131.

(17) Ibid.,vol. i. p. 454.

(18) Walpole’s Works, vol. iv. p. 361.

(19) Junius, Vol. i.  P. 228.


Any one who attempts to become a biographer of Horace Walpole must labour under the disadvantage of following a greater master in the art; namely, Sir Walter Scott, whose lively and agreeable account of this Author, contained in his “Lives of the Novelists,” is well known and deservedly admired.  As, however, the greater part of Walter Scott’s pages is devoted to a very able criticism of the only work of fiction produced by Walpole, “The Castle of Otranto,” it has been thought, that a more general sketch of his life and writings might not prove unacceptable to the reader.

Horace Walpole was the third and youngest son (21) of that eminent minister, Sir Robert Walpole-the glory of the Whigs, the preserver of the throne of these realms to the present Royal Family, and under whose fostering rule and guidance the country flourished in peace for more than twenty years.  The elder brothers of Horace were, Robert, Lord Walpole, so created in 1723, who succeeded his father in the Earldom of Orford in 1745, and died in 1751; and Sir Edward Walpole, Knight of the Bath, whose three natural daughters were, Mrs. Keppel, wife to the Honourable Frederick Keppel, Bishop of Exeter; the Countess of Waldegrave, afterwards Duchess of Gloucester; and the Countess of Dysart.  Sir Edward Walpole died in 1784.  His sisters were, Catherine, who died of consumption at the age of nineteen; and Mary, married to George, Viscount Malpas, afterwards third Earl of Cholmondeley:  she died in 1732.  The mother of Horace, and of his brothers and sisters here mentioned, was Catherine Shorter, daughter of John Shorter, Esq. of Bybrook,

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in Kent, and grand-daughter of Sir John Shorter, Lord Mayor of London in 1688. (22) She died in 1736; and her youngest son, who always professed the greatest veneration for her memory, erected a monument to her in Westminster Abbey, in one of the side aisles of Henry the Seventh’s Chapel.  Horace Walpole had also a half-sister, the natural daughter of his father, by his mistress, Maria Skerrett, whom he afterwards married.  She also was named Mary Walpole, and married Colonel Charles Churchill, the natural son of General Churchill; who was himself a natural son of an older brother of the great Duke of Marlborough.

Horace Walpole was born October 5th, 1717 (23) and educated a Eton School, and at King’s College, Cambridge.  Upon leaving the latter place, he set out on his travels on the Continent, in company with Gray the poet, with whom he had formed a friendship at school.  They commenced their journey in March 1739, and continued abroad above two years.  Almost the whole of this time was spent in Italy, and nearly a year of it was devoted to Florence; where Walpole was detained by the society of his friends, Mr. Mann, Mr. Chute, and Mr. Whithed.  It was in these classic scenes, that his love of art, and taste for elegant and antiquarian literature, became more developed; and that it took such complete possession of him as to occupy the whole of his later life, diversified only by the occasional amusement of politics, or the distractions of society.  Unfortunately, the friendship of Walpole and his travelling companion could not survive two years of constant intercourse:  they quarrelled and parted at Reggio, in July 1741, and afterwards pursued their way homewards by different routes. (24)

Walpole arrived in England in September 1741, at which time his correspondence with Sir Horace Mann commences.  He had been chosen member for Callington, in the parliament which was elected in June of that year, and arrived in the House of Commons just in time to witness the angry discussions which preceded and accompanied the downfall of his father’s administration.  He plunged at once into the excitement of political partisanship with all the ardour of youth, and all the zeal which his filial affection for his father inspired.  His feelings at this period are best explained by a reference to his letters in the following collection.  Public business and attendance upon the House of Commons, apart from the interest attached to peculiar questions, he seems never to have liked.  He consequently took very little part either in debates or committees.  In March 1742, on a motion being made for an inquiry into the conduct of Sir Robert Walpole for the preceding ten years, he delivered his maiden speech; (25) on which he was complimented by no less a judge of oratory than Pitt.  This speech he has preserved in his letter to Sir Horace Mann, of March 24th, 1742.  He moved the Address in 1751; and in 1756 made a speech on the question

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of employing Swiss regiments in the colonies.  This speech he has also himself preserved in the second volume of his “Memoires.”  In 1757 he was active in his endeavours to save the unfortunate Admiral Byng.  Of his conduct upon this occasion he has left a detailed account of his “Memoires.”  This concludes all that can be collected of his public life, and at the general election of 1768 (26) he finally retired from parliament.

Upon this occasion he writes thus to George Montagu,-” As my senatorial dignity is gone, I shall not put you to the expense of a cover; and I hope the advertisement will not be taxed, as I seal it to the paper.  In short, I retain so much iniquity from the last infamous parliament, that, you see, I would still cheat the public.  The comfort I feel in sitting peaceably here, instead of being at Lynn, in the high fever of a contested election, which, at best, Would end in my being carried about that large town, like a figure of a pope at a bonfires is very great.  I do not think, when that function is over, that I shall repent my resolution.  What could I see but sons and grandsons playing over the same knaveries that I have seen their fathers and grandfather’s act?  Could I hear oratory beyond my Lord Chatham’s?  Will there ever be parts equal to Charles Towns@ends?  Will George Grenville cease to be the most tiresome of beings?” (27)

>From this time Walpole devoted himself more than ever to his literary and antiquarian pursuits; though the interest he still, in society at least, took in politics, is obvious, from the frequent reference to the subject in his letters.

In the course of his life, his political opinions appear to have undergone a great change.  In his youth, and indeed till his old age, he was not only a strenuous Whig, but, at times, almost a Republican.  How strong his opinions were in this sense may be gathered, both from the frequent confessions of his political faith, which occur in his letters, and from his reverence for the death-warrant of Charles the First, of which he hung up the engraving in his bed-room, and wrote upon it with his own hand the words “Major Charta.”  The horrors of the French Revolution drove him, in the latter period of his life, into other views of politics; and he seems to have become, in theory at least, a Tory, though he probably would have indignantly repudiated the appellation, had it been applied to him.

Even during the earlier part of his career, his politics had varied a good deal (as, indeed, in a long life, whose do not?); but, in his case, the cause of variation was a most amiable one.  His devoted attachment to Marshal Conway, which led him, when that distinguished man was turned out of his command of a regiment, and of his place at court, in 1764, (28) to offer, with much earnestness, to divide his fortune with him caused him also to look with a favourable eye upon the government of the day, whenever Mr. Conway was employed, and

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to follow him implicitly in his votes in the House of Commons.  Upon this subject he writes thus to Conway, who had not told him beforehand of a speech he made on the Qualification Bill, in consequence of which Walpole was absent from the House of Commons upon that occasion—­“I don’t suspect you of any reserve to me; I only mention it now for an occasion Of telling you, that I don’t like to have any body think that I would not do whatever you do.  I am of no consequence; but, at least, it would give me some to act invariably with you, and that I shall most certainly be ever ready to do.” (29) Upon another occasion he writes again in a similar strain:-"My only reason for writing is, to repeat to you, that whatever you do, I shall act with you.  I resent any thing done to you as to myself.  My fortunes shall never be separated from yours, except that, some day or other, I hope yours will be great, and I am content with mine.” (30)

Upon one political point Horace Walpole appears to have entertained from the first the most just views, and even at a time when such were not sanctioned by the general opinion of the nation.  From its very commencement, he objected to that disastrous contest the American war, which, commenced in ignorant and presumptuous folly, was prolonged to gratify the wicked obstinacy of individuals, and ended, as Walpole had foretold it would, in the discomfiture of its authors, and the national disgrace and degradation, after a profuse and useless waste of blood and treasure.  Nor must his sentiments upon the Slave Trade be forgotten-sentiments which he held, too, in an age when, far different from the present one, the Assiento Treaty, and other horrors of the same kind, were deemed, not only justifiable, but praiseworthy.  “We have been sitting,” he writes, on the 25th of February 1750, “this fortnight on the African Company.  We, the British Senate, that temple of Liberty, and bulwark of Protestant Christianity, have, this fortnight, been considering methods to make more effectual that horrid traffic of selling negroes.  It has appeared to us, that six-and-forty thousand of these wretches are sold every year to our plantations alone!  It chills one’s blood-I would not have to say I voted for it, for the continent of America!  The destruction of the miserable inhabitants by the Spaniards was but a momentary misfortune that flowed from the discovery of the New World, compared to this lasting havoc which it brought upon Africa.  We reproach Spain, and yet do not even pretend the nonsense of butchering the poor creatures for the good of their souls.” (31)

One of the most favourite pursuits of Walpole was the building and decoration of his Gothic villa of Strawberry Hill.  It is situated at the end of the village of Twickenham, towards Teddington, on a slope, which gives it a fine view of the reach of the Thames and the opposite wooded hill of Richmond Park.  He bought it in 1747, of Mrs. Chenevix, the proprietress of a celebrated toy-shop.  He thus describes it in a letter of that year to Mr. Conway.  “You perceive by my date that I am got into a new camp, and have left my tub at Windsor.  It is a little plaything-house that I got out of Mrs. Chenevix’s shop, and is the prettiest bauble you ever saw.  It is set in enamelled meadows, with filigree hedges:-

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’A small Euphrates through the piece is roll’d, And little finches wave their wings of gold.’

Two delightful roads, that you would call dusty, supply me continually with coaches and chaises; barges, as solemn as barons of the exchequer, move under my window; Richmond Hill and Ham Walks bound my prospects; but, thank God! the Thames is between me and the Duchess of Queensberry. (32) Dowagers, as plenty as flounders, inhabit all around; and Pope’s ghost is just now skimming under my window by a most poetical moonlight.” (33)

He commenced almost immediately adding to the house, and Gothicizing it, assisted by the taste and designs of his friend Mr. Bentley; till, in the end, the cottage of Mrs. Chenevix had increased into the castellated residence we now behold.  He also filled it with collections of various sorts-books, prints, pictures, portraits, enamels, and miniatures, antiquities, and curiosities of all kinds.  Among these miscellaneous hoards are to be found some fine works of art, and many things most valuable in an historical and antiquarian point of view.  For these various expenses he drew upon his annual income, which arose from three patent places conferred on him by his father, of which the designations were, Usher of the Exchequer, Comptroller of the Pipe, and Clerk of the Estreats.  As early as the year 1744, these sinecures produced to him, according to his own account, nearly two thousand a-year; and somewhat later, the one place of Usher of Exchequer rose in value to double this sum.  This income, with prudent management, sufficed for the gratification of his expensive tastes of building and collecting, to which his long life was devoted.

With regard to the merits of Strawberry Hill, as a building, it is perhaps unfair, in the present age, when the principles of Gothic architecture have been so much studied, and so often put in practice, to criticise it too severely.  Walpole himself, who, in the earlier part of his life, seems to have had an unbounded admiration for the works of his own hands, appears in later times to have been aware of the faults in style of which he had been guilty; for, in a letter to Mr. Barrett, in 1788, he says, “If Mr. Matthews was really entertained” (with seeing Strawberry Hill), “I am glad.  But Mr. Wyatt has made him too correct a Goth not to have seen all the imperfections and bad execution of my attempts; for neither Mr. Bentley nor my workmen had studied the science, and I was always too desultory and impatient to consider that I should please myself more by allowing time, than by hurrying my plans into execution before they were ripe.  My house, therefore, is but a sketch for beginners; yours (34) is finished by a great master; and if Mr. Matthews liked mine, it was en virtuose, who loves the dawnings of an art, or the glimmerings of its restoration.” (35)

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In fact, the building of Strawberry Hill was “the glimmering of the restoration” of gothic architecture, which had previously, for above a century, been so much neglected that its very principles seemed lost.  If we compare the Gothic of Strawberry Hill with that of buildings about the same period, or a little anterior to it, we shall see how vastly superior it is to them, both in its taste and its decorations.  If we look at some of the restorations of our churches of the beginning of the eighteenth century , we shall find them a most barbarous mixture of Gothic forms and Grecian and Roman ornaments.  Such are the western towers of Westminster Abbey, designed by Wren; the attempts at Gothic, by the same architect, in one or two of his City churches; Gibbs’s quadrangle of All Souls’ College, Oxford; and the buildings in the same style of Kent, Batty, Langley, etc.  To these Strawberry is greatly superior:  and it must be observed, that Walpole himself, in his progressive building, went on improving and purifying his taste.  Thus the gallery and round-tower at Strawberry Hill, which were among his latest works, are incomparably the best part of the house; and in their interior decorations there is very little to be objected to, and much to be admired.

It were to be wished, indeed, that Walpole’s haste to finish, to which he alludes in the letter just quoted, and perhaps also, in some degree, economy, had not made him build his castle, which, with all its faults, is a curious relic of a clever and ingenious man, with so little solidity, that it is almost already in a state of decay.  Lath and plaster, and wood, appear to have been his favourite materials for construction; which made his friend Williams (36) say of him, towards the end of his life, “that he had outlived three sets of his own battlements.”  It is somewhat curious, as a proof of the inconsistency of the human mind, that, having built his castle with so little view to durability, Walpole entailed the perishable possession with a degree of strictness, which would have been more fitting for a baronial estate.  And that, too, after having written a fable entitled “The Entail,” in consequence, of some one having asked him whether he did not intend to entail Strawberry Hill, and in ridicule of such a proceeding.

Whether Horace Walpole conferred a benefit upon the public by setting the fashion of applying the Gothic style of architecture to domestic purposes, may be doubtful; so greatly has the example he gave been abused in practice since.  But, at all events, he thus led the professors of architecture to study with accuracy the principles of the art, which has occasioned the restoration and preservation in such an admirable manner of so many of our finest cathedrals. colleges, and ancient Gothic and conventual buildings.  This, it must be at least allowed, was the fortunate result of the rage for Gothic, which succeeded the building of Strawberry Hill.  For a good many

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years after that event, every new building was pinnacled and turreted on all sides, however little its situation, its size, or its uses might seem to fit it for such ornaments.  Then, as fashion is never constant for any great length of’ time, the taste of the public rushed at once upon castles; and loopholes, and battlements, and heavy arches, and buttresses appeared in every direction.  Now the fancy of the time has turned as madly to that bastard kind of architecture, possessing, however, many beauties, which compounded of the Gothic, Castellated, and Grecian or Roman, is called the Elizabethan, or Old English.  No villa, no country-house, no lodge in the outskirts of London, no box of a retired tradesman is now built, except in some modification of this style.  The most ludicrous situations and the most inappropriate destinations do not deter any one from pointing his gables, and squaring his bay-windows, in the most approved Elizabethan manner.  And this vulgarizing and lowering Of the Old English architecture, by over use, is sure, sooner or later, to lose its popularity, and to cause it to be contemned and neglected, like its predecessors.  All these different styles, if properly applied, have their peculiar merits.  In old English country-houses, which have formerly been conventual buildings, the gothic style may be, with great propriety, introduced.  On the height of Belvoir or in similar situations, nothing could be devised so appropriate as the castellated; and in additions to, or renovations of old manor-houses the Elizabethan may be, with equal advantage, adopted.  It is the injudicious application of all three which has been, and is sure to be, the occasion of their fall in public favour.

The next pursuit of Walpole, to -which it now becomes desirable to advert, are his literary labours, and the various publications with which, at different periods of his life, he favoured the world.  His first effort appears to have been a copy of verses, written at Cambridge.  His poetry is generally not of a very high order; lively, and with happy turns and expressions, but injured frequently by a sort of quaintness, and a somewhat inharmonious rhythm.  Its merits, however, exactly fitted it for the purpose which it was for the most part intended for; namely, as what are called vers de soci`et`e.” (37) Among the best of his verses may be mentioned those “On the neglected Column in the Place of St. Mark, at Florence,” which contains some fine lines; his “Twickenham Register;” and “The Three Vernons.”

In 1752 he published his “Edes Walpolianae,” or description of the family seat’ of Houghton Hall, in Norfolk, where his father had built a palace, and had made a fine collection of pictures, which were sold by his grandson George, third Earl of Orford, to the Empress Catherine of Russia.  This work, which is, in fact, a mere catalogue of pictures, first showed the peculiar talent of Horace Walpole for enlivening, by anecdote and lightness of style, a dry subject. 

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This was afterwards still more exemplified in his “Anecdotes of Painting in England,” of which the different volumes were published in 1761, 1763, and 1771; and in the “Catalogue of Engravers,” published in 1763.  These works were compiled from papers of Vertue, the engraver; but Walpole, from the stores of his own historical knowledge, from his taste in the fine arts, and his happy manner of sketching characters, rendered them peculiarly his own.  But his masterpiece in this line was his “Catalogue of Royal and Noble Authors,” originally published in 1758.  It is very true, as Walter Scott observes, that “it would be difficult, by any process or principle of subdivision, to select a list of so many plebeian authors, containing so very few whose genius was worthy of commemoration.” (38) But this very circumstance renders the merit of Walpole the greater, in having, out of such materials, composed a work which must be read with amusement and interest, as long as liveliness of diction and felicity in anecdote are considered ingredients of amusement in literature.

In 1757 Walpole established a private printing-press at Strawberry Hill, and the first work he printed at it was the Odes of Gray, with Bentley’s prints and vignettes.  Among the handsomest and most valuable volumes which subsequently issued from this press, in addition to Walpole’s own Anecdotes of Painting, and his description of Strawberry Hill, must be mentioned the quarto lucan, with the notes of Grotius and Bentley; the Life of Lord Herbert of Cherbury by himself, flentzner’s Travels, and Lord Whitworth’s account of Russia.  Of all these he printed a very limited number.  It does not, however, appear, as stated in the Biographical Dictionary, (39) he reserved all the copies as presents; on the contrary, it would seem that in most instances he sold a certain portion of the copies to the booksellers, probably with a view of defraying the expenses of his printing establishment.  As, however, the supply in the book-market of the Strawberry Hill editions was very small, they generally sold for high prices, and a great interest was created respecting them.

In 1764 Walpole published one of the most remarkable of his works, “The Castle of Otranto;” and in 1768 his still more remarkable production, “The Mysterious Mother.” (40) In speaking of the latter effort of his genius, (for it undoubtedly deserves that appellation,) an admirable judge of literary excellence has made the following remarks; “It is the fashion to underrate Horace Walpole firstly, because he was a nobleman, and secondly, because he was a gentleman:  but, to say nothing of the composition of his incomparable letters, and of “The Castle of Otranto,” he is the Ultimus Romanorum, the author of the ‘Mysterious Mother,’ a tragedy of the highest order, and not a puling love-play:  he is the father of the first romance, and of the last tragedy in our language, and surely worthy of a higher place than any living author, be he who he may.” (41)

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In speaking Of “The Castle of Otranto,” it may be remarked as a singular coincidence in the life of Walpole, that as he had been the first person to lead the modern public to seek for their architecture in the Gothic style and age, so he also opened the great magazine of the tales of Gothic times to their literature.  “The Castle of Otranto” is remarkable,” observes an eminent critic, “not only for the wild interest of its story, but as the first modern attempt to found a tale of amusing fiction upon the basis of the ancient romances of chivalry.” (42) “This romance,” he continues, “has been justly considered not only as the original and model of a peculiar species of composition, attempted and successfully executed by a man of great genius, but as one of the standard works of our literature.’ (43)

The account which Walpole himself gives of the circumstances which led to the composition of “The Castle of Otranto,” of his fancy of the portrait of Lord Deputy Falkland, in the gallery at Strawberry Hill, walking Out of its frame; and of his dream of a gigantic hand in armour on the banister of a great staircase, are well known.  Perhaps it may be objected to him, that he makes too frequent use of supernatural machinery in his romance; but, at the time it was written, this portion of his work was peculiarly acceptable to the public.  We have since, from the labours of the immense tribe of his followers and imitators of different degrees of merit, “supped so full of horrors,” that we are become more fastidious upon these points; and even, perhaps, unfairly so, as at the present moment the style of supernatural romances in general is rather fallen again Into neglect and disfavour.  “If,” concludes Walter Scott, in his criticism on this work, (and the sentiments expressed by him are so fair and just, that it is impossible to forbear quoting them,) “Horace Walpole, who led the way in this new species of literary composition, has been surpassed by some of his followers in diffuse brilliancy of composition, and perhaps in the art of detaining the mind of the reader in a state of feverish and anxious suspense through a protracted and complicated narrative, more will yet remain with him than the single merit of originality and invention.  The applause due to chastity of style—­to a happy combination of supernatural agency with human interest-to a tone of feudal manners and language, sustained by characters strongly marked and well discriminated,-and to unity of action, producing scenes alternately of interest and grandeur,-the applause, in fine, which cannot be denied to him who can excite the passions of fear and pity must be awarded to the author of the Castle of Otranto.” (44)

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“The Mysterious Mother,” is a production of higher talent and more powerful genius than any other which we owe to the pen of Horace Walpole; though, from the nature of its subject, and the sternness of its character, it is never likely to compete in popularity with many of his other writings.  The story is too horrible almost for tragedy.  It is, as Walpole himself observes,"more truly horrid even than that of Oedipus.”  He took it from a history which had been told him, and which he thus relates:  “I had heard, when very Young, that a gentlewoman, under uncommon agonies of mind, had waited on Archbishop Tillotson, and besought his counsel.  Many years before, a damsel that served her, had acquainted her that she was importuned by the gentlewoman’s son to grant him a private meeting.  The mother ordered the maiden to make the assignation, when, she said, she would discover herself, and reprimand him for his criminal passion:  but, being hurried away by a much more criminal passion herself, she kept the assignation without discovering herself.  The fruit of this horrid artifice was a daughter, whom the gentlewoman caused to be educated very privately in the country:  but proving very lovely, and being accidentally met by her father-brother, who had never had the slightest suspicion of the truth, he had fallen in love with and actually married her.  The wretched, guilty mother, learning what had happened, and distracted with the consequence of her crime, had now resorted to the archbishop, to know in what manner she should act.  The prelate charged her never to let her son or daughter know what had passed, as they were innocent of any criminal intention.  For herself he bade her almost despair.” (45) Afterwards, Walpole found out that a similar story existed in the Tales of the Queen of Navarre, and also in Bishop Hall’s works.  In this tragedy the dreadful interest is well sustained throughout, the march of the blank verse is grand and imposing, and some of the scenes are worked up with a vigour and a pathos, which render it one of the most powerful dramatic efforts of which our language can boast.

The next publication of Walpole, was his “Historic Doubts on the Life and Reign of King Richard the Third,” one of the most ingenious historical and antiquarian dissertations which has ever issued from the press.  He has collected his facts with so much industry, and draws his arguments and inferences from them with so much ability, that if he has not convinced the public of the entire innocence of Richard, he has, at all events, diminished the number of his crimes, and has thrown a doubt over his whole history, as well as over the credibility of his accusers, which is generally favourable to his reputation.  This work occasioned a great sensation in the literary world, and produced several replies, from F. Guydickens, Esq., Dean Milles, and the Rev. Mr. Masters, and others.  These works, however, are now gathered to “the dull of ancient days;” while the book they were intended to expose and annihilate remains an instructive and amusing volume; and, to say the least of it, a most creditable monument of its author’s ingenuity.

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The remainder of the works of Walpole, published or printed in his lifetime, consist of minor, or, as he calls them, Fugitive pieces.”  Of these the most remarkable are his papers in “The World,” and other periodicals; " A Letter from Xo Ho, a Chinese Philosopher, in London,” on the politics of the day; the “Essay on Modern Gardening;” the pamphlet called “A Counter Address,” on the dismissal of Marshal Conway from his command of a regiment; the fanciful, but lively “Hieroglyphic Tales;” and “The Reminiscences,” or Recollections of Court and Political Anecdotes; which last he wrote for the amusement of the Miss Berrys.  All of these are marked with those peculiarities, and those graces of style, which belonged to him; and may still be read, however various their subjects, with interest and instruction.  The Reminiscences are peculiarly curious; and may, perhaps, be stated to be, both in manner and matter, the very perfection of anecdote writing.  We may, indeed, say, with respect to Walpole, what can be advanced of but few such voluminous authors, that it is impossible to open any part of his works without deriving entertainment from them; so much do the charms and liveliness of his manner of writing influence all the subjects he treats of.

Since the death of Walpole, a portion of his political Memoires, comprising the History of the last ten years of the Reign of George the Second, has been published, and has made a very remarkable addition to the historical information of that period.  At the same time it must be allowed, that this work has not entirely fulfilled the expectation which the public had formed of it.  Though full of curious and interesting details; it can hardly be said to form a very interesting whole; while in no other of the publications of the author do his prejudices and aversions appear in so strong and unreasonable a light.  His satire also, and we might even call it by the stronger name of abuse, is too general, and thereby loses its effect.  Many of the characters are probably not too severely drawn; but some evidently are, and this circumstance shakes our faith in the rest.  We must, however, remember that the age he describes was one of peculiar corruption; and when the virtue and character of public men were, perhaps, at a lower ebb than at any other period since the days of Charles the Second.  The admirably graphic style of Walpole, in describing particular scenes and moments, shines forth in many parts of the Memoires:  and this, joined to his having been an actor in many of the circumstances he relates and a near spectator of all, must ever render his book one of extreme value to the politician and the historian.

But, the posthumous works of Walpole, upon which his lasting fame with posterity will probably rest, are his “incomparable letters.” (46) Of these, a considerable portion was published in the quarto edition of his works in 1798:  since which period two quarto volumes, containing his letters to George Montagu, Esq. and the Rev. William Cole; and another, containing those to Lord Hertford and the Rev. Henry Zouch, have been given to the world; and the present publication of his correspondence with Sir Horace Mann completes the series, which extends from the year 1735 to the commencement of 1797, within six weeks of his death-a period of no less than fifty-seven years.

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A friend of Mr. Walpole’s has observed, that “his epistolary talents have shown our language to be capable of all the grace and all the charms of the French of Madame de S`evign`e;” (47) and the remark is a true one, for he is undoubtedly the author who first proved the aptitude of our language for that light and gay epistolary style, which was before supposed peculiarly to belong to our Gallic neighbours.  There may be letters of a higher order in our literature than those of Walpole.  Gray’s letters, and perhaps Cowper’s, may be taken as instances of this; but where shall we find such an union of taste, humour, and almost dramatic power of description and narrative, as in the correspondence of Walpole?  Where such happy touches upon the manners and characters of the time?  Where can we find such graphic scenes, as the funeral of George the Second; as the party to Vauxhall with Lady Harrington; as the ball at Miss Chudleigh’s, in the letters already published; or as some of the House of Commons’ debates and many of the anecdotes of society in those now offered to the world?  Walpole’s style in letter-writing is occasionally quaint, and sometimes a little laboured; but for the most part he has contrived to throw into it a great appearance of ease, as if he wrote rapidly and without premeditation.  This, however, was by no means the case, as he took great pains with his letters, and even collected, and wrote down beforehand, anecdotes, with a view to their subsequent insertion.  Some of these stores have been discovered among the papers at Strawberry Hill.  The account of the letters of Walpole leads naturally to some mention of his friends, to whom they were addressed.  These were, Gray the poet, Marshal Conway, his elder brother, Lord Hertford, George Montagu, Esq., the Rev. William Cole, Lord Strafford, Richard Bentley, Esq., John Chute, Esq., Sir Horace Mann, Lady Hervey, and in after-life, Mrs. Hannah More, Mrs. Damer, and the two Miss Berrys.  His correspondence with the three latter ladies has never been published; but his regard for them, and intimacy with them, are known to have been very great.  Towards Mrs. Damer, the only child of the friend of his heart, Marshal Conway, he had an hereditary feeling of affection; and to her he bequeathed Strawberry Hill.  To the Miss Berrys he left, in conjunction with their father, the greater part of his papers, and the charge of collecting and publishing his works, a task which they performed with great care and judgment.  To these friends must be added the name of Richard West, Esq., a young man of great promise, (only son of Richard West, Lord Chancellor of Ireland, by the daughter of Bishop Burnet,) who died in 1742, at the premature age of twenty-six.

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Gray had been a school friend of Walpole, as has been before mentioned, they travelled together, and quarrelled during the Journey.  Walter Scott suggests as a reason for their differences, “that the youthful vivacity, and perhaps aristocratic assumption, of Walpole, did not agree with the somewhat formal opinions and habits of the professed man of letters.” (48) This conjecture may very possibly be the correct one; but we have no clue to guide us with certainty to the causes of their rupture.  In after-life they were reconciled, though the intimacy of early friendship never appears to have been restored between them. (49) Scott says of Walpole, that , his temper was precarious;” and we may, perhaps, affirm the same of Gray.  At all events, they were persons of such different characters, that their not agreeing could not be surprising.  What could be more opposite than “the self-sequestered, melancholy Gray,” and the eager, volatile Walpole, of whom Lady Townshend said, when some one talked of his good spirits, “Oh, Mr. Walpole is spirits of hartshorn.”  When Mason was writing the life of Gray, Walpole bade him throw the whole blame of the quarrel upon him.  This might be mere magnanimity, as Gray was then dead; what makes one most inclined to think it was the truth, is the fact, that Gray was not the only intimate friend of Walpole with whom he quarrelled.  He did so with Bentley, for which the eccentric conduct of that man of talent might perhaps account.  But what shall we say to his quarrel with the good-humoured, laughing George Montagu, with whom for the last years of the life of the latter, he held no intercourse?  It is true, that in a letter to Mr. Cole, Walpole lays the blame upon Montagu, and says, “he was become such an humourist;” but it must be remembered that we do not know Montagu’s version of the story; and that undoubtedly three quarrels with three intimate friends rather support the charge, brought by Scott against Walpole, of his having “a precarious temper.”

The friendship, however, which does honour both to the head and heart of Horace Walpole, was that which he bore to Marshal Conway; a man who, accordant to all the accounts of him that have come down to us, was so truly worthy of inspiring such a degree of affection.  Burke’s panegyric (50)upon his public character and conduct is well-known; while the Editor of Lord Orford’s Works thus most justly eulogizes his private life.  “It is only those who have had the opportunity of penetrating into the most secret motives of his public conduct and the inmost recesses of his private life, that can do real justice to the unsullied purity of his character-who saw and knew him in the evening of his days, retired from the honourable activity of a soldier and a statesman, to the calm enjoyments of private life, happy in the resources of his own mind, and in the cultivation of useful science, in the bosom of domestic peace-unenriched by pensions or places, undistinguished by titles or ribands, unsophisticated

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by public life, and unwearied by retirement.”  The offer of Walpole to share his fortune with Conway, when the latter was dismissed from his places, an offer so creditable to both parties, has been already mentioned; and if we wish to have a just idea of the esteem in which Marshal Conway was held by his contemporaries, it is only necessary to mention, that upon the same occasion, similar offers were pressed upon him by his brother Lord Hertford, and by the Duke of Devonshire, without any concert between them.

The rest of’ Walpole’s friends and correspondents it is hardly necessary to dwell upon; they are many of them already well known to the public from various causes. it may, however, be permitted to observe, that, they were, for the most part, persons distinguished either by their taste in the fine arts, their love of antiquities, their literary attainments, or their conversational talents.  To the friends already mentioned, but with whom Walpole did not habitually correspond, must be added, Mason the poet, George Selwyn, Richard second Lord Edgecumbe, George James Williams, Esq.  Lady Suffolk, and Mrs. Clive the actress.

With the Marquise du Deffand, the old, blind, but clever leader of French society, he became acquainted at Paris late in her life.  Her devotion for him appears to have been very great, and is sometimes expressed in her letters with a warmth and tenderness, which Walpole, who was most sensitive of ridicule, thought so absurd in a person of her years and infirmities, that he frequently reproves her very harshly for it; so much so, as to give him the appearance of a want of kindly feeling towards her, which his general conduct to her, and the regrets he expressed on her death, do not warrant us in accusing him of. (51)

In concluding the literary part of the character of Walpole, it is natural to allude to the transactions which took place between him and the unfortunate Chatterton; a text upon which so much calumny and misrepresentation have been embroidered.  The periodicals of the day, and the tribe of those “who daily scribble for their daily bread,” and for whom Walpole had, perhaps unwisely, frequently expressed his contempt, attacked him bitterly for his inhumanity to genius, and even accused him as the author of the subsequent misfortunes and untimely death of that misguided son of genius; nay, even the author of “The Pursuits of Literature,” who wrote many years after the transaction had taken place, and who ought to have known better, gave in to the prevailing topic of abuse. (52) It therefore becomes necessary to state shortly what really took place upon this occasion, a task which is rendered easier by the clear view of the transaction taken both by Walter Scott in his “Lives of the Novelists,” and by Chalmers in his “Biographical Dictionary,” which is also fully borne out by the narrative drawn up by Walpole himself, and accompanied by the correspondence.

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it appears then, that in March 1769, Walpole-received a letter from Chatterton, enclosing a few specimens of the pretended poems of Rowley, and announcing his discovery of a series of ancient painters at Bristol.  To this communication Walpole, naturally enough, returned a very civil answer.  Shortly afterwards, doubts arose in his mind as to the authenticity of the poems; these were confirmed by the opinions of some friends, to whom he showed them; and he then wrote an expression of these doubts to Chatterton.  This appears to have excited the anger of Chatterton, who, after one or two short notes, wrote Walpole a very impertinent one, in which he redemanded his manuscripts.  This last letter Walpole had intended to have answered with some sharpness; but did not do so.  He only returned the specimens on the 4th of August 1769; and this concluded the intercourse between them, and as Walpole observes, “I never saw him then, before, or since.”  Subsequently to this transaction, Chatterton acquired other patrons more credulous than Walpole, and proceeded with his forgeries.  In April 1770 he came to London, and committed suicide in August of that year; a fate which befell him, it is to be feared, more in consequence of his own dissolute and profligate habits, than from any want of patronage.  However this may be, Walpole clearly had nothing to say to it.

In addition to the accusation of crushing, instead of fostering his genius, Walpole has also been charged with cruelty in not assisting him with money.  Upon this, he very truly says himself, “Chatterton was neither indigent nor distressed, at the time of his correspondence with me.  He was maintained by his mother and lived with a lawyer.  His only pleas to my assistance were, disgust to his profession, inclination to poetry, and communication of some suspicious MSS.  His distress was the consequence of quitting his master, and coming to London, and of his other extravagances.  He had depended on the impulse of the talents he felt for making impression, and lifting him to wealth, honours, and faine.  I have already said, that I should have been blamable to his mother and society, if I had seduced an apprentice from his master to marry him to the nine Muses;’ and I should have encouraged a propensity to forgery, which is not the talent most wanting culture in the present age.” (53) Such and so unimportant was the transaction with Chatterton, which brought so much obloquy on Walpole, and seems really to have given him at different times great annoyance.

There remains but little more to relate in the life of Walpole.  His old age glided on peacefully, and, with the exception of his severe sufferings from the gout, apparently contentedly, in the pursuit of his favourite studies and employments.  In the year 1791, he succeeded his unhappy nephew, George, third Earl of Orford, who had at different periods of his life been insane, in the family estate and the earldom.  The accession of this latter dignity seems rather to have annoyed him than otherwise.  He never took his seat in the House of Lords, and his unwillingness to adopt his title was shown in his endeavours to avoid making use of it in his signature.  He not unfrequently signed himself, “The Uncle of the late Earl of Orford.” (54)

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He retained his faculties to the last, but his limbs became helpless from his frequent attacks of gout:  as he himself expresses it,

“Fortune, who scatters her gifts out of season, Though unkind to my limbs, has yet left me my reason.” (55)

As a friend of his, who only knew him in the last years of his life, speaks of “his conversation as singularly brilliant as it was original,” (56) we may conclude his liveliness never deserted him; that his talent for letter-writing did not, we have a proof in a letter written only six weeks before his death, in which, with all his accustomed grace of manner he entreats a lady of his acquaintance not to show “the idle notes of her ancient servant."-Lord Orford died in the eightieth year `of his life, at his house in Berkeley Square, on the 2d of March 1797, and was buried with his family in the church at Houghton and with him concluded the male line of the descendants of Sir Robert Walpole.

(20) Originally prefixed to his lordship’s edition of Walpole’s Letters to Sir Horace Mann, first published in 1833.

(21) In a ms. note by Walpole, in his own copy of collins’s Peerage, it is stated, that Sir Robert Walpole had, by his first wife, “another son, William, who died young, and a daughter, Catherine, who died of a consumption at Bath, aged nineteen."-E.

(22) The occasion of the death of sir John Shorter was a curious one.  It is thus related in the Ellis Correspondence:-"Sir John Shorter, the present Lord Mayor. is very ill with a fall off his horse, under Newgate, as he was going to proclaim Bartholomew Fair.  The city custom is, it seems, to drink always under Newgate when the Lord Mayor passes that way; and at this time the Lord Mayor’s horse, being somewhat skittish,-started at the sight of the large glittering tankard which was reached to his lordship.”  Letter of Aug. 30th, 1688.

“On Tuesday last died the Lord Mayor, Sir John Shorter:  the occasion of his distemper was his fall under Newgate, which bruised him a little, and put him into a fever.”  Letter of September 6th, 1688.

(23 )birthdate) In Chalmers’s Biographical Dictionary it is stated, that Horace Walpole was born in 1718; and Sir Walter Scott says he was born in 1716-17, which, according to the New Style, would mean that he was born in one of the three first months of the year 1717.  Both these statements are, however, erroneous, as he himself fixes the day of his birth, in a letter to Mr. Conway, dated October 5th, 1764, where he says “What signifies what happens when one is seven-and-forty, as I am to-day?  They tell me ’tis my birthday,” And again, in a letter to the same correspondent, dated October 5th, 1777, he says, “I am three-score to-day.”

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(24) The exact cause of this quarrel,” says Mr. Mitford, in his Life of Gray, " has been passed over by the delicacy of his biographer, because Horace Walpole was alive when the Memoirs of Gray were written.  The former, however, charged himself with the chief blame, and lamented that he had not paid more attention and deference to Gray’s superior judgment and prudence.”  See Works of Gray, vol. i. p. 9, Pickering’s edition 1836.  In the “Walpolianae” is the following passage:-"The quarrel between Gray and me arose from his being too serious a companion.  I had just broke loose from the restraints of the University with as much money as I could spend, and I was willing to indulge myself.  Gray was for antiquities, etc. while I was for perpetual balls and plays:  the fault was mine."-E.

(25) Sir Walter Scott says that Walpole, on one occasion, " vindicated the memory of his father with great dignity and eloquence” in the House of Commons; but, as I cannot find any trace of a speech of this kind made by him after Sir Robert Walpole’s death, I am inclined to think Sir Walter must have made a mistake as to the time of delivery of the speech mentioned in the text. [Secker, at that time Bishop of Oxford, says that Walpole “spoke well against the motion.”  See post, letter to Sir Horace Mann, dated March 24, 1742.

(26) Sir Walter Scott is in error when he says that Walpole retired from the House of Commons in 1758, “at the active age of forty-one.”  This event occurred, as is here stated, in March, 1768, and when Walpole was consequently in his fifty-first year.

(27) Letter, dated Arlington Street, March 12th, 1768.  It is but fair to mention, in opposition to the opinion respecting George Grenville, here delivered by Walpole, that of no less an authority than Burke, who says, “Mr. Grenville was a first-rate figure in this country,”

(28) He had also offered to share his fortune with Mr. Conway in the year 1744 (see letter of July 20th of that year), in order to enable Mr. Conway to marry a lady he was then in love with.  He ends his very pressing entreaties by saying, “For these reasons, don’t deny me what I have set my Heart on-the making your fortune easy to you.”  Nor were these the only instances of generosity to a friend, which we find in the life of Walpole.  In the year 1770, when the Abb`e Terrai was administering the finances of France, (or, to use the more expressive language of Voltaire, “Quand Terrai nous mangeait,”) his economical reductions occasioned the loss of a portion of her pension, amounting to three thousand livres, to Madame du Deffand.  Upon this occasion Walpole wrote thus to his old blind friend, who had presented a memorial of her case to M. de St. Florentin, a course of proceeding which Walpole did not approve of:-"Ayez assez d’amiti`e pour moi pour accepter les trois mille livres de ma part.  Je voudrais que la somme ne me f`ut pas aussi indiferente qu’elle

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l’est, mais je vous jure qu’elle ne retranchera rien, pas m`eme sur mes amusemens.  La prendriez vous de la main de la grandeur, et la refuseriez vous de moi?  Vous me connaissez:  faites ce sacrifice `a mon orgueil, qui serait enchants de vous avoir emp`ech`ee de vous abaisser jusqu’`a la sollicitation.  Votre m`emoire me blesse.  Quoi! vous, vous, r`eduite `a repr`esenter vos malheurs!  Accordez moi, je vous conjure, la grace que je vous demande `a genoux, et jouissez de la satisfaction de vous dire, J’ai un ami qui ne permettra jamais que je me jette aux pieds des grands.  Ma Petite, j’insiste.  Voyez, si vous aimez mieux me faire le plaisir le plus sensible, ou de devoir une grace qui, ayant `et`e sollicit`ee, arrive toujours trop tard pour contanter l’amiti`e.  Laissez moi go`uter la joie la plus pure, de vous avoir mise `a votre aise, et que cette joie soit un secret profond entre nous deux.”  See Letters of the Marquise de Deffand to the Honourable Horace Walpole.-It was impossible to make a pecuniary offer with more earnestness or greater delicacy; and Madame du Deffand’s not having found it necessary subsequently to accept it, in no degree diminishes the merit of the proffered gift.

(29) See letter, dated Monday, five o’clock, Feb. 1761.

(30) See letter, dated April 19th, 1764.

(31) See letter to Sir Horace Mann, Feb. 25, 1750.

(32) Catherine Hyde, the eccentric friend of Pope and Gay.  She was, at this time, living in a small house in Ham Walks.  Walpole, having found her out airing in her Carriage, one day that he had called on her, there addressed the following lines to her:—­

’To many a Kitty, Love his car
Would for a day engage;
But Prior’s Kitty, ever fair,
Retains it for an age.”

(33) Letter of June 8th, 1747.

(34) Lee, in Kent.

(35) Letter of June 5th, 1788.

(36) George James Williams, Esq.

(37) In his vers de soci`et`e we perpetually discover a laborious effort to introduce the lightness of the French badinage into a masculine and somewhat rough language."-Quart.  Rev. vol. xix. p. 122.

(38) Lives of the Novelists, Prose Works, vol. iii. p. 304, ed. 1834.

(39) Chalmer’s Biographical Dictionary, article Walpole.

(40) “The Mysterious Mother” was printed in that year:  but was never published till after the death of Walpole.

(41) Lord Byron, Preface to Mtrino Faliero.”

(42) Lives of the Novelists, Sir Walter Scott; Prose Works, vol. iii. p. 313.

(43) Shortly after the appearance of this romance, the following high encomium was passed upon it by Bishop Warburton:-"We have been lately entertained with what I will venture to call a masterpiece in the fable, and a new species likewise.  The piece I mean is laid in Gothic chivalry, where a beautiful imagination, supported by strength of judgment, has enabled the author to go beyond his subject, and effect the full purpose of the ancient tragedy; that is, to purge the passions by pity and terror, in colouring as great and harmonious as in any of the best dramatic writers."-E.

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(44) Lives of the Novelists; Prose Works, vol. iii. p. 323.

(45) Postscript to “The Mysterious Mother.”

(46) Lord Byron.

(47) Social Life in England and France,” by Miss Berry.

(48) Lives of the Novelists; Prose Works, vol. iii. p. 301.

(49) “In 1744, the difference between Walpole and Gray was adjusted by the interference of a lady, who wished well to both parties.  The lapse of three years had probably been sufficient, in some degree, to soften down, though not entirely obliterate, the remembrance of supposed injustices on both sides; natural kindness of temper had resumed their place, and we find their correspondence again proceeding on friendly and familiar terms.”  Mitford’s Gray, vol. i. p. xxiii; see also vol. ii. p. 174.-E.

(50) Speech on American Taxation, April 19, 1774.

(51) “Vanity, when it unfortunately gets possession of a wise man’s head, is as keenly sensible of ridicule, as it is impassible to its shafts when more appropriately lodged with a fool.  Of the sensitiveness arising out of this foible Walpole seems to have had a great deal, and it certainly dictated those hard-hearted reproofs that repelled the warm effusions of friendship with which poor Madame du Deffand (now old and blind) addressed him, and of which he complained with the utmost indignation, merely because, if her letters were opened by a clerk at the post-office, such expressions of kindness might expose him to the ridicule of which he had such undue terror.”  Quart.  Rev. Vol. xix. p. 119.-E.

(52) See “Pursuits of Literature,” second Dialogue:-

“The Boy, whom once patricians pens adorn’d, First meanly flatter’d, then as meanly scorn’d.”

Which lines are Stated in a note to allude to Walpole.  See also, first Dialogue, where Chatturton is called, “That varlet bright.”  The note to which passage is “’I am the veriest varlet that ever chew’d,’ says Falstaff, in Henry iv.  Part 1.  Act. 2.  Mr. Horace Walpole, now Lord Orford, did not, however, seem to think it necessary that this varlet Chatterton should chew at all.  See the Starvation Act, dated at Strawberry Hill.”

(53) Letter to the Editor of the Miscellanies of Chatterton.  Works, vol. iv.

(54) The Duke of Bedford has a letter of Walpole’s with this signature.

(55) “Epitapilium vivi auctoris."-l 792.

(56) “Social Life in England and France.”

Reminiscences of the courts of George the first and second
Written in 1788,
for the amusement of miss mary and miss Agnes Berry.

Il ne faut point d’esprit pour s’occuper des vieux


Motives to the Undertaking-Precedents-George the First’s Reign a Proem to the History of the Reigning House of Brunswick-The Reminiscent introduced to that Monarch-His Person and Dress-The Duchess of Kendal-her Jealousy of Sir Robert Walpole’s Credit with the King-and Intrigues to displace him, and make Bolingbroke Minister. ’

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You were both so entertained with the old stories I told you one evening lately, of what I recollected to have seen and heard from my childhood of the courts of King George the First, and of his son the Prince of Wales, afterwards George the Second, and of the latter’s princess, since Queen Caroline; and you expressed such wishes that I would commit those passages (for they are scarce worthy of the title even of anecdotes) to writing, that, having no greater pleasure than to please you both, nor any more important or laudable occupation, I will begin to satisfy the repetition of your curiosity.  But observe, I promise no more than to begin; for I not only cannot answer that I shall have patience to continue, but my memory is still so fresh, or rather so retentive of trifles which first made impression on it, that it is very possible my life (turned of seventy-one) may be exhausted before my stock of remembrances; especially as I am sensible of the garrulity of old age, and of its eagerness of relating whatever it recollects, whether of moment or not.  Thus, while I fancy I am complying with you, I may only be indulging myself, and consequently may wander into many digressions for which you will not care a straw, and which may intercept the completion of my design.  Patience, therefore young ladies; and if you coin an old gentleman into narratives, you must expect a good deal of alloy.  I engage for no method, no regularity, no polish.  My narrative will probably resemble siege-pieces, which are struck of any promiscuous metals; and, though they bear the impress of some sovereign’s name, only serve to quiet the garrison for the moment, and afterwards are merely hoarded by collectors and virtuosos, who think their series not complete, unless they have even the coins of base metal of every reign.  As I date from my nonage, I must have laid up no state secrets.  Most of the facts I am going to tell you though new to you and to most of the present age, were known perhaps at the time to my nurse and my tutors.  Thus, my stories will have nothing to do with history.

Luckily, there have appeared within these three months two publications, that will serve as precedents for whatever I am going to say:  I mean Les Fragments of the Correspondence of the Duchess of Orleans, (57) and those of the M`emoires of the Duc de St. Simon. (58) Nothing more d`ecousu than both:  they tell you what they please; or rather, what their editors have pleased to let them tell.  In one respect I shall be less satisfactory.  They knew and were well acquainted, or thought they were, with their personages.  I did not at ten years old, penetrate characters; and as George 1. died at the period where my reminiscence begins, and was rather a good sort of man than a shining king; and as the Duchess of Kendal was no genius, I heard very little of either when he and her power were no more.  In fact, the reign of George 1. was little more than the proem to the history of England Under the House of Brunswick. 

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That family was established here by surmounting a rebellion; to which settlement perhaps the phrensy of the South Sea scheme contributed, by diverting the national attention from the game of faction to the delirium of stockjobbing; and even faction was split into fractions by the quarrel between the king and the heir apparent-another interlude, which authorizes me to call the reign of George 1. a proem to the history of the reigning House of Brunswick, so successively agitated by parallel feuds.


As my first hero was going off the stage before I ought to have come upon it, it will be necessary to tell you why the said two personages happened to meet just two nights before they were to part for ever; a rencounter that barely enables me to give you a general idea of the former’s person and of his mistress’s-or, as has been supposed, his wife’s.

As I was the youngest by eleven years of Sir Robert Walpole’s children by his first wife, and was extremely weak and delicate, as you see me still, though with no constitutional complaint till I had the gout after forty, and as my two sisters were consumptive and died of consumptions, the supposed necessary care of me (and I have overheard persons saying, “That child cannot possibly live”) so engrossed the attention of my mother, that compassion and tenderness soon became extreme fondness; and as the infinite good-nature of my father never thwarted any of his children, he suffered me to be too much indulged, and permitted her to gratify the first vehement inclination that I ever expressed, and which, as I have never since felt any enthusiasm for royal persons, I must suppose that the female attendants in the family must have put into my head, to long to see the king.  This childish caprice was so strong, that my mother solicited the Duchess of Kendal to obtain for me the honour of kissing his Majesty’s hand before he set out for Hanover.  A favour so unusual to be asked for a boy of ten years old, was still too slight to be refused to the wife of the first minister for her darling child; yet not being proper to be made a precedent, it was settled to be in private, and at night.

Accordingly, the night but one before the king began his last journey, my mother carried me at ten at night to the apartment of the Countess of Walsingham, (59) on the ground floor, towards the garden at St. James’s, which opened into that of her aunt, the Duchess of Kendal’s:  apartments occupied by George ii. after his queen’s death, and by his successive mistresses, the Countesses of Suffolk and Yarmouth.

Notice being given that the king was come down to supper, Lady Walsingham took me alone into the duchess’s ante-room, where we found alone the king and her.  I knelt down, and kissed his hand.  He said a few words to me, and my conductress led me back to my mother (60)

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The person of the king is as perfect in my memory as if I saw him but yesterday.  It was that of an elderly man, rather pale, and exactly like his pictures and coins; Dot tall; of an aspect rather good than august; with a dark tie-wig, a plain coat, waistcoat, and breeches of snuff coloured cloth, with stockings Of the same colour, and a blue riband over all.  So entirely was he my object that I do not believe I once looked at the duchess; but as I could not avoid seeing her on entering the room, I remember that just beyond his Majesty stood a very tall, lean, ill-favoured old lady but I did not retain the least idea of her features, nor know what the colour of her dress was.

My childish loyalty, and the condescension in gratifying it, were, I suppose, causes that contributed, very soon afterwards, to make me shed a flood of tears for that sovereign’s death, when, with the other scholars at Eton college, I walked in procession to the proclamation of the successor; and which (though I think they partly felt because I imagined it became the son of a prime-minister to be more concerned than other boys) were no doubt imputed by many of the spectators who were politicians, to fears of my father’s most probable fall, but of which I had not the smallest conception, nor should have met with any more concern than I did when it really arrived, in the year 1742; by which time I had lost all taste for courts and princes and power, as was natural to one who never felt an ambitious thought for himself.

It must not be inferred from her obtaining this grace for me, that the Duchess of Kendal was a friend to my father; on the contrary, at that moment she had been labouring to displace him, and introduce Lord Bolingbroke (61) into the administration; on which I shall say more hereafter.

It was an instance of Sir Robert’s singular fortune, or evidence of his talents, that he not only preserved his power under two successive monarchs, but in spite of the efforts of both their mistresses (62) to remove him.  It was perhaps still more remarkable, and an instance unparalleled, that Sir Robert governed George the First in Latin, the King not speaking English, (63) and his minister no German, nor even French. (64) It was much talked of, that Sir Robert, detecting one of the Hanoverian ministers in some trick or falsehood before the King’S face, had the firmness to say to the German, “Mentiris, impudentissime!” The good-humoured monarch only laughed, as he often did when Sir Robert complained to him of his Hanoverians selling places, nor would be persuaded that it was not the practice of the English court; and which an incident must have planted in his mind with no favourable impression of English disinterestedness.  “This is a strange country!” said his Majesty; “the first morning after my arrival at St. James’s, I looked out of the window, and saw a park with walks, a canal, etc. which they told me were mine.  The next day,

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Lord Chetwynd, the ranger of my park, sent me a fine brace of carp out of my canal; and I was told I must give five guineas to Lord Chetwynd’s servant for bringing me my own carp out of my own canal in my own park!” I have said, that the Duchess of Kendal was no friend of Sir Robert, and wished to make Lord Bolingbroke minister in his room.  I was too young to know any thing of that reign, nor was acquainted with the political cabals of the court, which, however, I might have learnt from my father in the three years after his retirement; but being too thoughtless at that time, nor having your laudable curiosity, I neglected to inform myself of many passages and circumstances, of which I have often since regretted my faulty ignorance.

By what I can at present recollect, the Duchess seems to have been jealous of Sir Robert’s credit with the King, which he had acquired, not by paying court, but by his superior abilities in the House of Commons, and by his knowledge in finance, of which Lord Sunderland and Craggs had betrayed their ignorance in countennancing the South Sea scheme; and who, though more agreeable to the King, had been forced to give way to Walpole, as the only man capable of repairing that mischief.  The Duchess, too, might be alarmed at his attachment to the Princess of Wales; from whom, in case of the King’s death, her grace could expect no favour.  Of her jealousy I do know the following instance; Queen Anne had bestowed the rangership of Richmond New Park on her relations the Hydes for three lives, one of which was expired.  King George, fond of shooting, bought out the term of the last Earl of Clarendon, and of his son Lord Cornbury, and frequently shot there; having appointed my eldest brother, Lord Walpole, ranger nominally, but my father in reality, wished to hunt there once or twice a week.  The park had run to great decay under the Hydes, nor was there any mansion (65) better than the common lodges of the keepers.  The King ordered a stone lodge designed by Henry, Earl of Pembroke, to be erected for himself, but merely as a banqueting-house, (66) with a large eating-room, kitchen, and necessary offices, where he might dine after his sport.  Sir Robert began another of brick for himself, and the under-ranger, which by degrees, he much enlarged; usually retiring thither from business, or rather, as he said himself, to do more business than he could in town, on Saturdays and Sundays.  On that edifice, on the thatched-house, and other improvements, he laid out fourteen thousand pounds of his own money.  In the meantime, he hired a small house for himself on the hill without the park; and in that small tenement the King did him the honour of dining with him more than once after shooting.  His Majesty, fond of private joviality, (67) was pleased with punch after dinner, and indulged in it freely.  The Duchess, alarmed at the advantage the minister might make of the openness of the King’s heart in those convivial,

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unguarded hours, and at a crisis when she was conscious Sir Robert was apprised of her inimical machinations in favour of Lord Bolingbroke, enjoined the few Germans who accompanied the King at those dinners to prevent his Majesty from drinking too freely.  Her spies obeyed too punctually, and without any address.  The King was offended, and silenced the tools by the coarsest epithets in the German language.  He even, before his departure, ordered Sir Robert to have the stone lodge finished against his return:  no symptom of a falling minister, as has since been supposed Sir Robert then was, and that Lord Bolingbroke was to have replaced him, had the King lived to come back.  But my presumption to the contrary is more strongly corroborated by what had recently passed:  the Duchess had actually prevailed on the King to see Bolingbroke secretly in his closet.  That intriguing Proteus, aware that he might not obtain an audience long enough to efface former prejudices, and make sufficient impression on the King against Sir Robert, and in his own favour, went provided with a memorial, which he left in the closet. and begged his Majesty to peruse coolly at his leisure.  The King kept the paper, but no longer than till he saw Sir Robert, to whom he delivered the poisoned remonstrance.  If that communication prognosticated the minister’s fall, I am at a loss to know what a mark of confidence is.

Nor was that discovery the first intimation that Walpole had received of the measure of Bolingbroke’s gratitude.  The minister, against the earnest representations of his family and Most intimate friends, had consented to the recall of that incendiary from banishment, (68) excepting only his readmission into the House of Lords, that every field of annoyance might not be open to his mischievous turbulence.  Bolingbroke, it seems, deemed an embargo laid on his tongue would warrant his hand to launch every envenomed shaft against his benefactor, who by restricting had paid him the compliment of avowing that his eloquence was not totally inoffensive.  Craftsmen, pamphlet, libels, combinations, were showered on or employed for years against the prime-minister, without shaking his power or ruffling his temper; and Bolingbroke had the mortification of finding his rival had abilities to maintain his influence against the mistresses of two kings, with whom his antagonist had plotted in vain to overturn him. (69)

(57) Charlotte Elizabeth, daughter of the Elector of Bavaria.  In 1671 she became the second wife (his first being poisoned) of the brother of Louis xiv. by whom she was the mother of the regent, Duke of Orleans.  She died in 1722.  A collection of her letters, addressed to Prince Ulric of Brunswick, and to the Princess of Wales, afterwards Queen Caroline, was published at Paris in 1788.-E.

(58) These celebrated M`emoires of the Court of Louis xiv. were first published, in a mutilated state, in 1788.  A complete edition, in thirteen volumes, appeared in 1791.-E.

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(59) Melusina Schulemberg, niece of the Duchess of Kendal, created Countess of Walsingham and -,afterwards married to the famous Philip Stanhope, Earl of Chesterfield.

(60) The following is the account of this introduction given in “Walpoliana:"-"I do remember something of George the First.  My father took me to St. James’s while I was a very little boy; after waiting some time in an anteroom, a gentleman came in all dressed in brown, even his stockings, and with a riband and star.  He took me up in his arms, kissed me, and chatted some time,"-E.

(61) The well-known Henry St. John, Viscount Bolingbroke, secretary of state to Queen Anne; on whose death he fled, and was attainted. ["We have the authority of Sir Robert Walpole himself,” says Coxe, “that the restoration of Lord Bolingbroke was the work of the Duchess of Kendal.  He gained the duchess by a present of eleven thousand pounds, and obtained a promise to use her influence over the King, for the purpose of forwarding his complete restoration.”]

(62) The Duchess of Kendal and Lady Suffolk.

(63) Sir Robert was frequently heard to say, that during the reign of the first George, he governed the kingdom by means of bad Latin:  it is a matter of wonder that, under such disadvantages. the King should take pleasure in transacting business with him:  a circumstance which was principally owing to the method and perspicuity of his calculations, and to the extreme facility with which he arranged and explained the most abstruse and difficult combinations of finance.”  Coxe.-E.

(64) Prince William, afterwards Duke of Cumberland, then a child, being carried to big grandfather on his birthday, the King asked him at what hour he rose.  The Prince replied, “when the chimney-sweepers went about.”  “Vat is de chimney-sweeper?” said the King.  “Have you been so long in England,” said the boy, “and do not know what a chimney-sweeper is?  Why, they are like that man there;” pointing to Lord Finch, afterwards Earl of Winchilsea and Nottingham, of a family uncommonly swarthy and dark-"the black funereal Finches"-Sir Charles Williams’s Ode to a Number of Great Men, 1742.

(65) The Earl of Rochester, who succeeded to the title of Clarendon on the extinction of the elder branch, had a villa close without the park; but it had been burnt down, and only one wing was left.  W. Stanhope, Earl of Harrington, purchased the ruins, and built the house, since bought by Lord Camelford.

(66) It was afterwards enlarged by Princess Amelia; to whom her rather, George ii. had granted the reversion of the rangership after Lord Walpole.  Her Royal Highness sold it to George iii. for a pension on Ireland of twelve hundred pounds a-year, and his Majesty appointed Lord Bute ranger for life.

(67) The King Hated the parade of royalty.  When he went to the opera, it was in no state; nor did he sit in the stage-box, nor forwards, but behind the Duchess of Kendal and Lady Walsingham, in the second box, now allotted to the maids of honour.

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(68) Bolingbroke at his return could not avoid waiting on Sir Robert to thank him, and was Invited to dine with him at Chelsea; but whether tortured at witnessing Walpole’s serene frankness and felicity, or suffocated with indignation and confusion at being forced to be obliged to one whom be hated and envied, the first morsel he put into his mouth was near choking him, and he was reduced to rise from table and leave the room for some minutes.  I never heard of their meeting more.

(69) George ii. parted with Lady Suffolk, on Princess Amelia informing Queen Caroline from Bath, that the mistress had interviews there with Lord Bolingbroke.  Lady Suffolk, above twenty years after, protested to me that she had not once seen his lordship there; and I should believe she did not, for she was a woman of truth:  but her great intimacy and connexion with Pope and Swift, the intimate friends of Bolingbroke, even before the death of George I. and her being the channel through whom that faction had flattered themselves they should gain the ear of the new King, can leave no doubt of Lady Suffolk’s support of that party.  Her dearest friend to her death was William, afterwards Lord Chetwynd, the known and most trusted confidant of Lord Bolingbroke.  Of those political intrigues I shall say more in these Reminiscences.


Marriage of George the First, while Electoral Prince, to the Princess Sophia Dorothea-Assassination of Count Konigsmark-Separation from the Princess-Left-handed Espousal-Piety of the Duchess of Kendal-Confinement and Death of Sophia Dorothea in the Castle of Alden-French Prophetess-The King’s Superstition-Mademoiselle Schulemberg—­Royal Inconstancy-Countess of Platen-Anne Brett—­Sudden Death of George the First.

George the First, while Electoral Prince, had married his cousin, the Princess Dorothea (70) only child of the Duke of Zell; a match of convenience to reunite the dominions of the family.  Though she was very handsome, the Prince, who was extremely amorous, had several mistresses; which provocation, and his absence in the army of the confederates, probably disposed the Princess to indulge some degree of coquetry.  At that moment arrived at Hanover the famous and beautiful Count Konigsmark, (71) the charms of whose person ought not to have obliterated the memory of his vile assassination of Mr. Thynne.(72)His vanity, the beauty of the Electoral Princess, and the neglect under which he found her, encouraged his presumption to make his addresses to her, not covertly; and she, though believed not to have transgressed her duty, did receive them too indiscreetly.  The old Elector flamed at the insolence of so stigmatized a pretender, and ordered him to quit his dominions the next day.  The Princess, surrounded by women too closely connected with her husband, and consequently enemies of the lady they injured, was persuaded by them to suffer

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the count to kiss her hand before his abrupt departure and he was actually introduced by them into her bedchamber the next morning before she rose.  From that moment he disappeared nor was it known what became of him, till on the death of George I., on his son the new King’s first journey to Hanover, some alterations in the palace being ordered by him, the body of Konigsmark was discovered under the floor of the Electoral Princess’s dressing-room-the Count having probably been strangled there the instant he left her, and his body secreted.  The discovery was hushed up; George ii. entrusted the secret to his wife, Queen Caroline, who told it to my father:  but the King was too tender of the honour of his mother to utter it to his mistress; nor did Lady Suffolk ever hear of it, till I informed her of it several years afterwards.  The disappearance of the Count made his murder suspected, and various reports of the discovery of his body have of late years been spread, but not with the authentic circumstances.  The second George loved his mother as much as he hated his father, and purposed, as was said, had the former survived, to have brought her over and declared her Queen Dowager. (73) Lady Suffolk has told me her surprise, on going to the new Queen the morning after the news arrived of the death of George I., at seeing hung up in the Queen’s dressing-room a whole length of a lady in royal robes; and in the bedchamber a half length of the same person, neither of which Lady Suffolk had ever seen before.  The Prince had kept them concealed, not daring to produce them during the life of his father.  The whole length he probably sent to Hanover:  (74) the half length I have frequently and frequently seen in the library of Princess Amelia, who told me it was the portrait of her grandmother. she bequeathed it, with other pictures of her family, to her nephew, the Landgrave of Hesse.

Of the circumstances that ensued on Konigsmark’s disappearance I am ignorant; nor am I acquainted with the laws of Germany relative to divorce or separation:  nor do I know or suppose that despotism and pride allow the law to insist on much formality when a sovereign has reason or mind to get rid of his wife.  Perhaps too much difficulty of untying the Gordian not of matrimony thrown in the way of an absolute prince would be no kindness to the ladies, but might prompt him to use a sharper weapon, like that butchering husband, our Henry viii.  Sovereigns, who narrow or let out the law of God according to their prejudices and passions, mould their own laws no doubt to the standard of their convenience.  Genealogic purity of blood is the predominant folly of Germany; and the code of Malta seems to have more force in the empire than the ten commandments.  Thence was introduced that most absurd evasion of the indissolubility of marriage, espousals with the left hand-as if the Almighty had restrained his ordinance to one half of a man’s person, and allowed a greater latitude

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to his left side than to his right, or pronounced the former more ignoble than the latter.  The consciences both of princely and noble persons in Germany are quieted, if the more plebeian side is married to one who would degrade the more illustrious moiety-but, as if the laws of matrimony had no reference to the children to be thence propagated, the children of a left-handed alliance are not entitled to inherit.  Shocking consequence of a senseless equivocation, that only satisfies pride, not justice; and calculated for an acquittal at the herald’s Office, not at the last tribunal.

Separated the Princess Dorothea certainly was, and never admitted even to the nominal honours of her rank, being thenceforward always styled Duchess of Halle.  Whether divorced (75) is problematic, at least to me; nor can I pronounce, as, though it was generally believed, I am not certain that George espoused the Duchess of Kendal with his left hand.  As the Princess Dorothea died only some months before him, that ridiculous ceremony was scarcely deferred till then; and the extreme outward devotion of the Duchess, who every Sunday went seven times to Lutheran chapels, seemed to announce a realized wife.  As the genuine wife was always detained in her husband’s power, he seems not to have wholly dissolved their union; for, on the approach of the French army towards Hanover, during Queen Anne’s reign, the Duchess of Halle was sent home to her father and mother, who doted on their only child, and did retain her for a whole year, and did implore, though in vain that she might continue to reside with them.  As her son too, George ii., had thoughts of bringing her over and declaring her Queen Dowager, one can hardly believe that a ceremonial divorce had passed, the existence of which process would have glared in the face of her royalty.  But though German casuistry might allow her husband to take another wife with his left hand, because his legal wife had suffered her right hand to be kissed in bed by a gallant, even Westphalian or Aulic counsellors could not have pronounced that such a momentary adieu constituted adultery; and therefore of a formal divorce I must doubt-and there I must leave that case of conscience undecided, till future search into the Hanoverian chancery shall clear up a point of little real importance.

I have said that the disgraced Princess died but a short time before the King. (76) It is known that in Queen Anne’s time there was much noise about French prophets.  A female of that vocation (for we know from Scripture that the gift of prophecy is not limited to one gender) warned George I. to take care of his wife, as he would not survive her a year.  That oracle was probably dictated to the French Deborah by the Duke and Duchess of Zell, ‘who might be apprehensive lest the’ Duchess of Kendal should be tempted to remove entirely the obstacle to her conscientious union with their son-in-law.  Most Germans are superstitious, even such as have few other

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impressions of religion.  George gave such credit to the denunciation, that on the eve of his last departure he took leave of his son and the Princess of Wales with tears, telling them he should never see them more.  It was certainly his own approaching fate that melted him, not the thought of quitting for ever two persons he hated.  He did sometimes so much justice to his son as to say, “Il est fougueux, mais il a de l’honneur."-For Queen Caroline, to his confidants he termed her “cette diablesse Madame la Princesse.”

I do not know whether it was about the same period, that in a tender mood he promised the Duchess of Kendal, that if she survived him, and it were possible for the departed to return to this world, he would make her a visit.  The Duchess, on his death, so much expected the accomplishment of that engagement, that a large raven, or some black fowl, flying into one of the windows of her villa at Isteworth, she was persuaded it was the soul of her departed monarch so accoutred, and received and treated it with all the respect and tenderness of duty, till the royal bird or she took their last flight.

George ii., no more addicted than his father to too much religious credulity, had yet implicit faith in the German notion of vampires, and has more than once been angry with my father for speaking irreverently of those imaginary bloodsuckers.

the Duchess of Kendal, of whom I have said so much, was when Mademoiselle Schulemberg, maid of honour to the Electress Sophia, mother of King George I. and destined by King William and the Act of Settlement to succeed Queen Anne.  George fell in love with Mademoiselle Schulemberg, though by no means an inviting object-so little, that one evening when she was in waiting behind the Electress’s chair at a ball, the Princess Sophia, who had made herself mistress of the language of her future subjects, said in English to Mrs. Howard, afterwards Countess of Suffolk, then at her court, “Look at that mawkin, and think of her being my son’s passion!” Mrs. Howard, who told me the story, protested that she was terrified, forgetting that Mademoiselle Schulemberg did not understand English.

The younger Mademoiselle Schulemberg, who came over with her and was created Countess Walsingham, passed for her niece; but was so like to the King that it is not very credible that the Duchess, who had affected to pass for cruel, had waited for the left-handed marriage.

The Duchess under whatever denomination, had attained and preserved to the last her ascendant over the king:  but notwithstanding that influence, he was not more constant to her than he had been to his avowed wife; for another acknowledged mistress, whom he also brought over, was Madame Kilmansegge, Countess of Platen, who was created Countess of Darlington, and by whom he was indisputably father of Charlotte, married to Lord Viscount Howe, and mother of the present earl. (77) Lady Howe was never publicly acknowledged as the Kings daughter; but Princess Amelia, (78) treated her daughter, Mrs. Howe, (79) upon that foot, and one evening, when I was present, gave her a ring, with a small portrait of George I, with a crown of diamonds.

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Lady Darlington, whom I saw at my mother’s in my infancy, and whom I remember by being terrified at her enormous figure, was as corpulent and ample as the Duchess was long and emaciated.  Two fierce black eyes, large and rolling beneath two lofty arched eyebrows, two acres of cheeks spread with crimson, an ocean of neck that overflowed and was not distinguished from the lower part of her body, and no part restrained by stays 80) no wonder that a child dreaded such an ogress, and that the mob of London were highly diverted at the importation of so uncommon a seraglio!  They were food from all the venom of the Jacobites; and, indeed nothing could be grosser than the ribaldry that was vomited out in lampoons, libels, and every channel of abuse, against the sovereign and the new court, and chaunted even in their hearing about the public streets. (81)

On the other hand, it was not till the last year or two of his reign that their foreign sovereign paid the nation the compliment of taking openly an English mistress.  That personage was Anne Brett, eldest daughter by her second husband, (82) of the repudiated wife of the Earl Of Macclesfield, the unnatural mother of Savage the poet.  Miss Brett was very handsome, but dark enough by her eyes, complexion, and hair, for a Spanish beauty.  Abishag was lodged in the palace under the eyes of Bathsheba, who seemed to maintain her power, as other favourite sultanas have done, by suffering partners in the sovereign’s affections.  When his Majesty should return to England, a countess’s coronet was to have rewarded the young lady’s compliance, and marked her secondary rank.  She might, however, have proved a troublesome rival, as she seemed so confident of the power of her charms, that whatever predominant ascendant the Duchess might retain, her own authority in the palace she thought was to yield to no one else.  George I., when his son the Prince of Wales and the Princess had quitted St. James’s on their quarrel with him, had kept back their three eldest daughters, who lived with him to his death, even after there had outwardly been a reconciliation between the King and Prince.  Miss Brett, when the King set out, ordered a door to be broken out of her apartment into the royal garden.  Anne, the eldest of the Princesses, offended at that freedom, and not choosing such a companion in her walks, ordered the door to be walled up again.  Miss Brett as imperiously reversed that command.  The King died suddenly, and the empire of the new mistress and her promised coronet vanished.  She afterwards married Sir William Leman, and was forgotten before her reign had transpired beyond the confines of Westminster! (70) Her names were Sophia Dorothea ; but I call her by the latter, to distinguish her from the Princess Sophia, her mother-in-law, on whom the crown of Great Britain was settled. (71) Konigsmark behaved with great intrepidity, and was wounded at a bull-feast in Spain.  See Letters

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from Spain of the Contesse D’Anois, vol. ii.  He was brother of the beautiful Comtesse de Konigsmark, mistress of Augustus the Second, King of Poland. (72) It was not this Count Konigsmark, but an elder brother, who was accused of having suborned Colonel Vratz, Lieutenant Stern, and one George Boroskey, to murder Mr. Thynne in Pall-Mall, on the 12th of February, 1682, and for which they were executed in that street on the 10th of March.  For the particulars, see Howell’s State Trials, vol. ix. p. 1, and Sir John Reresby’s Memoirs, p. 135.  “This day,” says Evelyn, in his Diary of the 10th of March, “was executed Colonel Vrats, for the execrable murder of Mr. Thynne, set on by the principal, Konigsmark:  he went to execution like an undaunted hero, as one that had done a friendly office for that base coward, Count Konigsmark, who had hopes to marry his widow, the rich Lady Ogle, and was acquitted by a corrupt jury, and so got away:  Vrats told a friend of mine, who accompanied him to the gallows, and gave him some advice, that he did not value dying of a rush, and hoped and believed God would deal with him like a gentleman.”  Mr. Thynne was buried in Westminster Abbey; the manner of his death being represented on his monument.  He was the Issachar of Absalom and Achitophel; in which poem Dryden, describing the respect and favour with which Monmouth was received upon his progress in the year 1691, Says:  “Hospitable hearts did most commend Wise Issachar, his wealthy, western friend.”

Reresby states, that Lady Ogle, immediately after the marriage, “repenting herself of the match, fled from him into Holland, before they were bedded.”  This circumstance added to the fact, that Mr. Thynne had formerly seduced Miss Trevor, one of the maids of honour to Catherine of Portugal, wife of Charles ii., gave birth to the following lines: 

“Here lies Tom Thynne, of Longleat Hall,
Who never would have miscarried,
Had he married the woman he lay withal,
Or lain with the woman he married.”

On the 30th of May, in the same year, Lady Ogle was married to
Charles Seymour, Duke of Somerset.-E.

(73) Lady Suffolk thought he rather would have her regent of Hanover; and she also told me, that George I. had offered to live again with his wife, but she refused, unless her pardon were asked publicly.  She said, what most affected her was the disgrace that would be brought on her children; and if she were only pardoned, that would not remove it.  Lady Suffolk thought she was then divorced, though the divorce was never published; and that the old Elector consented to his son’s marrying the Duchess of Kendal with the left hand-but it seems strange, that George I. should offer to live again with his wife, and yet be divorced front her.  Perhaps George ii. to vindicate his mother, supposed that offer and her spirited refusal.

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(74) George ii. was scrupulously exact in separating and keeping in each country whatever belonged to England or Hanover.  Lady Suffolk told me, that on his accession he could not find a knife, fork, and spoon of gold which had belonged to Queen Ann(@, and which he remembered to have seen here at his first -arrival.  He found them at Hanover on his first journey thither after he came to the crown, and brought them back to England.  He could not recollect much of greater value; for, on Queen Anne’s death, and in the interval before the arrival of the new family, such a clearance had been made of her Majesty’s jewels, or the new King so instantly distributed what he found amongst his German favourites, that, as Lady S. told me, Queen Caroline never obtained of the late Queen’s.jewels but one pearl necklace.

(75) George I., says Coxe, who never loved his wife, gave implicit credit to the account of her infidelity, as related by his father; consented to her imprisonment, and obtained from the ecclesiastical consistory a divorce, which was passed on the 28th of December 1694.”  Memoirs of Walpole.-E.

(76) “the unfortunate Sophia was confined in the castle of Alden, situated on the small river Aller, in the duchy of Zell.  She terminated her miserable existence, after a long captivity of thirty-two years, on the 13th of November 1726, only seven months before the death of George the First; and she was announced in the Gazette, under the title of the Electress Dowager of Hanover.  During her whole confinement she behaved with no less mildness than dignity; and, on receiving the sacrament once every week, never omitted making the most solemn asseverations, that she was not guilty of the crime laid to her charge.”  Coxe, vol. i. p. 268.-E.

(77) Admiral Lord Howe, and also of sir William, afterwards Viscount Howe.-E.

(78) Second daughter of George the Second; born in 1711, died October the 31st, 1786.

(79) Caroline, the eldest of Lady Howe’s children, had married a gentleman of her own name, John Howe, Esq, of Honslop, in the county of Bucks.

(80) According to Coxe, she was, when young, a woman of great beauty, but became extremely corpulent as she advanced in years.  “Her power over the King,” he adds, “was not equal to that of the Duchess of Kendal, but her character for rapacity was not inferior.”  On the death of her husband, in 1721, she was created Countess of Leinster in the kingdom of Ireland, Baroness of Brentford, and Countess of Darlington.-E.

(81) One of the German ladies, being abused by the mob, was said to have put her head out of the coach, and cried in bad English, “Good people, why you abuse us?  We come for all your goods.”  “Yes, damn ye,” answered a fellow in the crowd, “and for all our chattels too.”  I mention this because on the death of Princess Amelia the newspapers revived the story and told it of her, though I had heard it threescore years before of one of her grandfather’s mistresses.

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(82) Colonel Brett, the companion of Wycherley, Steele, Davenant, etc. and of whom the following particulars are recorded by Spence, on the authority of Dr. Young:-"The Colonel was a remarkably handsome man.  The Countess looking out of her window on a great disturbance in the street, saw him assaulted by some bailiffs, who were going to arrest him.  She paid his debt, released him from their pursuit, and soon after married him.  When she died, she left him more than he expected; with which he bought an estate in the country, built a very handsome house upon it, and furnished it in the highest taste; went down to see the finishing of it, returned to London in hot weather and in too much hurry; got a fever by it, and died.  Nobody had a better taste of what would please the town, and his opinion was much regarded by the actors and dramatic poets.”  Anecdotes, p. 355.-E.


Quarrel between George the First and his Son-Earl of
Sunderland-Lord Stanhope-South Sea Scheme-Death of Craggs-Royal
Reconcilement-Peerage Bill defeated-Project for seizing the
Prince of Wales and conveying him to America-Duke of
Newcastle-Royal Christening-Open Rupture-Prince and Princess of
Wales ordered to leave the Palace.

One of the most remarkable occurrences in the reign of George I. was the open quarrel between him and his son the Prince of Wales.  Whence the dissension originated; whether the prince’s attachment to his mother embittered his mind against his father, or whether hatred of’ his father occasioned his devotion to her, I do not pretend to know.  I do suspect front circumstances, that the hereditary enmity in the House of Brunswick between the parents and their eldest sons dated earlier than the divisions between the first two Georges.  The Princess Sophia was a woman of parts and great vivacity:  in the earlier part of her life she had professed much zeal for the deposed House of Stuart, as appeared by a letter of hers in print, addressed to the Chevalier de St. George.  It is natural enough for all princes,-who have no prospect of being benefited by the deposition of a crowned head, to choose to think royalty an indelible character.  The Queen of Prussia, daughter of George I. lived and died an avowed Jacobite.  The Princess Sophia, youngest child of the Queen of Bohemia, was consequently the most remote from any pretensions to the British crown; (83) but no sooner had King William procured a settlement of it after Queen Anne on her Electoral Highness, than nobody became a stancher Whig than the Princess Sophia, nor could be more impatient to mount the throne of the expelled Stuarts.  It is certain, that during the reign of Anne, the Elector George was inclined to the Tories, though-after his mother’s death and his own accession he gave himself to the opposite party.  But if be and his mother espoused different factions, Sophia found a ready partisan in her grandson,

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the Electoral prince; (84) and it is true, that the demand made by the Prince of his writ of summons to the House of Lords as Duke of Cambridge, which no wonder was so offensive to Queen Anne, was made in concert with his grandmother, without the privity of the Elector his father.  Were it certain, as was believed, that Bolingbroke and the Jacobites prevailed on the Queen 85) to consent to her brother coming secretly to England, and to seeing him in her closet; she might have been induced to that step, when provoked by an attempt to force a distant and foreign heir upon her while still alive.  The Queen and her heiress being dead, the new King and his son came over in apparent harmony; and on his Majesty’s first visit to his electoral dominions, the Prince of Wales was even left Regent; but never being trusted afterwards with that dignity on like occasions, it is probable that the son discovered too much fondness for acting the king, or that the father conceived a jealousy of his son having done so.  Sure it is, that on the King’s return great divisions arose in the court; and the Whigs were divided-some devoting themselves to the wearer of the crown, and others to the expectant.  I shall not enter into the detail of those squabbles, of which I am but superficially informed.  The predominant ministers were the Earls of Sunderland and Stanhope.  The brothers-in-law, the Viscount Townshend and Mr. Robert Walpole, adhered to the Prince.  Lord Sunderland is said to have too much resembled as a politician the earl his father, who was so principal an actor in the reign of James II. and in bringing about the Revolution.  Between the earl in question and the Prince of Wales grew mortal antipathy; of which -,in anecdote told me by my father himself will leave no doubt.  When a reconciliation had been patched up between the two courts, and my father became first lord of the treasury a second time, Lord Sunderland in a t`ete-`a-t`ete with him said, “Well, Mr. Walpole, we have settled matters for the present; but we must think whom we shall have next” (meaning in case of the King’s demise).  Walpole said, “Your lordship may think as you please, but my part is taken;” meaning to support the established settlement.

Earl Stanhope was a man of strong and violent passions, and had dedicated himself to the army; and was so far from thinking of any other line, that when Walpole, who first suggested the idea of appointing him secretary of state, proposed it to him, he flew into a furious rage, and was on the point of a downright quarrel, looking on himself’ as totally unqualified for the post, and suspecting it for a plan of mocking him.  He died in one of those tempestuous sallies, being pushed in the House of Lords on the explosion of the South Sea scheme.  That iniquitous affair, which Walpole had early exposed, and to remedy the mischiefs of which he alone was deemed adequate, had replaced him at the head of affairs, and obliged Sunderland

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to submit to be only a coadjutor of the administration.  The younger Craggs, (86) a showy vapouring man, had been brought forward by the ministers to oppose Walpole; but was soon reduced to beg his assistance on one (87) of their ways and means.  Craggs caught his death by calling at the gate of Lady March, (88) who was ill of the small-pox; and being told so by the porter, went home directly, fell ill of the same distemper, and died.  His father, the elder Craggs, whose very good sense Sir R. Walpole much admired, soon followed his son, and his sudden death was imputed to grief; but having been deeply dipped in the iniquities of the South Sea, and wishing to prevent confiscation and save his ill-acquired wealth for his daughters, there was no doubt of his having despatched himself.  When his death was divulged, Sir Robert Owned that the unhappy man had in an oblique manner hinted his resolution to him.  The reconciliation of the royal family was so little cordial, that I question whether the Prince did not resent Sir Robert Walpole’s return to the King’s service.  Yet had Walpole defeated a plan of Sunderland that @would in future have exceedingly hampered the successor, as it was calculated to do; nor do I affect to ascribe Sir Robert’s victory directly to zeal for the Prince:  personal and just views prompted his opposition, and the commoners of England were not less indebted to him than the Prince.  Sunderland had devised a bill to restrain the crown from ever adding above six peers to a number limited., (89) The actual peers were far from disliking the measure; but Walpole, taking fire, instantly communicated his dissatisfaction to all the great commoners, who might for ever be excluded from the peerage.  He spoke, he wrote, (90) he persuaded, and the bill was rejected by the Commons with disdain, after it had passed the House of Lords. (91)

But the hatred of some of the junta at court had gone farther, horribly farther.  On the death of George 1.  Queen Caroline found in his cabinet a proposal of the Earl of Berkeley, (92) then, I think, first lord of the admiralty, to seize the Prince of Wales, and convey him to America, whence he should never be heard of more.  This detestable project copied probably from the Earl of Falmouth’s offer to Charles ii. with regard to his Queen, was in the handwriting of Charles Stanhope, elder brother of the Earl of Harrington:  (93) and so deep was the impression deservedly made on the mind of George ii. by that abominable paper, that all the favour of Lord Harrington, when secretary of state, could never obtain the smallest boon to his brother, though but the subordinate transcriber. (94) George I. was too humane to listen to such an atrocious deed.  It was not very kind to the conspirators to leave such an instrument behind him; and if virtue and conscience will not check bold bad men from paying court by detestable offers, the King’s carelessness or indifference in such an instance ought to warn them of the little gratitude that such machinations can inspire or expect.

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Among those who had preferred the service of the King to that of the heir apparent, was the Duke of Newcastle;, (95) Who, having married his sister to Lord Townshend, both his royal highness and the viscount had expected would have adhered to that connexion-and neither forgave his desertion.-I am aware of the desultory manner in which I have told my story, having mentioned the reconciliation of the King and Prince before I have given any account of their public rupture.  The chain of my thoughts led me into the preceding details, and, if I do not flatter myself, will have let you into the motives of my dramatis personae better than if I had ’more exactly observed chronology.- and as I am not writing a regular tragedy, and profess but to relate facts as I recollect them; or (if you will allow me to imitate French writers of tragedy) may I not plead that I have unfolded my piece as they do, by introducing two courtiers to acquaint one another, and by bricole the audience, with what had passed in the penetralia before the tragedy commences?

The exordium thus duly prepared, you must suppose, ladies, that the second act opens with a royal christening The Princess of Wales had been delivered of a second son.  The Prince had intended his uncle, the Duke of York, Bishop of Osnaburg, should with his Majesty be godfathers.  Nothing could equal the indignation of his Royal Highness when the King named the Duke of Newcastle for second sponsor, and would hear of no other.  The christening took place as usual in the Princess’s bedchamber.  Lady Suffolk, then in waiting as woman of the bedchamber, and of most accurate memory painted the scene to me exactly.  On one side of the bed stood the godfathers and godmother; on the other the Prince and the Princess’s ladies.  No sooner had the Bishop closed the ceremony, than the Prince, crossing the feet of the bed in a rage, stepped up to the Duke of Newcastle, and, holding up his hand and fore-finger in a menacing attitude, said, “You are a rascal, but I shall find you,” meaning, in broken English, “I shall find a time to be revenged."-"What was my astonishment,” continued Lady Suffolk, “when going to the Princess’s apartment the next morning, the yeOMen in the guard-chamber pointed their halberds at my breast, and told me I must not pass!  I urged that it was my duty to attend the Princess.  They said, ’No matter; I must not pass that way.’”

In one word, the King had been so provoked at the Prince’s outrage in his presence, that it had been determined to inflict a still greater insult on his Royal Highness.  His threat to the Duke was pretended to be understood as a challenge; and to prevent a duel he had actually been put under arrest-as if a Prince of Wales could stoop to fight with a subject.  The arrest was soon taken off; but at night the Prince and Princess were ordered to leave the palace, (96) and retired to the house of her chamberlain, the Earl of Grantham, in Albemarle Street.

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(83) It is remarkable, that either the weak propensity of the Stuarts to popery, or the visible connexion between regal and ecclesiastic power, had such operation on many of the branches of that family, who were at a distance from the crown of England, to wear which it is necessary to be a Protestant, that two or three of the daughters of the king and Queen of Bohemia, though their parents had lost every thing in the struggle between the two religions, turned Roman Catholics; and so did one or more of the sons of the Princess Sophia, brothers of the Protestant candidate, George I.

(84) Afterwards George ii.

(85) I believe it was a fact, that the poor weak Queen, being disposed even to cede the crown to her brother, consulted Bishop Wilkins, called the Prophet, to know what would be the consequence of such a step.  He replied, “Madam, you would be in the Tower in a month, and dead in three.”  This Sentence, dictated by common sense, her Majesty took for inspiration, and dropped all thoughts of resigning the crown.

86) James Craggs, Jun, buried in Westminster Abbey, with an epitaph by Pope. [Craggs died on the 16th of February, 1721.  His monument was executed by Guelphi, whom Lord Burlington invited into the kingdom.  Walpole considered it graceful and simple, but that the artist was an indifferent sculptor.  Dr. Johnson objects to Pope’s inscription, that it is partly in Latin and partly in English.  “If either language,” he says, “be preferable to the other, let that only be used; for no reason can be given why part of the information should be given in one tongue, and part in another, on a tomb more than in any other place or any other occasion:  such an epitaph resembles the conversation of a foreigner, who tells part of his meaning by words, and conveys part by signs.”]

(87) I think it was the sixpenny tax on offices.

(88) Sarah Cadogan, afterwards Duchess of Richmond.

(89) Queen Anne’s creation of twelve peers at once, to obtain a majority in the House of Lords, offered an ostensible plea for the restrictions.

(90) Sir Robert published a pamphlet against the bill, entitled, “The Thoughts of a Member of the Lower House, in relation to a project for restraining and limiting the powers of the Crown in the future creation of Peers.”  On the other side, Addison’s pen was employed in defending the measure, in a paper called “The Old Whig,” against Steele, who attacked it in a pamphlet entitled “The Plebeian."-E.

(91) The effect of Sir Robert’s speech on the House,” says Coxe, “exceeded the sanguine expectations:  it fixed those who had before been wavering and irresolute, brought over many who had been tempted by the speciousness of the measure to favour introduction, and procured its rejection, by a triumphant majority of 269 against 177.”  Memoirs, Vol. i.-E.

(92) James, third Earl of Berkeley. knight of the garter, etc.  In March 1718, he was appointed first lord of the admiralty, in which post he continued all the reign of George the First.  He died at the castle of Aubigny in France in 1736.]

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(93) William Stanhope, first Earl of Harrington of that family.

(94) Coxe states, that such was the indignation which the perusal of this paper excited, that, when Sir Robert espoused Charles Stanhope’s interest, the King rejected the application with some expressions of resentment, and declared that no consideration should induce him to assign to him any place of trust or honour.- E.

(95) Thomas Holles Pelham, Duke of Newcastle, lord chamberlain, then secretary of state, and lastly, first lord of the treasury under George ii.; the same King to whom he had been so obnoxious in the preceding reign.  He was obliged by George iii. to resign his post.

(96) “Notice was also formally given that no persons who paid their respects to the Prince and Princess of Wales would be received at court; and they were deprived of their guard, and of all other marks of distinction.”  Coxe, vol. i. p. 132.-E.


Bill of Pains and Penalties against Bishop Atterbury-Projected
Assassination of Sir Robert Walpole-Revival of the Order of the
Bath-Instance of George the First’s good-humoured Presence of

As this trifling work is a miscellany of detached recollections, I will, ere I quit the article of George I., mention two subjects of very unequal import, which belong peculiarly to his reign.  The first was the deprivation of Atterbury, Bishop of Rochester.  Nothing more offensive to men of priestly principles could easily have happened:  yet, as in a country of which the constitution was founded on rational and liberal grounds, and where thinking men had so recently exerted themselves to explode the prejudices attached to the persons of Kings and churchmen, it was impossible to defend the Bishop’s treason but by denying it; or to condemn his condemnation, but by supposing illegalities in the process:  both were vehemently urged by his faction, as his innocence was pleaded by himself.  That punishment and expulsion from his country may stagger the virtue even of a good man, and exasperate him against his country, is perhaps natural, and humanity ought to Pity it.  But whatever were the prepossessions of his friends in his favour, charity must now believe that Atterbury was always an ambitious, turbulent priest, attached to the House of Stuart, and consequently no friend to the civil and religious liberties of his country; or it must be acknowledged, that the disappointment of his ambition by the Queen’s death, and the proscription of his ministerial associates, had driven on attempts to restore the expelled family in hopes of realizing his aspiring views.  His letters published by Nichols breathe the impetuous spirit of his youth.  His exclamation on the Queen’s death, when he offered to proclaim the Pretender at Charing Cross in pontificalibus, and swore, on not being supported, that there was the best cause in

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England lost for want of spirit, is now believed also.  His papers, deposited with King James’s in the Scottish College at Paris, proclaimed in what sentiments he died; and the facsimiles of his letters published by Sir David Dalrymple leave no doubt of his having in his exile entered into the service of the Pretender.  Culpable -is he was, who but must lament that so classic a mind had only assumed so elegant and amiable a semblance as he adopted after the disappointment of his prospects and hopes?  His letter in defence of the authenticity of Lord Clarendon’s History, is one of the most beautiful and touching specimens of eloquence in our language.

It was not to load the character of the bishop, nor to affect candour by applauding his talents, that I introduced mention of him, much less to impute to him -,my consciousnesses of the intended crime that I am going to relate.  The person against whom the blow was supposed to be meditated never, in the most distant manner, suspected the bishop of being privy to the plot-No:  animosity of parties, and malevolence to the champions of the House of Brunswick, no doubt suggested to some blind zealots the perpetration of a crime which would necessarily have injured the bishop’s cause, and could by no means have prevented his disgrace.

Mr. Johnstone, an ancient gentleman, who had been secretary of state for Scotland, his country, in the reign of King William, was a zealous friend of my father, Sir Robert, and who, in that period of assassination plots, had imbibed such a tincture of suspicion that he was continually notifying similar machinations to my father, and warning him. to be on his guard against them.  Sir Robert, intrepid and unsuspicious, (97) used to rally his good monitor; and, when serious, told him that his life was too constantly exposed to his enemies to make it of any use to be watchful on any particular occasion; nor, though Johnstone often hurried to him with intelligence of such designs, did he ever see reason, but once, to believe in the soundness of the information.  That once arrived thus:  a day or two before the bill of pains and penalties was to pass the House of Commons against the Bishop of Rochester, Mr. Johnstone advertised Sir Robert to be circumspect, for three or four persons meditated to assassinate him as he should leave the house at night.  Sir Robert laughed, and forgot the notice.  The morning after the debate, Johnstone came to Sir Robert with a kind of good-natured insult, telling him, that though he had scoffed his advice, he had for once followed it, and by so doing preserved his life.  Sir Robert understood not what he meant, and protested he had not given more credit than usual. to his warning.  “Yes,” said Johnstone, “but you did; for you did not come from the House last night in your own chariot.”  Walpole affirmed that he did; but his friend persisting in his asseveration, Sir Robert called one of the footmen, who replied, “I did call up your honour’s

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carriage; but Colonel Churchill being with you, and his chariot driving up first, your honour stepped into that, and your own came home empty.”  Johnstone, triumphing on his own veracity, and pushing the examination farther, Sir Robert’s coachman recollected that, as he left Palace-yard, three men, much muffled, had looked into the empty chariot.  The mystery was never farther cleared up; and my father frequently said it was the only instance of the kind in which he had ever seen any appearance of a real design.

The second subject that I promised to mention, and it shall be very briefly, was the revival of the Order of the Bath.  It was the measure of Sir Robert Walpole, and was an artful bank of thirty-six ribands to supply a fund of favours in lieu of places.  He meant, too, to stave off the demand for garters, and intended that the red should be a step to the blue, and accordingly took one of the former himself.  He offered the new order to old Sarah, Duchess of Marlborough, for her grandson the duke, and for the Duke of Bedford, who had married one of her grand-daughters. (98) She haughtily replied, they should take nothing but the garter.  “Madam,” said Sir Robert coolly, “they who take the bath will the sooner have the garter.”  The next year he took the latter himself with the Duke of Richmond, both having been previously installed knights of the revived institution.

Before I quit King George I. I will relate a story, very expressive of his good-humoured presence of mind.

On one of his journeys to Hanover his coach broke.  At a distance in view was the chateau of a considerable German nobleman.  The king sent to borrow assistance.  The possessor came, conveyed the king to his house, and begged the honour of his Majesty’s accepting a dinner while his carriage was repairing; and, while the dinner was preparing, begged leave to amuse his Majesty with a collection of pictures which he had formed in several tours to Italy.  But what did the king see in one of the rooms but an unknown portrait of a person in the robes and with the regalia of the sovereigns of Great Britain!  George asked whom it represented.  The nobleman replied, with much diffident but decent respect, that in various journeys to Rome he had been acquainted with the Chevalier de St. George. who had done him the honour of sending him that picture.  “Upon my word,” said the king instantly, “it is very like to the family.”  It was impossible to remove the embarrassment of the proprietor with more good breeding.

(97) At the time of the Preston rebellion, a Jacobite, who sometimes furnished Sir Robert with intelligence, sitting alone with him one night, suddenly putting his hand into his bosom and rising, said, “Why do not I kill you now?” Walpole starting up, replied, “Because I am a younger man and a stronger.”  They sat down again, and discussed the person’s information But Sir Robert afterwards had reasons for thinking that the spy had no intention of assassination,

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but had hoped, by intimidating, to extort money from him.  Yet if no real attempt was made on his life, it was not from want of suggestions to it:  one of the weekly journals pointed out Sir Robert’s frequent passing a Putney bridge late at night, attended but by one or two servants, on his way to New Park, as a proper place; and after Sir Robert’s death, the second Earl of Egmont told me, that he was once at a consultation of the Opposition, in which it was proposed to have Sir Robert murdered by a mob, of which the earl had declared his abhorrence.  Such an attempt was actually made in 1733, at the time of the famous excise bill.  As the minister descended the stairs of the House of commons on the night he carried the bill, he was guarded on one side by his second son Edward, and on the other by General Charles Churchill; but the crowd behind endeavoured to throw him down, as he was a bulky man, and trample him to death; and that not succeeding, they tried to strangle him by pulling his red cloak tight-but fortunately the strings broke by the violence of the tug.

(98) Wriothesly, Duke of Bedford, had married Lady Anne Egerton, only daughter of Scroop, Duke of Bridgewater, by Lady Elizabeth Churchill, daughter of John, Duke of Marlborough.  See vol.  I. 8.


Accession of George the Second-Sir Spencer Compton-Expected Change in Administration-Continuation of Lord Townshend-and Sir Robert Walpole by the Intervention of Queen Caroline-Mrs. Howard, afterwards Countess of Suffolk-Her character by Swift-and by Lord Chesterfield.

The unexpected death of George I. on his road to Hanover was instantly notified by Lord Townshend, secretary of state, who attended his Majesty, to his brother Sir Robert Walpole, who as expeditiously was the first to carry the news to the successor and hail him King.  The next step was, to ask who his Majesty would please should draw his speech to the Council.  “Sir Spencer Compton,” replied the new monarch.  The answer was decisive, and implied Sir Robert’s dismission.  Sir Spencer Compton was Speaker of the House of Commons, and treasurer, I think, at that time, to his Royal Highness, who by that first command, implied his intention of making Sir Spencer his prime-minister.  He was a worthy man, of exceedingly grave formality, but of no parts, as his conduct immediately proved.  The poor gentleman was so little qualified to accommodate himself to the grandeur of the moment, and to conceive how a new sovereign should address himself to his ministers, and he had also been so far from meditating to supplant the premier,(99) that, in his distress, it was to Sir Robert himself that he had recourse, and whom he besought to make the draught of the Kin(,’s speech for him.  The new Queen, a better judge than her husband of the capacities of the two candidates, and who had silently watched for a moment proper for overturning the new designations, did not lose a moment

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in observing to the King how prejudicial it would be to his affairs to prefer to the minister in possession a man in whose own judgment his predecessor was the fittest person to execute his office.  From that moment there was no more question of Sir Spencer Compton as prime-minister.  He was created an earl, soon received the garter, and became president of that council, at the head of which he was much fitter to sit than to direct.  Fourteen years afterwards, he was again nominated by the same Prince to replace Sir Robert as first lord of the treasury on the latter’s forced resignation, but not prime-minister; the conduct of affairs being soon ravished from him by that dashing genius the Earl of Granville, who reduced him to a cipher for the little year in which he survived, and in which his incapacity had been obvious.

The Queen, impatient to destroy all hopes of change, took the earliest opportunity of declaring her own sentiments.  The instance I shall cite will be a true picture of courtiers.  Their Majesties had removed from Richmond to their temporary palace in Leicester-fields(100)on the very evening of their receiving notice of their accession to the Crown, and the next day all the nobility and gentry in town crowded to kiss their hands; my mother amongst the rest, who, Sir Spencer Compton’s designation, and not its evaporation, being known, could not make her way between the scornful backs and elbows of her late devotees, nor could approach nearer to the Queen than the third or fourth row; but no sooner was she descried by her Majesty than the Queen said aloud, “There, I am sure, I see a friend!” The torrent divided and shrunk to either side; “and as I came away,” said my mother, “I might have walked over their heads if I had pleased.”

The preoccupation of the Queen in favour of Walpole must be explained.  He had early discovered that, in whatever gallantries George Prince of Wales indulged or affected, even the person of his Princess was dearer to him than any charms in his mistresses; and though Mrs. Howard (afterwards Lady Suffolk) was openly his declared favourite, as avowedly as the Duchess of Kendal was his father’s, Sir Robert’s sagacity discerned that the power would be lodged with the wife, not with the mistress; and he not only devoted himself to the Princess; but totally abstained from even visiting Mrs. Howard; while the injudicious multitude concluded. that the common consequences of an inconstant husband’s passion ’for his concubine would follow, and accordingly warmer, if not public vows were made to the supposed favourite, than to the Prince’s consort.  They, especially, who in the late reign had been out of favour at court, had, to pave their future path to favour, and to secure the fall of Sir Robert Walpole, sedulously, and no doubt zealously, dedicated themselves to the mistress:  Bolingbroke secretly, his friend Swift openly, and as ambitiously, cultivated Mrs. Howard; and the neighbourhood of Pope’s

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villa to Richmond facilitated their intercourse, though his religion forbade his entertaining views beyond those of serving his friends.  Lord Bathurst, another of that connexion, and Lord Chesterfield, too early for his interest, founded their hopes on Mrs. Howard’s influence; but astonished and disappointed at finding Walpole not shaken from his seat, they determined on an experiment that should be the touchstone of Mrs. Howard’s credit.  They persuaded her to demand of the new King an Earl’s coronet for Lord Bathurst.  She did-the Queen put in her veto, and Swift, in despair, returned to Ireland, to lament Queen Anne, and curse Queen Caroline, under the mask of patriotism, in a country he abhorred and despised.(101)

To Mrs. Howard, Swift’s ingratitude was base.  She, indubitably, had not only exerted all her interest to second his and his faction’s interests, but loved Queen Caroline and the minister as little as they did; yet, when Swift died, he left behind him a Character of Mrs. Howard by no means flattering, which was published in his posthumous works.

On its appearance, Mrs. Howard (become Lady Suffolk) said to me, in her calm, dispassionate manner, “All I can say is, that it is very different from one that he drew of me, and sent to me, many years ago, and which I have, written by his own hand."(102

Lord Chesterfield, rather more ingenuous-as his character of her, but under a feigned name, was printed in his life, though in a paper of which he was not known to be the author-was not more consistent.  Eudosia, described in the weekly journal called Common Sense, for September 10, 1737, was meant for Lady Suffolk:  yet was it no fault of hers that he was proscribed at court; nor did she perhaps ever know, as he never did till the year before his death, when I acquainted him with it by his friend Sir John Irwin, why he had been put into the Queen’s Index expurgatorius.(102) The queen had an obscure window at St. James’s that looked into a dark passage, lighted only by a single lamp at night, which looked upon Mrs. Howard’s apartment.  Lord Chesterfield, one Twelfth-night at court, had won so large a sum of money, that he thought it imprudent to carry it home in the dark, and deposited it with the mistress.  Thence the queen inferred great intimacy, and thenceforwards Lord Chesterfield could obtain no favour from court- and finding himself desperate, went into opposition.  My father himself long afterwards told me the story, and had become the principal object of the peer’s satiric wit, though he had not been the mover of his disgrace.  The weight of that anger fell more disgracefully on the king, as I shall mention in the next chapter.

I will here interrupt the detail of what I have heard of the commencement of that reign, and farther anecdotes of the queen and the mistress, till I have related the second very memorable transaction of that era; and which would come in awkwardly, if postponed till I have despatched many subsequent particulars.

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(99) Sir Spencer Compton, afterwards Earl of Wilmington, was so far from resenting Sir Robert’s superior talents, that he remained steadfastly -,attached to him; and when the famous motion for removing Sir Robert was made in both Houses, Lord Wilmington, though confined to his bed, and with his head blistered, rose and went to the House of Lords, to vote against a measure that avowed its own injustice, by being grounded only on popular clamour.

(100) It was the town residence of the Sidneys, Earls of Leicester, of whom it was hired, as it was afterwards by Frederick, Prince of Wales, on a similar quarrel with his father.  He added to it Savile House, belonging to Sir George Savile, for his children.

(101) Mr. Croker, in his biographical notice of Lady Suffolk, prefixed to the edition of her Letters, thus satisfactorily confutes this anecdote:  “On this it is to be observed, that George the Second was proclaimed on the 14th of June 1727, that Swift returned to Ireland in the September of the same year, and that the first creation of peers in that reign did not take place till the 28th of May 1728.  Is it credible, that Mrs. Howard should have made such a request of the new King, and suffered so decided a refusal ten or eleven months before any peers were made?  But, again, upon this first creation of peers Mrs. Howard’s brother is the second name.  Is it probable that, with so great an object for her own family in view, she risked a solicitation for Lord Bathurst?  But that which seems most convincing, is Swift’s own correspondence.  In a letter to Mrs. of the 9th of July 1727, in which, rallying her on the solicitation to which the new King would be exposed, he says, — ’for my part, you may be secure, that I will never venture to recommend even a mouse to Mrs. Cole’s cat, or a shoe-cleaner to your meanest domestic.’” Vol. i. p. xxv-E.

(102) “This,” says her biographer, “is a complete mistake, to give it no harsher name.  The Character which Swift left behind, and which was published in his posthumous works, is the very same which Lady Suffolk had in her possession.  If it be not flattering, it is to Swift’s honour that he ’did not condescend to flatter her in the days of her highest favour; and the accusation of having written another less favourable, is wholly false.”  Ibid. vol. i. p. xxxviii.-E.

(103) “It certainly would have been extraordinary,” observes Mr. Croker, “that Lord Chesterfield, in 1137, when he was on terms of the most familiar friendship with Lady Suffolk, should have published a deprecatory character of her, and in revenge too, for being disgraced at court-Lady Suffolk being at the same time in disgrace also.  But, unluckily for Walpole’s conjecture, the character of Eudosia (a female savant, as the name imports,) has not the slightest resemblance to Lady Suffolk, and contains no allusion to courts or courtiers.”  Ibid. vol. ii. p. xxxiii-E.


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Destruction of George the First’s will.

At the first council held by the new sovereign, Dr. Wake, Archbishop of Canterbury, produced the will of the late King, and delivered it to the successor, expecting it would be opened and read in council.  On the contrary, his Majesty put it into his pocket, and stalked out of the room without uttering a word on the subject.  The poor prelate was thunderstruck, and had not the presence of mind or the courage to demand the testament’s being opened, or at least to have it registered.  No man present chose to be more hardy than the person to whom the deposit had been trusted-perhaps none of them immediately conceived the possible violation of so solemn an act so notoriously existent; still, as the King never mentioned the will more, whispers only by degrees informed the public that the will was burnt; at least that its injunctions were never fulfilled.

What the contents were was never ascertained.  Report said, that forty thousand pounds had been bequeathed to the Duchess of Kendal; and more vague rumours spoke of a large legacy to the Queen of Prussia, daughter of the late King.  Of that bequest demands were afterwards said to have been frequently and roughly made by her son the great King of Prussia, between whom and his uncle subsisted much inveteracy.

The legacy to the ]Duchess was some time after on the brink of coming to open and legal discussion.  Lord Chesterfield marrying her niece and heiress, the Countess of Walsingham, and resenting his own proscription at court, was believed to have instituted, or at least to have threatened, a suit for recovery of the legacy to the Duchess, to which he was then become entitled; and it was as confidently believed that he was quieted by the payment of twenty thousand pounds.

But if the Archbishop had too timidly betrayed the trust reposed in him from weakness and want of spirit, there were two other men who had no such plea of imbecility, and who, being independent, and above being awed, basely sacrificed their honour and their integrity for positive sordid gain.  George the First had deposited duplicates of his will with two sovereign German princes:  I will not specify them, because at this distance of time I do not, perfectly recollect their titles; but I was actually, some years ago, shown a copy of a letter from one of our ambassadors abroad to-a secretary of state at that period, in which the ambassador said, one of the princes in question would accept the proffered subsidy, and had delivered, or would deliver, the duplicate of the King’s will.  The other trustee, was no doubt, as little conscientious and as corrupt.  It is pity the late King of Prussia did not learn their infamous treachery.

Discoursing once with Lady Suffolk on that suppressed testament, she made the only plausible shadow of an excuse that could be made for George the Second.  She told me that George the First had burnt two wills made in favour of his son.  They were, probably, the wills of the Duke and Duchess of Zell; or one of them might be that of his mother, the Princess Sophia.  The crime of the first George could only palliate, not justify, the criminality of the second; for the second did -not punish the maturity, but the innocent.  But bad precedents are always dangerous, and too likely to be copied. (104)

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(104) On the subject of the royal will, Walpole, in his Memoires, vol. ii. p. 458, relates the following anecdote:-"The morning after the death of George the Second, Lord Waldegrave showed the Duke of Cumberland an extraordinary piece:  it was endorsed, ‘very private paper,’ and was a letter from the Duke of Newcastle to the first Earl of Waldegrave; in which his Grace informed the Earl, then our ambassador in France, that he had received by the messenger the copy of the will and codicil of George the First; that he had delivered it to his Majesty, who put it into the fire without opening it:  ‘So,’ adds the Duke, ’we do not know whether it confirms the other or not;’ and he proceeds to say, ’Despatch a messenger to the Duke Of Wolfenbuttle with the treaty, in which he is granted all he desired; and we expect, by return of the messenger, the original will from him.’  George the First had left two wills; one in the hands of Dr. Wake, Archbishop of Canterbury, the other with the Duke of Wolfenbuttle.  He had been in the right to take these precautions:  he himself had burned his wife’s testament, and her and her father’s, the duke of Zell; both of whom had made George the Second their heir—­a paliative of the latter’s obliquity, if justice would allow of any violation.”  From the following passage in Boswell’s Life of Johnson, the Doctor appears to have given credence to the story of the will:—­“tom Davies instanced Charles the Second; Johnson taking fire at an attack upon that prince, exclaimed, “charles the Second was licentious in his practice, but he always had a reverence for what was good; Charles the Second was not such a man as George the Second; he did not destroy his father’s will’ he did not betray those over whom he ruled’ he did not let the French fleet pass ours.’  He roared with prodigious violence against George the Second.  When he ceased, Moody interjected, in an Irish tone, and a comic look, ‘Ah! poor George the Second!’” See vol. v. p. 284, ed. 1835.-E.


History of Mrs. Howard, afterwards Countess of Suffolk-Miss Bellenden-Her Marriage with Colonel John Campbell, afterwards fourth Duke of Argyle-Anecdotes of Queen Caroline-her last Illness and Death-Anecdote of Sarah, Duchess of Marlborough-Last Years of George the Second-Mrs. Clayton, afterwards Lady Sundon-Lady Diana Spencer-Frederick, Prince of Wales-Sudden Removal of the Prince and Princess from Hampton Court to St. James’s -Birth of a Princess-Rupture with the King-Anecdotes of Lady Yarmouth.

I will now resume the story of Lady Suffolk whose history, though she had none of that influence on the transactions of the cabinet that was expected, will still probably be more entertaining to two young ladies than a magisterial detail of political events, the traces of which at least may be found in journals and brief chronicles of the times.  The interior of courts, and the lesser features of history, are

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precisely those with which we are least acquainted,-I mean of the age preceding our own.  Such anecdotes are forgotten in the multiplicity of those that ensue, or reside only in the memory of idle old persons, or have not yet emerged into publicity from the portefeuilles of such garrulous Brant`omes as myself.  Trifling I will not call myself; for, while I have such charming disciples as you two to inform; and though acute or plodding politicians, for whom they are not meant, may condemn these pages; which is preferable, the labour of an historian who toils for fame and for applause from he knows not whom; or my careless commission to paper of perhaps insignificant passages that I remember, but penned for the amusement of a pair of such sensible and cultivated minds as I never met at so early an age, and whose fine eyes I do know will read me With candour, and allow me that mite of fame to which I aspire, their approbation of my endeavours to divert their evenings in the country?  O Guicciardin! is posthumous renown so valuable as the satisfaction of reading these court-tales to the lovely Berrys?

Henrietta Hobart was daughter of Sir Henry, and sister of Sir John Hobart, Knight of the Bath on the revival of the order, and afterwards by her interest made a baron; and since created Earl of Buckinghamshire.

She was first married to Mr. Howard, the younger brother of more than one Earl of Suffolk; to which title he at last succeeded himself, and left a son by her, who was the last earl of that branch.  She had but the slender fortune of an ancient baronet’s daughter; and Mr. Howard’s circumstances were the reverse of opulent.  It was the close of Queen Anne’s reign:  the young couple saw no step more prudent than to resort to Hanover, and endeavour to ingratiate themselves with the future sovereigns of England.  Still so narrow was their fortune, that Mr. Howard finding it expedient to give a dinner to the Hanoverian ministers, Mrs. Howard is said to have sacrificed her beautiful head of hair to pay for the expense.  It must be recollected, that at that period were in fashion those enormous full-bottomed wigs, which often cost twenty and thirty guineas.  Mrs. Howard was extremely acceptable to the intelligent Princess Sophia; but did not at that time make farther impression on the Electoral Prince, than, on his father’s succession to the crown, to be appointed one of the bedchamber-women to the new Princess of Wales.

The elder Whig politicians became ministers to the King.  The most promising of the young lords and gentleman of that party, and the prettiest and liveliest of the young ladies, formed the new court of the Prince and Princess of Wales.  The apartment of the bedchamber-woman in waiting became the fashionable evening rendez-vous of the most distinguished wits and beauties.  Lord Chesterfield, then Lord Stanhope, Lord Scarborough, Carr Lord Hervey, elder brother of the more known John Lord Hervey, and reckoned to

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have superior parts, General (at that time only Colonel) Charles Churchill, and others not necessary to rehearse, were constant attendants:  Miss Lepelle, afterwards Lady Hervey, my mother, Lady Walpole, Mrs. Selwyn, mother of the famous George, and herself of much vivacity and pretty, Mrs. Howard, and above all for universal admiration, Miss Bellenden, one of the maids of honour.  Her face and person were charming; lively she was almost to `etourderie; (105) and so agreeable she was, that I never heard her mentioned afterwards by one of her contemporaries who did not prefer her as the most perfect creature they ever knew.  The Prince frequented the waiting-room, and soon felt a stronger inclination for her than he ever entertained but for his Princess.  Miss Bellenden by no means felt a reciprocal passion.  The Prince’s gallantry was by no means delicate; and his avarice disgusted her.  One evening sitting by her, he took out his purse and counted his money.  He repeated the numeration:  the giddy Bellenden lost her patience, and cried out, “Sir, I cannot bear it! if you count your money any more, I will go out of the room.”  The chink of the gold did not tempt her more than the person of his Royal Highness.  In fact, her heart was engaged; and so the Prince, finding his love fruitless, suspected.  He was even so generous as to promise her, that if she would discover the object of her Choice, and would engage not to marry without his privity, he would consent to the match, and would be kind to her husband.  She gave him the promise he exacted, but without acknowledging the person; and then, lest his Highness should throw any obstacle in the way, married, without his knowledge, Colonel Campbell, one of the grooms of his bedchamber, and who long afterwards succeeded to the title of Argyle at the death of Duke Archibald. (106) The Prince never forgave the breach of her word; and whenever she went to the drawing-room, as from her husband’s situation she was sometimes obliged to do, though trembling at what she knew she was to undergo, the Prince always stepped up to her, and whispered some very harsh reproach in her ear.  Mrs. Howard was the intimate friend of Miss Bellenden; had been the confidante of the Prince’s passion; and, on Mrs. Campbell’s eclipse, succeeded to her friend’s post of favourite, but not to her resistance.

>From the steady decorum of Mrs. Howard, I should conclude that she would have preferred the advantages of her situation to the ostentatious `eclat of it:  but many obstacles stood in the way of total concealment; nor do I suppose that love had any share in the sacrifice she made of her virtue.  She had felt poverty, and was far from disliking power.  Mr. Howard was probably as little agreeable to her as he proved worthless.  The King, though very amorous, was certainly more attracted by a silly idea he had entertained of gallantry being becoming, than by a love of variety; and he added the more egregious folly of fancying that

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inconstancy proved he was not governed; but so awkwardly did he manage that artifice, that it but demonstrated more clearly the influence of the Queen.  With such a disposition, secrecy would by no means have answered his Majesty’s views; yet the publicity of the intrigue was especially owing to Mr. Howard, who, far from ceding his wife quietly, went one night into the quadrangle of St. James’s, and vociferously demanded her to be restored to him before the guards and other audience.  Being thrust out, he sent a letter to her by the Archbishop of Canterbury, reclaiming her, and the Archbishop by his instructions consigned the summons to the Queen, who had the malicious pleasure of delivering the letter to her rival. (107)

Such intemperate proceedings by no means invited the new mistress to leave the asylum of St. James’s.  She was safe while under the royal roof:  even after the rupture between the King and Prince (for the affair commenced in the reign of the first George), and though the Prince, on quitting St. James’s, resided in a private house, it was too serious an enterprise to attempt to take his wife by force out of the palace of the Prince of Wales.  The case was altered, when, on the arrival of summer, their Royal Highnesses were to remove to Richmond.  Being only woman of the bedchamber, etiquette did not allow Mrs. Howard the entr`ee of the coach with the Princess.  She apprehended that Mr. Howard might seize her on the road.  To baffle such an attempt, her friends, John, Duke of Argyle, and his brother, the Earl of Islay, called for her in the coach of one of them by eight o’clock in the morning of the day, at noon of which the Prince and Princess were to remove, and lodged her safely in their house at Richmond.  During the summer a negotiation was commenced with the obstreperous husband, and he sold his own noisy honour and the possession of his wife for a pension of twelve hundred a-year. (108)

These now little-known anecdotes of Mr. Howard’s behaviour I received between twenty and thirty years afterwards, from the mouth of Lady Suffolk herself.  She had left the court about the year 1735, and passed her summers at her villa of Marble Hill, at Twickenham, living very retired both there and in London.  I purchased Strawberry Hill in 1747; and being much acquainted with the houses of Dorset, Vere, and others of Lady Suffolk’s intimates, was become known to her; though she and my father had been at the head of two such hostile factions at court.  Becoming neighbours, and both, after her second husband’s death, living single and alone, our acquaintance turned to intimacy.  She was extremely deaf, (109) and consequently had more satisfaction in narrating than in listening; her memory both of remote and of the most recent facts was correct beyond belief.  I, like you, was indulgent to, and fond of old anecdotes.  Each of us knew different Parts of many court stories, and each was eager to learn what either could relate more; and thus, by comparing notes, we sometimes could make out discoveries of a third circumstance, (110) before unknown to both.  Those evenings, and I had many of them in autumnal nights, were extremely agreeable; and if this chain of minutiae proves so to you, you owe perhaps to those conversations the fidelity of my memory, which those repetitions recalled and stamped so lastingly.

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In this narrative will it be unwelcome to you, if I subjoin a faithful portrait of the heroine of this part? lady Suffolk was of a just height, well made, extremely fair, with the finest light brown hair; was remarkably genteel, and always well dressed with taste and simplicity.  Those were her personal charms, for her face was regular and agreeable rather than beautiful and those charms she retained with little diminution to her death at the age of seventy-nine. (111) Her mental qualifications were by no means shining; her eyes and countenance showed her character, which was grave and mild.  Her strict love of truth and her accurate memory were always in unison, and made her too circumstantial on trifles.  She was discreet without being reserved; and having no bad qualities, and being constant to her connexions, she preserved uncommon respect to the end of her life; and from the propriety and decency of her behaviour was always treated as if her virtue had never been questioned; her friends even affecting to suppose, that her connexion with the King had been confined to pure friendship.  Unfortunately, his Majesty’s passions were too indelicate to have been confined to Platonic love for a woman who was deaf, (112)-sentiments he had expressed in a letter to the Queen, who, however jealous of Lady Suffolk, had latterly dreaded the King’s contracting a new attachment to a younger rival, and had prevented Lady Suffolk from leaving the court as early as she had wished to do.  “I don’t know,” said his Majesty, “why you will not let me part with an old deaf woman, of whom I am weary.”

Her credit had always been extremely limited by the Queen’s superior influence, and by the devotion of the minister to her Majesty.  Except a barony, a red riband, and a good place for her brother, Lady Suffolk could succeed but in very subordinate recommendations.  Her own acquisitions were so moderate, that, besides Marble Hill, which cost the King ten or twelve thousand pounds, her complaisance had not been too dearly purchased.  She left the court with an income so little to be envied, that, though an economist and not expensive, by the lapse of some annuities on lives not so prolonged as her own she found herself straitened; and, besides Marble Hill, did not at most leave twenty thousand pounds to her family.  On quitting court, she married Mr. George Berkeley, and outlived him. (113)

No established mistress of a sovereign ever enjoyed less of the brilliancy of the situation than Lady Suffolk.  Watched and thwarted by the Queen, disclaimed by the minister, she owed to the dignity of her own behaviour, and to the contradiction of their enemies, the chief respect that was paid to her, and which but ill compensated for the slavery of her attendance, and the mortifications she endured.  She was elegant; her lover the reverse, and most unentertaining, and void of confidence in her.  His motions too were measured by etiquette and the clock.  He visited her every evening at nine; but with such dull punctuality, that he frequently walked about his chamber for ten minutes with his watch in his hand, if the stated minute was not arrived.

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But from the Queen she tasted yet more positive vexations.  Till she became Countess of Suffolk, she constantly dressed the Queen’s bead, who delighted in subjecting her to such servile offices, though always apologizing to her good Howard.  Often her Majesty had more complete triumph.  It happened more than once, that the King, coming into the room while the Queen was dressing, has snatched off the handkerchief, and, turning rudely to Mrs. Howard, has cried, “Because you have an ugly neck yourself, you hide the Queen’s.”

It is certain that the King always preferred the Queen’s person to that of any other woman; nor ever described his idea of beauty, but he drew the picture of his wife.

Queen Caroline is said to have been very handsome at her marriage, soon after which she had the small-pox; but was little marked by it, and retained a most pleasing countenance.  It was full of majesty or mildness as she pleased, and her penetrating eyes expressed whatever she had a mind they should.  Her voice too was captivating, and her hands beautifully small, plump, and graceful.  Her understanding was uncommonly strong; and so was her resolution.  From their earliest connexion she had determined to govern the King, and deserved to do so; for her submission to his will was unbounded, her sense much superior, and his honour and interest always took place of her own:  so that her love of power that was predominant, was dearly bought, and rarely ill employed.  She was ambitious too of fame; but, shackled by her devotion to the King, she seldom could pursue that object.  She wished to be a patroness of learned men but George had no respect for them or their works; and her Majesty’s own taste was not very exquisite, nor did he allow her time to cultivate any studies.  Her Generosity would have displayed itself, for she valued money but as the instrument of her good purposes:  but he stinted her alike in almost all her passions; and though she wished for nothing more than to be liberal, she bore the imputation of his avarice, as she did of others of his faults.  Often, when she had made prudent and proper promises of preferment, and could not persuade the King to comply, she suffered the breach of word to fall on her, rather than reflect on him.  Though his affection and confidence in her were implicit, he lived in dread of being supposed to be governed by her; and that silly parade was extended even to the most private moments of business with my father.  Whenever he entered, the Queen rose, courtesied, and retired or offered to retire.  Sometimes the King condescended to bid her stay-on both occasions she and Sir Robert. had previously settled the business to be discussed.  Sometimes the King would quash the proposal in question, and yield after retalking it over with her-but then he boasted to Sir Robert that he himself had better considered it.

One of the Queen’s delights was the improvement of the garden at Richmond; and the King believed she paid for all with her own money-nor would he ever look at her intended plans, saying he did not care how she flung away her own revenue.  He little suspected the aids Sir Robert furnished to her from the treasury.  When she died, she was indebted twenty thousand pounds to the King.

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Her learning I have said was superficial; her knowledge of languages as little accurate.  The King, with a bluff Westphalian accent, spoke English correctly.  The Queen’s chief study was divinity, and she had rather weakened her faith than enlightened it.  She was at least not orthodox; and her confidante, Lady Sundon, an absurd and pompous simpleton, swayed her countenance towards the less-believing clergy.  The Queen, however, was so sincere at her death, that when Archbishop Potter was to administer the sacrament to her, she declined taking it, very few persons being in the room.  When the prelate retired, the courtiers in the ante-room crowded round him, crying, “My lord, has the queen received?” His grace artfully eluded the question, only saying most devoutly , “Her Majesty was in a heavenly disposition"-and the truth escaped the public.

She suffered more unjustly by declining to see her son, the Prince of Wales, to whom she sent her blessing and forgiveness; but conceiving the extreme distress it would lay on the King, should he thus be forced to forgive so impenitent a son, or to banish him again if once recalled, she heroically preferred a meritorious husband to a worthless child.

The Queen’s greatest error was too high an opinion of her own address and art; she imagined that all who did not dare to contradict her were imposed upon; and she had the additional weakness of thinking that she could play off @any persons without being discovered.  That mistaken humour, and at other times her hazarding very offensive truths, made her many enemies; and her duplicity in fomenting jealousies between the ministers, that each might be more dependent on herself, was no sound wisdom.  It was the Queen who blew into a flame the ill-blood between Sir Robert Walpole and his brother-in-law, Lord Townshend.  Yet though she disliked some of the cabinet, she never let her own prejudices disturb the King’s affairs, provided the obnoxious paid no court to the mistress.  Lord Islay was the only man, who, by managing Scotland for Sir Robert Walpole, was maintained by him in spite of his attachment to Lady Suffolk.

The Queen’s great secret was her own rupture, which, till her last illness, nobody knew but the King, her German nurse, Mrs. Mailborne, and one other person.  To prevent all suspicion, her Majesty would frequently stand some minutes in her shift talking to her ladies (114) and though labouring with so dangerous a complaint, she made it so invariable a rule never to refuse a desire of the King, that every morning at Richmond she walked several miles with him; and more than once, when she had the gout in her foot, she dipped her whole leg in cold water to be ready to attend him.  The pain, her bulk, and the exercise, threw her into such fits of perspiration as vented the gout; but those exertions hastened the crisis of her distemper.  It was great shrewdness in Sir Robert Walpole, who, before her distemper broke

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out, discovered her secret.  On my mother’s death, who was of the Queen’s age, her Majesty asked Sir Robert many physical questions; but he remarked that she oftenest reverted to a rupture, which had not been the illness of his wife.  When he came home, he said to me, “Now, Horace, I know by possession of what secret Lady Sundon (115)has preserved such an ascendant over the Queen.”  He was in the right.  How Lady Sundon had wormed herself into that mystery was never known.  As Sir Robert maintained his influence over the clergy by Gibson, Bishop of London, he often met with troublesome obstructions from Lady Sundon, who espoused, as I have said, the heterodox clergy; and Sir Robert could never shake her credit.

Yet the Queen was constant in her protection of Sir Robert, and the day before she died gave a strong mark of her conviction that he was the firmest supporter the King had.  As they two alone were standing by the Queen’s bed, she pathetically recommended, not the minister to the sovereign, but the master to the servant.  Sir Robert was alarmed, and feared the recommendation would leave a fatal impression; but a short time after, the King reading with Sir Robert some intercepted letters from Germany, which said that now the Queen was ’gone, Sir Robert would have no protection:  “On the contrary,” said the King, “you know she recommended me to you.”  This marked the notice he had taken of the expression; and it was the only notice he ever took of it:  nay, his Majesty’s grief was so excessive and so sincere, that his kindness to his minister seemed to increase for the Queen’s sake.

The Queen’s dread of a rival was a feminine weakness; the behaviour of her elder son was a real thorn.  He early displayed his aversion to his mother, who perhaps assumed too much at first; yet it is certain that her good sense, and the interest of her family, would have prevented, if possible, the mutual dislike of the father and son, and their reciprocal contempt.  As the Opposition gave into all adulation towards the Prince, his ill-poised head and vanity swallowed all their incense.  He even early after his arrival had listened to a high act of disobedience.  Money he soon wanted:  old Sarah, Duchess of Marlborough, (116) e ever proud and ever malignant, was persuaded to offer her favourite Granddaughter, Lady Diana Spencer, afterwards Duchess of Bedford, to the Prince of’ Wales, with a fortune of a hundred thousand pounds.  He accepted the proposal, and the day was fixed for their being secretly married at the Duchess’s lodge in the Great park at Windsor.  Sir Robert Walpole got intelligence of the project, prevented it, and the secret was buried in silence.

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Youth, folly, and indiscretion, the beauty of the young lady, and a large sum of ready money, might have offered something like a plea for so rash a marriage, had it taken place; but what could excuse, what indeed could provoke, the senseless and barbarous insult offered to the King and Queen, by Frederick’s taking his wife out of the palace of Hampton Court in the middle of the night, when she was in actual labour, and carrying her, at the imminent risk of the lives of her and the child, to the unaired palace and bed at St. James’s?  Had he no way of affronting his parents but by venturing to kill his wife and the heir of the crown?  A baby that wounds itself to vex its nurse is no more void of reflection.  The scene which commenced by unfeeling idiotism closed with paltry hypocrisy.  The Queen on the first notice of her son’s exploits, set out for St. James’s to visit the Princess by seven in the morning.  The gracious Prince, so far from attempting an apology, spoke not a word to his mother; but on her retreat gave her his hand, led her into the street to her coach-still dumb!-but a crowd being assembled at the gate, he kneeled down in the dirt, and humbly kissed her Majesty’s hand.  Her indignation must have shrunk into contempt.

After the death of the Queen, Lady Yarmouth (117) came over, who had been the King’s mistress at Hanover during his latter journeys-and with the Queen’s privity, for he always made her the of his amours; which made Mrs. Selwyn once tell him, he should be the last man with whom she would have an intrigue, for she knew he would tell the Queen.  In his letters to the latter from Hanover, he said, “You must love the Walmoden, for she loves me.”  She was created a countess, and had much weight with him; but never employed her credit but to assist his ministers, or to convert some honours and favours to her own advantage.  She had two sons, who both bore her husband’s name; but the younger, though never acknowledged, was supposed the King’s, and consequently did not miss additional homage from the courtiers.  That incense being one of the recommendations to the countenance of Lady Yarmouth, drew Lord Chesterfield into a ridiculous distress.  On his being made secretary of state, be found a fair young lad in the antechamber at St. James’s, -who seeming much at home, the earl, concluding it was the mistress’s son, was profuse of attentions to the boy, and more prodigal still of his prodigious regard for his mamma.  The shrewd boy received all his lordship’s vows with indulgence, and without betraying himself:  at last he said, “I suppose your lordship takes me for Master Louis; but I am only Sir William Russel, one of the pages.”

The King’s last years passed as regularly as clockwork.  At nine at night he had cards in the apartment of his daughters, the Princesses Amelia and Caroline, with Lady Yarmouth, two or three of the late Queen’s ladies, and as many of the most favoured officers of his own household.  Every Saturday in summer he carried that uniform party, but without his daughters, to dine at Richmond:  they went in coaches and six in the middle of the day , with the heavy horse-guards kicking up the dust before them-dined, walked an hour in the garden, returned in the same dusty parade; and his Majesty fancied himself the most gallant and lively prince in Europe.

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His last year was glorious and triumphant beyond example; and his death was most felicitous to himself, being without a Pang, without tasting a reverse, and when his sight and hearing were so nearly extinguished that any prolongation could but have swelled to calamities. (118)

(105) She is thus described in a ballad, made upon the quarrel between George the First and the Prince of Wales, at the christening recorded at p. 83 when the Prince and all his household were ordered to quit St. James’s:-

“But Bellenden we needs must praise,
Who, as down the stairs she jumps,
Sings over the hills and far away,
Despising doleful dumps."-E.

(106) Colonel John Campbell succeeded to the dukedom in 1761:  Mrs. Campbell died in 1736.  She was the mother of the fifth Duke of Argyle and three other sons, and of Lady Caroline, who married, first, the Earl of Aylesbury, and, secondly, Walpole’s bosom friend, Marshal Conway.-E.

(107) “The letter which Walpole alludes to,” says Mr. Croker, “is in existence.  It is not a letter from Mr. Howard to his lady, but from the Archbishop to the Princess; and although his grace urges a compliance with Mr. Howard’s demand of the restoration of his wife, he treats it not as a matter between them, but as an attack on the Princess herself, whom the Archbishop considers as the direct protectress of Mrs. Howard, and the immediate cause of her resistance.  So that in this letter at least there is no ground for imputing to Mrs. Howard any rivalry with the Princess, or to the Princess any malicious jealousy of Mrs. Howard.”  Vol. i. p. xiv.-E.

(108) Mr. Croker asserts, that “neither in Mrs. Howard’s correspondence with the King, nor in the notes of her conversation with the Queen, nor in any of her most confidential papers, has he found a single trace of the feeling which Walpole so confidently imputes.”  Upon this assertion, Sir Walter Scott, in a review of the Suffolk Correspondence, pleasantly remarks,-"We regret that the editor’s researches have not enabled him to state, whether it is true that the restive husband sold his own noisy honour and the possession of his lady for a pension of twelve hundred a-year.  For our own parts, without believing all Walpole’s details, we substantially agree in his opinion, that the King’s friendship was by no means Platonic or refined; but that the Queen and Mrs. Howard, by mutual forbearance, good sense, and decency, contrived to diminish the scandal:  after all, the question has no great interest for the present generation, since scandal is only valued when fresh, and the public have generally enough of that poignant fare, without ripping up the frailties of their grandmothers.”  Sir Walter sums up his notice of the inaccuracies occurring in these Reminiscences, with the following just and considerate reflection:  “When it is recollected that the noble owner of Strawberry Hill was speaking of very remote events, which he reported on hearsay, and that hearsay of old standing, such errors are scarcely to be wondered at, particularly when they are found to correspond with the partialities and prejudices of the narrator.  These, strengthening as we grow older, gradually pervert or at least alter, the accuracy of our recollections, until they assimilate them to our feelings, while,

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“As beams of warm imagination play,
The memory’s faint traces melt away. 
See Prose Works, vol. xix. p. 201.-E.

(109) Pope alludes to this personal defect in his lines “On a certain Lady at court:” 

“I know a thing that’s most uncommon;
(Envy be silent, and attend!)
I know a reasonable woman,
handsome and witty, yet a friend. 
Not warp’d by passion, awed by rumour;
Not grave through pride, or gay through folly—­
An equal mixture of good humour
And sensible, soft melancholy. 
‘Has she no faults then,’ (Envy says,) ‘Sir?’
’Yes, she has one, I must aver;
When all the world conspires to praise her—­
The woman’s deaf, and does not hear.’"-E.

(110) The same thing has happened to me by books.  A passage lately read has recalled some other formerly perused; and both together have opened to me, or cleared up some third fact, which neither separately would have expounded.

(111) Lady Suffolk died in July, 1767.-E.

(112) Lady Suffolk was early affected with deafness.  Cheselden, the surgeon, then in favour at court, persuaded her that he had hopes of being able to cure deafness by some operation on the drum of the ear, and offered to try the experiment on a condemned convict then in Newgate, who was deaf.  If the man could be pardoned, he would try it; and, if he succeeded, would practise the same cure on her ladyship.  She obtained the man’s pardon, who was cousin to Cheselden, who had feigned that pretended discovery to save his relation-and no more was heard of the experiment.  The man saved his ear too-but Cheselden was disgraced at court.

(113) Lady Suffolk formally retired from court in 1734, and in the following year married the Honourable George Berkeley, youngest son of the second Earl of Berkeley.  He was Master of St. Catherine’s, in the Tower, and had served in two parliaments as member for Dover.  He died in 1746.-E.

(114) While the Queen dressed, prayers used to be read in the outward room, where hung a naked Venus.  Mrs. Selwyn, bedchamber-woman in waiting, was one day ordered to bid the chaplain, Dr. Maddox, afterwards Bishop of Worcester, begin the service.  He said archly, “And a very proper altar-piece is here, Madam!” Queen Anne had the same custom; and once ordering the door to be shut while she shifted, the chaplain stopped.  The Queen sent to ask why he did not proceed.  He replied, “he would not whistle the word of God through the keyhole.”

(115) Mrs. Clayton, wife of Robert Clayton, Esq. of the Treasury, bedchamber-woman to the Queen.  This lady, who had the art to procure her husband to be created Lord Sundon, possessed over her royal mistress an influence of which even Sir Robert Walpole was jealous.-E.

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(116) That woman, who had risen to greatness and independent wealth by the weakness of another Queen, forgot, like Duc d’Epernon, her own unmerited exultation, and affected to brave successive courts, though sprung from the dregs of one.  When the Prince of Orange came over to marry the Princess Royal, Anne, a boarded gallery with a penthouse roof was erected for the procession from the windows of the great drawing-room at St. James’s cross the garden to the Lutheran chapel in the friary.  The Prince being indisposed, and going to Bath, the marriage was deferred for some weeks, and the boarded gallery remained, darkening the windows of Marlborough House.  The Duchess cried, “I wonder when my neighbour George will take away his orange-chest!”—­which it did resemble.  She did not want that sort of wit,* which ill-temper, long knowledge of the world, and insolence can sharpen-and envying the favour which she no longer possessed, Sir R. Walpole was often the object of her satire.  Yet her great friend, Lord Godolphin, the treasurer, had enjoined her to preserve very different sentiments.  The Duchess and my father and mother were standing by the Earl’s bed at St. Albans as he was dying.  Taking Sir Robert by the hand, Lord Godolphin turned to the Duchess, and said, “Madam, should ’you ever desert this young man, and there should be a possibility of returning from the grave, I shall certainly appear to you.”  Her grace did not believe in spirits.

* Baron Gleicken, minister from Denmark to France, being at Paris soon after the King his master had been there, and a French lady being so ill-bred as to begin censuring the King to him, saying, “Ah!  Monsieur, c’est une t`ete!"-"Couronn`ee,” replied he instantly, stopping her by so gentle a hint.

(117) Amelia Sophia, wife of the Baron de Walmoden, Created Countess of Yarmouth in 1739.

(118) For an interesting account of the death of George the Second, on the 24th of October, 1760, and also of his funeral in Westminster Abbey, see Walpole’s letters to Mr. Montagu on the 25th of that month, and of the 13th of November.-E.


George the Second’s Daughters-Anne, Princess of Orange-Princess Amelia-Princess Caroline-Lord Hervey-Duke of Cumberland.

I am tempted to drain my memory of all its rubbish, and will set down a few more of my recollections, but with less method than I have used in the foregoing pages.

I have said little or nothing of the King’s two unmarried daughters.  Though they lived in the palace with him, he never admitted them to any share in his politics; and if any of the ministers paid them the compliment of seeming attachment, it was more for the air than for the reality.  The Princess Royal, Anne, married in Holland, was of a most imperious and ambitious nature; and on her mother’s death, hoping to succeed to her credit, came to Holland on pretence of ill health; but the King, aware of her plan, Was so offended that he sent her to Bath as soon as she arrived, and as peremptorily back to Holland-I think, without suffering her to pass two nights in London.

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Princess Amelia, as well disposed to meddle, was confined to receiving court from the Duke of Newcastle, who affected to be in love with her; and from the Duke of Grafton, in whose connexion with her there was more reality.

Princess Caroline, one of the most excellent of women, was devoted to the Queen, who, as well as the King, had such confidence in her veracity, that on any disagreement among their children, they said, “Stay, send for Caroline, and then we shall know the truth.”

The memorable Lord Hervey had dedicated himself to the Queen, and certainly towards her death had gained great ascendance with her.  She had made him privy-seal; and as he took care to keep as well with Sir Robert Walpole, no man stood in a more prosperous light.

But Lord Hervey, who handled all the weapons of a court, (119) had also made a deep impression on the heart of the virtuous Princess Caroline; and as there was a mortal antipathy between the Duke of Grafton and Lord Hervey, the court was often on the point of being disturbed by the enmity of the favourites of the two Princesses.  The death of the Queen deeply affected her daughter Caroline; and the change of the ministry four years after, dislodged Lord Hervey whom for the Queen’s sake the King would have saved, and who very ungratefully satirized the King in a ballad, as if he had sacrificed him voluntarily.  Disappointment, rage, and a distempered constitution carried Lord Hervey off, and overwhelmed his Princess — she never appeared in public after the Queen’s death; and, being dreadfully afflicted with the rheumatism, never stirred out of her apartment, and rejoiced at her own dissolution some years before her father.

Her sister Amelia leagued herself with the Bedford faction during the latter part of her father’s life.  When he died, she established herself respectably; but enjoying no favour with her nephew, and hating the Princess-dowager, she made a plea of her deafness, and soon totally abstained from St. James’s.

The Duke of Cumberland, never, or very rarely, interfered in politics.  Power he would have liked, but never seemed to court it.  His passion would have been to command the army, and he would, I doubt, have been too ready to aggrandize the crown by it:  but successive disgusts weaned his mind from all pursuits, and the grandeur of his sense, (120) and philosophy made him indifferent to a world that had disappointed all his views.  The unpopularity which the Scotch and Jacobites spread against him for his merit in suppressing the rebellion, his brother’s jealousy, and the contempt he himself felt for the Prince, his own ill success in his battles abroad, and his father’s treacherous sacrifice of him on the convention of Closterseven, the dereliction of his two political friends, Lord Holland and Lord Sandwich, and the rebuffing spite of the Princess-dowager; all those mortifications centring on a constitution evidently tending to dissolution, made him totally neglect himself, and ready to shake off being, as an encumbrance not worth the attention of a superior understanding.

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>From the time the Duke first appeared on the stage of the public, all his father’s ministers had been blind to his Royal Highness’s capacity, or were afraid of it.  Lord Granville, too giddy himself to sound a young Prince, had treated him arrogantly when the King and the Earl had projected a match for him with the Princess of Denmark.  The Duke, accustomed by the Queen and his governor, Mr. Poyntz, to venerate the wisdom of Sir Robert Walpole, then on his death-bed, sent Mr. Poyntz, the day but one before Sir Robert expired, to consult him how to avoid the match.  Sir Robert advised his Royal Highness to stipulate for an ample settlement.  The Duke took the sage counsel, and heard no more of his intended bride.

The low ambition of Lord Hardwicke, the childish passion for power of the Duke of Newcastle, and the peevish jealousy of Mr. Pelham, combined on the death of the Prince of Wales, to exclude the Duke of Cumberland from the regency (in case of minority,) and to make them flatter themselves that they should gain the favour of the Princess-dowager by cheating her with the semblance of power.  The Duke resented the slight, but scorned to make any claim.  The Princess never forgave the insidious homage; and, in concurrence with Lord Bute, totally estranged the affection of the young King from his uncle, nor allowed him a shadow of influence.

(119) He had broken with Frederick, Prince of Wales, on having shared the favours of his mistress, Miss Vane, one of the Queen’s maids of honour.  When she fell in labour at St. James’s, and was delivered of a son, which she ascribed to the Prince, Lord Hervey and Lord Harrington each told Sir Robert Walpole that he believed himself father of the child.

(120) the Duke, in his very childhood, gave a mark of his sense and firmness.  He had displeased the Queen, an(f she sent him up to his chamber.  When he appeared again, he was sullen.  “William,” said the Queen, “what have you been doing?”—­ “Reading.”—­“Reading what?”—­“The Bible.”—­“And what did you read there?”—­“About Jesus and Mary.=—­“And what about them?”—­“Why, that Jesus said to Mary, Woman! what hast thou to do with me?”


Anecdotes of Sarah, Duchess of Marlborough-and of Catherine Duchess of Buckingham.

I have done with royal personages:  shall I add a codicil on some remarkable characters that I remember?  As I am writing for young ladies, I have chiefly dwelt on heroines of your own sex; they, too, shall compose my last chapter:  enter the Duchesses of Marlborough and Buckingham.

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Those two women were considerable personages in their day.  The first, her own beauty, the superior talents of her husband in war, and the caprice of a feeble princess, raised to the highest pitch of power; and the prodigious wealth bequeathed to her by her lord, and accumulated in concert with her, gave her weight in a free country.  The other, proud of royal, though illegitimate birth, was, from the vanity of that birth, so zealously attached to her expelled brother, the Pretender, that she never ceased labouring to effect his restoration; and, as the opposition to the House of Brunswick was composed partly of principled Jacobites-of Tories, who either knew not what their own principles were, or dissembled them to themselves, and of Whigs, who, from hatred of the minister, both acted in concert with the Jacobites and rejoiced in their assistance-two women of such wealth, rank, and enmity to the court, were sure of great attention from all the discontented.

The beauty of the Duchess of Marlborough had always been of the scornful and imperious kind, and her features and air announced nothing that her temper did not confirm; both together, her beauty and temper, enslaved her heroic lord.  One of her principal charms was a prodigious abundance of fine fair hair.  One day at her toilet, in anger to him, she cut off those commanding tresses, and flung them in his face.  Nor did her insolence stop there, nor stop till it had totally estranged and worn out the patience of the poor Queen, her mistress.  The Duchess was often seen to give her Majesty her fan and gloves, and turn away her own head, as if the Queen had offensive smells.

Incapable of due respect to superiors, it was no wonder she treated her children and inferiors with supercilious contempt.  Her eldest daughter (121) and she were long at variance, and never reconciled.  When the young Duchess exposed herself by placing a monument and silly epitaph, of her own composition and bad spelling, to Congreve, in Westminster Abbey, her mother, quoting the words, said, “I know not what pleasure she might have in his company, but I am sure it was no honour."(122) With her youngest daughter, the Duchess of Montagu, old Sarah agreed as ill.  “I wonder,” said the Duke of Marlborough to them, “that you cannot agree, you are so alike!” Of her granddaughter, the Duchess of Manchester, daughter of the Duchess of Montagu, she affected to be fond.  One day she said to her, “Duchess of Manchester, you are a good creature, and I love you mightily-but you have a mother!"-"And she has a mother!” answered the Duchess of Manchester, who was all spirit, justice, and honour, and could not suppress sudden truth.

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One of old Marlborough’s capital mortifications sprang from a granddaughter.  The most beautiful of her four charming daughters, Lady Sunderland,(123) left two sons,(124) the second Duke of Marlborough, and John Spencer, who became her heir, and Anne Lady Bateman, and Lady Diana Spencer, whom I have mentioned, and who became Duchess of Bedford.  The Duke and his brother, to humour their grandmother, were in opposition, though the eldest she never loved.  He had good sense, infinite generosity, and not more economy than was to be expected from a young man of warm passions and such vast expectations.  He was modest and diffident too, but could not digest total dependence on a capricious and avaricious grandmother.  His sister, Lady Bateman, had the intriguing spirit of her father and grandfather, Earls of Sunderland.  She was connected with Henry Fox, the first Lord Holland, and both had great influence over the Duke of Marlborough.  What an object would it be to Fox to convert to the court so great a subject as the Duke!  Nor was it much less important to his sister to give him a wife, who, with no reasons for expectation of such shining fortune, should owe the obligation to her.  Lady Bateman struck the first stroke, and persuaded her brother to marry a handsome young lady, who, unluckily, was daughter of Lord Trevor, who had been a bitter enemy to his grandfather, the victorious Duke.  The grandam’s rage exceeded all bounds.  Having a portrait of Lady Bateman, she blackened the face, and wrote on it, “Now her outside is as black as her inside.”  The duke she turned out of the little lodge in Windsor Park; and then pretending that the new Duchess and her female cousins (eight Trevors) had stripped the house and gardens, she had a puppet-show made with waxen figures, representing the Trevors tearing up the shrubs, and the Duchess carrying off the chicken-coop under her arm.

Her fury did but increase when Mr. Fox prevailed on the Duke to go over to the court.  With her coarse intemperate humour, she said, “that was the Fox that had stolen her goose.”  Repeated injuries at last drove the Duke to go to law with her.  Fearing that even no lawyer would come up to the Billingsgate with which she was animated herself, she appeared in the court of justice, and with some wit and infinite abuse, treated the laughing public with the spectacle of a woman who had held the reigns of empire, metamorphosed into the widow Black-acre.  Her grandson, in his suit, demanded a sword set with diamonds, given to his grandsire by the Emperor.  “I retained it,” said the beldam, " lest he should pick out the diamonds and pawn them.”

I will repeat but one more instance of her insolent asperity, which produced an admirable reply of the famous Lady Mary -Wortley Montague.  Lady Sundon had received a pair of diamond ear-rings as a bribe for procuring a considerable post in Queen Caroline’s family for a certain peer; and, decked with those jewels, paid a visit to the old Duchess; who, as soon as she was gone, said, “What an impudent creature, to come hither with her bribe in her ear!” “Madam,” replied Lady Mary Wortley, who was present, “how should people know where wine’ is sold, unless a bush is hung out?”

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The Duchess of Buckingham was as much elated by owing her birth to James ii.(125) as the Marlborough was by the favour of his daughter.  Lady Dorchester,(126) the mother of the former, endeavoured to curb that pride, and, one should have thought, took an effectual method, though one few mothers would have practised.  “You need not be so vain,” said the old profligate, “for you are not the King’s daughter, but Colonel Graham’s.”  Graham was a fashionable man of those days and noted for dry humour.  His legitimate daughter, the Countess of Berkshire, was extremely like to the Duchess of Buckingham:  “Well! well!” said Graham, “Kings are all powerful, and one must not complain; but certainly the same man begot those two women.”  To discredit the wit of both parents, the Duchess never ceased labouring to restore the House of Stuart, and to mark her filial devotion to it.  Frequent were her journeys to the Continent for that purpose.  She always stopped at Paris, visited the church where lay the unburied body of James, and wept over it.  A poor Benedictine of the convent, observing her filial piety, took notice to her grace that the velvet pall that covered the coffin was become threadbare-and so it remained.

Finding all her efforts fruitless, and perhaps aware that her plots were not undiscovered by Sir Robert Walpole, who was remarkable for his intelligence, she made an artful double, and resolved to try what might be done through him himself.  I forget how she contracted an acquaintance with him:  I do remember that more than once he received letters from the Pretender himself, which probably were transmitted through her.  Sir Robert always carried them to George ii. who endorsed and returned them.  That negotiation not succeeding. the Duchess made a more home push.  Learning his extreme fondness for his daughter, (afterwards Lady Mary Churchill,) she sent for Sir Robert, and asked him if he recollected what had not been thought too great a reward to Lord Clarendon for restoring the royal family?  He affected not to understand her.  “Was not he allowed,” urged the zealous Duchess, “to match his daughter to the Duke of York?” Sir Robert smiled, and left her.

Sir Robert being forced from court, the Duchess thought the moment (127) favourable, and took a new journey to Rome; but conscious of the danger she might run of discovery, she made over her estate to the famous Mr. Pulteney (afterwards Earl of Bath), and left the deed in his custody.  What was her astonishment, when on her return she redemanded the instrument!-It was mislaid-he could not find it-he never could find it!  The Duchess grew clamorous.  At last his friend Lord Mansfield told him plainly,- he could never show his face unless he satisfied the Duchess.  Lord Bath did then sign a release to her of her estate.  The transaction was recorded in print by Sir Charles Hanbury Williams, in a pamphlet that had great vogue, called a Congratulatory Letter, with many other anecdotes

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of the same personage, and was not less acute than Sir Charles’s Odes on the same here.  The Duchess dying not long after Sir Robert’s entrance into the House of Lords, Lord Oxford, one of her executors, told him there, that the Duchess had struck Lord Bath out of her will, and made him, Sir Robert, one of her trustees in his room.  “Then,” said Sir Robert, laughing, @ I see, my lord, that I have got Lord Bath’s place before he has got mine.”  Sir Robert had artfully prevented the last.  Before he quitted the King, he persuaded his Majesty to insist, as a preliminary to the change, that Mr. Pulteney should go into the House of Peers, his great credit lying in the other house; and I remember my father’s action when he returned from court and told me what he had done-,, I have turned the key of the closet on him,"-making that motion with his hand.  Pulteney had jumped at the proffered earldom, but saw his error when too late; and was so enraged at his own oversight, that, when he went to take the oaths in the House of Lords, he dashed his patent on the floor, and vowed he would never take it up-but he had kissed the King’s hand for it, and it was too late to recede.

But though Madam of Buckingham could not effect a coronation to her will, she indulged her pompous mind with such puppet-shows as were appropriate to her rank.  She had made a funeral for her husband as splendid as that of the great Marlborough:  she renewed that pageant for her only son, a weak lad, who died under age; and for herself; and prepared and decorated -waxen dolls of him and of herself to be exhibited in glass-cases in Westminster Abbey.  It was for the procession at her son’s burial that she wrote to old Sarah of Marlborough to borrow the triumphal car that had transported the corpse of the Duke.  “It carried my Lord Marlborough,” replied the other, and shall never be used for any body else.”  “I have consulted the undertaker,” replied the Buckingham, and he tells me I may have a finer for twenty pounds.”

One of the last acts of Buckingham’s life was marrying a grandson she had to a daughter of Lord Hervey.  That intriguing man, sore, as I have said, at his disgrace, cast his eyes every where to revenge or exalt himself.  Professions or recantations of any principles cost him nothing:  at least the consecrated day which was appointed for his first interview with the Duchess made it presumed, that to obtain her wealth, with her grandson for his daughter, he must have sworn fealty to the House of Stuart.  It was on the martyrdom of her grandfather:  she received him in the great drawing-room of Buckingham House, seated in a chair of state, in deep mourning, attended by her women in like weeds, in memory of the royal martyr.

It will be a proper close to the history of those curious ladies to mention the anecdote of Pope relative to them.  Having drawn his famous character of Atossa, he communicated it to each Duchess, pretending it was levelled at the other.  The Buckingham believed him:  the Marlborough had more sense, and knew herself, and gave him a thousand pounds to suppress it;-and yet he left the copy behind him!(128)

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Bishop Burnet, from absence of mind, had drawn as strong a picture of herself to the Duchess of Marlborough, as Pope did under covert of another lady.  Dining with the Duchess after the Duke’s disgrace, Burnet was comparing him to Belisarius:  “But how,” said she, “could so great a general be so abandoned?” “Oh!  Madam,” said the Bishop, “do not you know what a brimstone of a wife he had’!”

Perhaps you know this anecdote, and perhaps several others that I have been relating.  No matter; they will go under the article of my dotage-and very properly-I began with tales of my nursery, and prove that I have been writing in my second childhood.

H. W. January 13th, 1789.

(121) The Lady Henrietta, married to Lord Godolphin, who, by act of Parliament, succeeded as Duchess of Marlborough.  She died in 1738, childless; and the issue of her next sister, Lady Sunderland, succeeded to the duchy of Marlborough.-E.

(122) “For reasons,” says Dr. Johnson, “either not known, or not mentioned, Congreve bequeathed a legacy of about ten thousand pounds to the Duchess; the accumulation of attentive parsimony, which, though to her superfluous and useless, might have given great assistance to the ancient family from which he descended, at that time, by the imprudence of his relation, reduced to difficulties and distress."-E.

(123) Lady Sunderland was a great politician; and having, like her mother, a most beautiful head of hair, used, while combing it at her toilet, to receive men whose votes or interests she wished to influence.

(124) She had an elder son, who died young, while only Earl of Sunderland.  He had parts, and all the ambition of his parents and of his family (which his younger brother had not); but George ii. had conceived such an aversion to his father, that he would not employ him.  The young Earl at last asked Sir Robert Walpole for an ensigncy in the Guards.  The minister, astonished at so humble a request from a man of such consequence, expressed his surprise.  “I ask it,” said the young lord, “to ascertain whether it is determined that I shall never have any thing.”  He died soon after at Paris.

(125) By Catherine Sedley, created by her royal lover Countess of Dorchester for life.-E.

(126) Lady Dorchester is well known for her wit, and for saying that she wondered for what James chose his mistresses:  “We are none of us handsome,” said she; “and if we have wit, he has not enough to find it out.”  But I do not know whether it is as public, that her style was gross and shameless.  Meeting the Duchess of Portsmouth and Lady Orkney, the favourite of King William, at the drawing-room of George the First, “God!” said she, “who would have thought that we three whores should have met here?” Having, after the King’s abdication, married Sir David Collyer, by whom she had two sons, she said to them, " If any body should call you sons of a whore, you must bear it; for you are so:  but if they call you bastards, fight till you die; for you are an honest man’s sons.”  Susan, Lady Bellasis, another of King James’s mistresses, had wit too, and no beauty.  Mrs. Godfrey had neither.  Grammont has recorded why she was chosen.

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(127) I am not quite certain that, writing by memory at the distance of fifty years, I place that journey exactly at the right period, nor whether it did not take place before Sir Robert’s fall.  Nothing material depends on the precise period.

(128) The story is thus told by Dr. Warton:-” These lines were shown to her grace, as if they were intended for the portrait of the Duchess of Buckingham; but she soon stopped the person who was reading them to her, as the Duchess of Portland informed me, and called out aloud, “I cannot be so imposed upon; I see plainly enough for whom they are designed;” and abused Pope most plentifully on the subject:  though she was afterwards reconciled to him, and courted him, and gave him a thousand pounds to suppress this portrait, which he a accepted, it is said, by the persuasion of Mrs. M. Blount; and, after the Duchess’s death, it was printed in a folio sheet, 1746, and afterwards inserted in his Moral Essays.  This is the greatest blemish on our poet’s moral character."-E.

The following extracts from Letters of Sarah, Duchess of Marlborough, were copied by me from the original letters addressed to the Earl of Stair, left by him to Sir David Dalrymple, his near relative, and lent to me by Sir David’s brother, Mr. Alexander Dalrymple, long employed as Geographer in the service of the East India company.  They formed part of a large volume of ms. letters, chiefly from the same person.

The Duchess of Marlborough’s virulence, her prejudices, her style of writing, are already well known, and every line of these extracts will only serve to confirm the same opinion of all three.  But it will, probably, be thought curious thus to be able to compare the notes of the opposite political parties, and their different account of the same trifling facts, magnified by the prejudices of both into affairs of importance.

January, 1840

Extracts from the letters of Sarah, duchess of
to the earl of Stair,
illustrative ofThe reminiscences.” 
(Now first published.)

(See Reminiscences, p. 97.)

London, Feb. 24th, 1738. . . . .  As to Norfolk House, (129) I have heard there is a great deal of company, and that the Princess of Wales, tho’ so very young, behaves so as to please every body; and I think her conversation is much more proper and decent for a drawing-room than the wise queen Caroline’s was, who never was half an hour without saying something shocking to some body or other, even when she intended to oblige, and generally very improper discourse for a public room.

[See p. 98.  Reminiscences, Chapter Vii]

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London, December 24th, 1737.  My Lord, I received the favour of yours of the 17th December yesterday.  I have nothing material to say to you since my last.  His Majesty saw the Queen’s women servants first, which was a very mournful sight, for they all cried extremely; and his Majesty was so affected that he began to speak, but went out of the room to recover himself.  And yesterday he saw the foreign ministers and his horses, which I remember Dean Swift gives a great character of; and was very sorry to leave them for the conversation of his countrymen in England.; and I think he was much in the right.

[See P. 98.  Reminiscences, Chapter Vii)

Marlborough House, Nov. 15, 1737.  It is not many days since I wrote to your lordship by post, but one can’t be sure those letters are sent.  However, I have a mind to give you an account of what, perhaps, you may not have so particularly from any other hand.  This day, se’nnight the Queen was taken extremely ill; the physicians were sent for, and from the account that was given, they treated her as if she had the gout in her stomach:  but, upon a thorough investigation of the matter, a surgeon desired that she would put her hand where the pain was that she complained of, which she did; and the surgeon, following her hand with his, found it was a very large rupture, which had been long Concealed.  Upon this, immediately they cut it, and some little part of the gut, which was discoloured.  Few of the knowing people have had any hopes for many days; for they still apprehend a mortification, and she can’t escape it unless the physicians can make something pass thro’ her, which they have not yet been able to do in so many days.  The King and the Royal Family have taken leave of her more than once; and his Majesty has given her leave to make her will, which she has done; but I fancy it will be in such a manner that few, if any, will know what her money amounts to.  Sir Robert Walpole was in Norfolk, and came to -London but last night.  I can’t but think he must be extremely uneasy at this misfortune; for I have a notion that many of his troops will slacken very much, if not quite leave him, when they see he has lost his sure support.  But there is so much folly, and mean corruption, etc.

London, December 1st, 1737. . . . .  As to what has passed in the Queen’s illness, and since her death, one can’t depend on much one hears; and they are things that it is no great matter whether they are true or false.  But one thing was odd:  whether out of folly, or any thing else, I can’t say, but the Duke of Newcastle did not send Sir Robert Walpole news of her illness, nor of her danger, as soon as he might have done; and after he came to town, which was but a few days before she died, and when she could no more live than she can now come out of her coffin, the physicians, and all that attended her, were ordered to say she was better, and that they had some hopes.  What the use of that was I cannot conceive.  And the occasion of her death is still pretended to be a secret:  yet it is known that she had a rupture, and had it for many years; that she had imposthumes that broke, and that some of the guts were mortified.  This is another mystery which I don’t comprehend; for what does it signify what one dies of, except the pain it gives more than common dissolutions? etc.

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[See p. 100.  Reminiscences, Chapter Vii)

I am Of the opinion, from woful experience, that, from flattery and want of understanding, most princes are alike; and, therefore, it is to no purpose to argue against their passions, but to defend ourselves, at all events, against them.

[See P. 100.  Reminiscences, Chapter vii]

Wimbledon, 17th Aug. 1737.  There has been a very extraordinary quarrel at court, which, I believe, nobody will give you so exact an account of as myself.  The 31st of last month the Princess fell in labour.  The King and Queen both knew that she was to lie in -,it St. James’s, where every thing was prepared.  It was her first child, and so little a way to London, that she thought it less hazard to go immediately away from Hampton Court to London, where she had all the assistance that could be, and every thing prepared, than to stay at Hampton Court, where she had nothing, and might be forced to make use of a country midwife.  There was not a minute’s time to be lost in debating this matter, nor in ceremonials; the Princess begging earnestly of the Prince to carry her to St. James’s, in such a hurry that gentlemen went behind the coach like footmen.  They got to St. James’s safe, and she was brought to bed in one hour after.  Her Majesty followed them as soon as she could, but did not come till it was all over.  However, she expressed a great deal of anger to the Prince for having carried her away, tho’ she and the child were very well.  I should have thought it had been most natural for a grandmother to have said she had been mightily frightened, but was glad it was so well over.  The Prince said all the respectful and dutiful things imaginable to her and the King, desiring her Majesty to support the reasons which made him go away as he did without acquainting his Majesty with it:  and, I believe, all human creatures will allow that this was natural, for a man not to debate a thing of this kind, nor to lose a minute’s time in ceremony, which was very useless, considering that it is a great while since the King has spoke to him, or taken the least notice of him.  The Prince told her Majesty he intended to go that morning to pay his duty to the King, but she advised him not.  This was Monday morning, and she said Wednesday was time enough; and, indeed, in that I think her Majesty was in the right. the Prince submitted to her counsel, and only writ a most submissive and respectful letter to his Majesty, giving his reasons for what he had done.  And this conversation ended, that he hoped his Majesty would do him the honour to be godfather to his daughter, and that he would be pleased to name who the godmothers should be; and that he left all the directions of the christening to his Majesty’s pleasure.  The queen answered that it would be thought the asking the King to be godfather was too great a liberty, and advised him not to do it.  When the Prince led the Queen to her coach, which she would not have

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had him done, there was a great concourse of people; and, notwithstanding all that had passed before, she expressed so much kindness that she hugged and kissed him with great passion. the King, after this, sent a message in writing, by my Lord Essex, in the following words:-that his Majesty looked upon what the Prince had done, in carrying the Princess to London in such a manner, as a deliberate indignity offered to himself and to the Queen, and resented it in the highest degree, and forbid him the Court.  I must own I cleared Sir Robert in my own mind of this counsel, thinking he was not in town:  but it has proved otherwise, for he was in town; and the message is drawn up in such a manner that nobody doubts of its being done by sir Robert.  All the sycophants and agents of the court spread millions of falsities on this occasion; and all the language there was, that this was so great a crime that even those who went with the Prince ought to be proscribed.  How this will end nobody yet knows; at least I am sure I don’t; but I know there was a council today held at Hampton court.  I have not heard yet of any christening being directed, but for that I am in no manner of pain:  for, if it be never christened, I think ’tis in a better state than a great many devout people that I know.  Some talk as if they designed to take the child away from the Princess, to be under the care of her Majesty, who professes vast kindness to the Princess; and all the anger is at the Prince.  Among common subjects I think the law is, that nobody that has any interest in an estate is to have any thing to do with the person who is heir to it.  What prejudice this sucking child can do to the crown I don’t see; but, to be sure, her Majesty will be very careful of it.  What I apprehend most. is, that the crown will be lost long before this little Princess can possibly enjoy it; and, if what I have heard to-day be true, I think the scheme of France is going to open; for I was told there was an ambassador to come from France whose goods had been landed in England, and that they have been sent back.  But I won’t answer for the truth of that, as I will upon every thing else in this letter.

[See p. 100.  Reminiscences, Chapter vii]

June 20th, 1738.  My Lord, I write to you this post, to give you an account of what I believe nobody else will so particularly, that Madame Walmond (130) was presented in the drawing-room to his Majesty on Thursday.  As she arrived some days before, there can be no doubt that it was not the first meeting, tho’ the manner of her reception had the appearance of it; for his Majesty went up to her and kissed her on both sides, which is an honour, I believe, never any lady had from a king in public.  And when his Majesty went away, Lord Harrington presented the great men in the ministry and the foreign ministers in the drawing-room; the former of which performed their part with the utmost respect and submission.  This is, likewise, quite new; for, though all kings have had mistresses, they were attended at their own lodgings, and not in so public a manner.  I conclude they performed that ceremony too; but they could not lose the first opportunity of paying their respects, though ever so improperly.

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These great men were, the Duke of Newcastle, Sir Robert Walpole, my Lord Wilmington, my Lord Harrington, and Mr. Pelham.  My Lord Hervey had not the honour to be on the foot of a minister. . . .

I have nothing more to say, but that this Madame Walmond is at present in a mighty mean dirty lodging in St. James’s Street.  Her husband came with her, but he is going away; and that house that was Mr. Seymour’s, in Hyde Park, which opens into the King’s garden, is fitting up for her; -and the Duchess of Kendal’s lodgings are making ready for her at St. James’s.  There is nothing more known at present as to the settlement, but that directions are given for one upon the establishment of Ireland. perhaps that mayn’t exceed the Duchess of Kendal’s, which was three thousand pounds a-year.  But ’tis easy for the first minister to increase that as she pleases.

[See p. 101.]

London, December 3rd, 1737.  I saw one yesterday that dined with my Lord Fanny, (131) who, as soon as he had dined, was sent for to come up to his Majesty, and there is all the appearance that can be of great favour to his lordship.  I mentioned him in my last, and I will now give you an account of some things concerning his character, that I believe you don’t know.  What I am going to say I am sure is as true as if I had been a transactor in it myself.  And I will begin the relation with Mr. Lepelle, my Lord Fanny’s wife’s father, having made her a cornet in his regiment as soon as she was born, which is no more wrong to the design of an army than if she had been a son:  and she was paid many years after she was a maid of honour.  She was extreme forward and pert; and my Lord Sunderland got her a pension of the late King, it being too ridiculous to continue her any longer an officer in the army.  And into the bargain, she was to be a spy; but what she could tell to deserve a pension, I cannot comprehend.  However, King George the First used to talk to her very much; and this encouraged my Lord Fanny and her to undertake a very extraordinary project:  and she went to the drawing-room every night, and publicly attacked his Majesty in a most vehement manner, insomuch that it was the diversion of all the town; which alarmed the Duchess of Kendal, and the ministry that governed her, to that degree, lest the King should be put in the opposers’ hands, that they determined to buy my Lady H- off; and they gave her 4000 pounds to desist, which she did, and my Lord Fanny bought a good house with it, and furnished it very well.

[See p. 106.  Reminiscences, Chapter ix]

London, March 19th, 1738.  My Lord, I have received the favour of yours of the 11th by the post, but not that which you mention by another hand.  And since you can like such sort of accounts as I am able to give you, I will continue to do it.  I think it is very plain now that Sir Robert don’t think it worth his while to make any proposals where it was once suspected he would.  And his wedding was

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celebrated as if he had been King of France, and the apartments furnished in the richest manner:  crowds of people of the first quality being presented to the bride, who is the daughter of a clerk that sung the psalms in a church where Dr. Sacheverell was.  After the struggle among the court ladies who should have the honour of presenting her, which the Duchess of Newcastle obtained, it was thought more proper to have her presented by one of her own family; otherwise it would look as if she had no alliances:  and therefore that ceremony was performed by Horace Walpole’s wife, who was daughter to my tailor, Lumbar.  I read in a print lately, that an old gentleman, very rich, had married a maiden lady with two fatherless children but the printer did not then know the gentleman’s name.

March 27th, 1738.  ’I think I did not tell you that the Duke of Dorset waited on my Lady Walpole to congratulate her marriage, with the same ceremony as if it had been one of the Royal Family, with his white staff, which has not been used these many years, but when they attend the Crown.  But such a wretch as he is I hardly know; and his wife, whose passion is only money, assists him in his odious affair with Lady Betty Jermyn, who has a great deal to dispose of; who, notwithstanding the great pride of the Berkeley family, married an innkeeper’s son.  But indeed there was some reason for that; for she was ugly, without a portion, and in her youth had an unlucky accident with one of her father’s servants; and by that match she got money to entertain herself all manner of ways.  I tell you these things, which did not happen in your time of knowledge, which is a melancholy picture of what the world is come to; for this strange woman has had a great influence over many.

Feb. 24th. 1738.  Monday next is fixed for presenting Mrs. Skerrit at court:  and there has been great solicitation from the court ladies who should do it, in which the Duchess of Newcastle has succeeded, and all the apartment is made ready for Sir Robert’s lady, at his house at the Cockpit. (132) I never saw her in my life, but at auctions; but I remember I liked her as to behaviour very well, and I believe she has a great deal of sense:  and I am not one of the number that wonder so much at this match; for the King of France married Madame de Maintenon, and many men have done the same thing.  But as to the public, I do believe never was any man so great a villain as Sir Robert.

Wednesday, Feb. 16th, 1741.
.....Some changes are made as to employments; but very few are
brought in but such as will be easily governed, and brought to
act so as to keep their places.   I have inquired often about your
lordship, who I have not yet heard named in this alteration.   And
I have been told that Lords Chesterfield and Gower are to have
nothing in the government, which I think a very ill sign of what
is intended;  because that can be for no reason but because you
are all such men as are incapable of ever being prevailed on by
any arts to act any thing contrary to honour and the true
interests of our country.

(129) Where the Prince and Princess of Wales then resided.

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(130 Welmoden.

(131 John, Lord Hervey, so called by Pope.

(132) Where the Prince and Princess of Wales then resided.

                     Correspondence of Horace walpole
                              Earl of Orford

121 Letter 1 To Richard West, Esq. (133) King’s College, Nov 9, 1735,

Dear West, You expect a long letter from me, and have said in verse all that I intended to have said in far inferior prose.  I intended filling three or four sides with exclamations against a University life; but you have showed me how strongly they may be expressed in three or four lines.  I can’t build without straw; nor have I the ingenuity of the spider, to spin fine lines out of dirt:  a master of a college would make but a miserable figure as a hero of a poem, and Cambridge sophs are too low to introduce into a letter that aims not at punning: 

Haud equidem invideo vati, quem pulpita pascunt.

But why mayn’t we hold a classical correspondence?  I can never forget the many agreeable hours we have passed in reading Horace and Virgil; and I think they are topics will never grow stale.  Let us extend the Roman empire, and cultivate two barbarous towns o’er -run with rusticity and Mathematics.  The creatures are so used to a circle, that they Plod on in the same eternal round, with their whole view confined to a punctum, cujus nulla est pars:  “Their time a moment, and a point their space.”

Orabunt causas melius, coelique meatus
Describent radio, et surgentia sidera dicent
Tu coluisse novem Musas, Romane, memento;
Hae tibi crunt artes. . . .

We have not the least poetry stirring here; for I can’t call verses on the 5th of November and 30th of January by that name, more than four lines on a chapter in the New Testament is an epigram.  Tydeus (134) rose and set at Eton:  he is only known here to be a scholar of King’s.  Orosmades and Almanzor are just the same; that is, I am almost the only person they are acquainted with, and consequently the only person acquainted with their excellencies.  Plato improves every day; so does my friendship with him.  These three divide my whole time, though I believe you will guess there is no quadruple alliance; (135) that was a happiness which I only enjoyed when you was at Eton.  A short account of the Eton people at Oxford would much oblige, my dear West, your faithful friend, H. Walpole.

(133) Richard West was the only son of the Right Honourable Richard West, Lord Chancellor of Ireland, by Elizabeth, daughter of the celebrated Dr. Burnet, Bishop of Salisbury.  When this correspondence commences, Mr. West was nineteen years old, and Mr. Walpole one year younger. [West died on the 1st of January, 1742, at the premature age of twenty-six.  He had a great genius for poetry.  His correspondence with Gray, and several of his poems, are included in the collection of letters published by Mr. Mason.  West’s father published an able discourse of treasons and bills of attainder, and a tract on the manner of creating peers.  He also wrote several essays in “The Freethinker;” and was the reputed author of a tragedy called “Hecuba;” which was performed at Drury Lane theatre in 1726.]

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(134) Tydeus, Orosmades, Almanzor, and Plato, were names which had been given by them to some of their Eton schoolfellows.

(135) Thus as boys they had called the intimacy formed at Eton between Walpole, Gray, West, and Ashton.


122 Letter 2 To George Montagu, Esq. (136) King’s College, May 2, 1736.

Dear Sir, Unless I were to be married myself, I should despair ever being able to describe a wedding so well as you have done:  had I known your talent before, I would have desired an epithalamium.  I believe the princess (137) will have more beauties bestowed on her by the occasional poets, than even a painter would afford her.  They will cook up a new Pandora, and in the bottom of the box enclose Hope, that all they have said is true.  A great many, out of excess of good breeding, having heard it was rude to talk Latin before women, propose complimenting her in English; which she will be much the better for.  I doubt most of them instead of fearing their compositions should not be understood, should fear they should:  they write they don’t know what, to be read by they don’t know who.  You have made me a very unreasonable request, which I will answer with another as extraordinary:  you desire I would burn your letters; I desire you would keep mine.  I know but of one way of making what I send you useful, which is, by sending you a blank sheet:  sure you would not grudge three-pence for a half-penny sheet, when you give as much for one not worth a farthing.  You drew this last paragraph on you by your exordium, as you call it, and conclusion.  I hope, for the future, our correspondence will run a little more glibly, with dear George, and dear Harry; not as formally as if we were playing a game at chess in Spain and Portugal; and Don Horatio was to have the honour Of specifying to Don Georgio, by an epistle, whether he would move.  In one point I would have our correspondence like a game at chess; it should last all our lives-but I hear you cry check; adieu!  Dear George, yours ever.

(136) George Montagu was the son of Brigadier-General Edward Montagu, and nephew to the Earl of Halifax.  He was member of parliament for Northampton, usher of the black rod in Ireland during the lieutenancy of the Earl of Halifax, ranger of Salsey Forest, and private secretary to Lord North when chancellor of the exchequer. [And of him “it is now only remembered,” says the “Quarterly Review,” vol. xix. p. 131, “that he was a gentleman-like body of the vieille cour, and that he was usually attended by his brother John, (the Little John of Walpole’s correspondence,) who was a midshipman at the age of sixty, and found his chief occupation in carrying about his brother’s snuff-box.”]

(137) Augusta, Princess of Saxe-Gotha, married, in April, 1736, to Frederick Lewis, Prince of Wales.

123 Letter 3 To George Montagu, Esq.  King’s College, May 6, 1736.

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Dear George, I agree with you entirely in the pleasure you take in talking over old stories, but can’t say but I meet every day with new circumstances, which will be still more pleasure to me to recollect.  I think at our age ’tis excess of joy, to think, while we are running over past happinesses, that it is still in our power to enjoy as great.  Narrations of the greatest actions of other people are tedious in comparison of the serious trifles that every man can call to mind of himself while he was learning those histories.  Youthful passages of life are the chippings of Pitt’s diamond, set into little heart-rings with mottos; the stone itself more worth, the filings more gentle and agreeable.  Alexander, at the head of the world, never tasted the true pleasure that boys of his own age have enjoyed at the head of a school.  Little intrigues, little schemes, and policies engage their thoughts; and, at the same time that they are laying the foundation for their middle age of life, the mimic republic they live in furnishes materials of conversation for their latter age; and old men cannot be said to be children a second time with greater truth from any one cause, than their living over again their childhood in imagination.  To reflect on the season when first they felt the titillation of love, the budding passions, and the first dear object of their wishes! how unexperienced they gave credit to all the tales of romantic loves!  Dear George, were not the playing fields at Eton food for all manner of flights?  No old maid’s gown, though it had been tormented into all the fashions from King James to King George, ever underwent so many transformations as those poor plains have in my idea.  At first I was contented with tending a visionary flock, and sighing some pastoral name to the echo of the cascade under the bridge.  How happy should I have been to have had a kingdom only for the pleasure of being driven from it, and living disguised in an humble vale!  As I got further into Virgil and Clelia, I found myself transported from Arcadia to the garden of Italy; and saw Windsor Castle in no other view than the Capitoli immobile saxum.  I wish a committee of the House of Commons may ever seem to be the senate; or a bill appear half so agreeable as a billet-doux.  You see how deep you have carried me into old stories; I write of them with pleasure, but shall talk of them with more to you.  I can’t say I am sorry I was never quite a schoolboy:  an expedition against bargemen, or a match at cricket, may be very pretty things to recollect; but, thank my stars, I can remember things very near as pretty.  The beginning of my Roman history was spent in the asylum, or conversing in Egeria’s hallowed grove; not in thumping and pommelling king Amulius’s herdsmen.  I was sometimes troubled with a rough creature or two from the plough; one, that one should have thought, had worked with his head, as well as his hands, they were both so callous.  One of the most agreeable circumstances I can recollect is the Triumvirate, composed of yourself, Charles,(138) and Your sincere friend.

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(138) Colonel Charles Montagu, afterwards Lieutenant-General, and Knight of the Bath, and brother of George Montagu.  He married Elizabeth Villiers, Viscountess Grandison, daughter of the Earl of Grandison.

124 Letter 4 To George Montagu, Esq.  King’s College, May 20, 1736.

Dear George:  You will excuse my not having written to you, when you hear I have been a jaunt to Oxford.  As you have seen it, I shall only say I think it one of the most agreeable places I ever set my eyes on.  In our way thither we stopped at the Duke of Kent’s, (139) at Wrest. (140) On the great staircase is a picture of the duchess; (141) I said it was very like; oh, dear sir! said Mrs. Housekeeper, it’s too handsome for my lady duchess; her grace’s chin is much longer than that.

In the garden are monuments in memory of Lord Harold (142) Lady Glenorchy, (143) the late duchess,(144) and the present duke.  At Lord Clarendon’s (145) at Cornbury,(146) is a prodigious quantity of Vandykes; but I had not time to take down any of their dresses.  By the way, you gave me no account of the last masquerade.  Coming back, we saw Easton Neston,(147) a seat of Lord Pomfret, where in an old greenhouse is a wonderful fine statue of Tully, haranguing a numerous assembly of decayed emperors, vestal virgins with new noses, Colossuses, Venuses, headless carcases, and carcaseless heads, pieces of tombs, and hieroglyphics.(148) I saw Althorp(149) the same day, where are a vast many pictures-some mighty good; a gallery with the Windsor beauties, and Lady Bridgewater(150) who is full as handsome as any of them; a bouncing head of, I believe, Cleopatra, called there the Duchess of Mazarine.  The park is enchanting.  I forgot to tell you I was at Blenheim, where I saw nothing but a cross housekeeper, and an impertinent porter, except a few pictures, a quarry of stone that looked at a distance like a great house, and about this quarry, quantities of inscriptions in honour of the Duke of Marlborough, and I think of her grace too.

Adieu! dear George, Yours ever.

The verses are not published.

(139) Henry de Grey, Duke, Marquis, and Earl of Kent, son of Anthony Earl of Kent, and Mary, daughter of Lord Lucas. [The duke, who had been so created in 1710, having lost all his sons during his lifetime, obtained a new patent in 1740, creating him Marquis Grey, with remainder to his grand-daughter Jemima Campbell, daughter of his eldest daughter, Lady amabel Grey, by her husband John, third Earl of Breadalbane.  On the death of the duke, in June 1740, the marquisate of Grey and barony of Lucas, together with the Wrest House and all the vast estates of the duke, devolved upon his grand-daughter, Lady Jemima Campbell, then Lady Jemima Royston, she having married Philip Viscount Royston, eldest son of the Earl of Hardwicke, by whom she had two daughters, Amabel married in July 1772, to Lord Polwarth, only son of the Earl of Marchmont,

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created a peer of Great Britain by the title of Baron Hume of Berwick, and who died in 1781 without issue:  her ladyship was advanced to the dignity of Countess de Grey by letters patent, in 1816, with remainder of that earldom to her sister Mary Jemima, wife of Thomas second Lord Grantham, and that lady’s male issue.  Lady Grantham died in 1830; and upon the death of the countess, in 1833, she was succeeded under the patent by her nephew Lord Grantham, the present Earl de Grey.]

(140) Wrest House in Bedfordshire. [It is remarkable that, from the death of the Duke of Kent, Wrest House has never remained a second generation in the same family, but has descended successively through females to the families of Yorke Earl of Hardwicke, Hume Earl of Marchmont, and is now vested in that of Robinson Lord Grantham, the great-great-grandson of the duke.)

(141) Lady Sophia Bentinck, second wife of the Duke of Kent, and daughter to William Earl of Portland.

(142) Anthony Earl of Harold, eldest son of the Duke of Kent. [Married to Lady Mary Grafton, daughter of the Earl of Thanet.  He died without issue, in 1723, in consequence of an ear of barley sticking in his throat.  His widow, who survived many years, afterwards married John first Earl Gower.]

(143) Amabella, eldest daughter of the Duke of Kent, married to John Campbell, Lord Viscount Glenorchy, son of Lord Breadalbane.

(144) Jemima, eldest daughter of Lord Crewe, and first wife of the Duke of Kent.

(145) Henry Earl of Clarendon and Rochester, son of Laurence Earl of Rochester.

(146) In the county of Oxford.

(147) Easton Neston, the ancient family seat of the Fermor family, had been rebuilt by Sir William Fermor who was elevated to the peerage by the title of Baron Lempster of Lempster, or Leominster, county of Hereford; and whose only son Thomas, second baron, was advanced to the earldom of Pomfret in 1721.-E.

(148) Part of the invaluable collection of the great Earl of Arundel.  They had been formerly purchased by John Lord Jefferies, Baron of Wem; and in 1755 were presented by his daughter, the Countess-dowager of Pomfret, to the University of Oxford.-E.

(149) The seat of Charles, fifth Earl of Sunderland; who, upon the demise of his aunt Henrietta, eldest daughter of John Duke of Marlborough, succeeded to the honours of his illustrious grandfather.  Althorp is now the seat of Earl Spencer.  An account of the mansion, its pictures, etc. was published by Dr. Dibdin, in 1822, under the title of “Edes Althorpianae,” as a supplement to his “Bibliotheca Spenceriana."-E.

(150) Elizabeth, third daughter of the great Duke of Marlborough, and wife of Scroop, Earl and afterwards first Duke of Bridgewater.  She died, however, previous to her husband’s advancement to the dukedom.-E.

126 Letter 5 To George Montagu, Esq.  King’s College, May 30, 1736.

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Dear George, You show me in the prettiest manner how much you like Petronius Arbiter; I have heard you commend him, but I am more pleased with your tacit approbation of writing like him, prose interspersed with verse:  I shall send you soon in return some poetry interspersed with prose; I mean the Cambridge congratulation with the notes, as you desired.  I have transcribed the greatest part of what was tolerable at the coffee-houses; but by most of what you will find, you will hardly think I have left any thing worse behind.  There is lately come out a new piece, called A Dialogue between Philemon and Hydaspes on false religion, by one Mr. Coventry,(151) A.M., and fellow, formerly fellow-commoner, of Magdalen.  He is a young man, but ’tis really a pretty thing.  If you cannot get it in town, I will send it with the verses.  He accounts for superstition in a new manner, and I think a Just One; attributing it to disappointments in love.  He don’t resolve it all into that bottom; ascribes it almost wholly as the source of female enthusiasm; and I dare say there’s ne’er a girl from the age of fourteen to four-and-twenty, but will subscribe to his principles, and own, if the dear man were dead that she loves, she would settle all her affection on heaven, whither he was gone.

Who would not be an Artemisia, and raise the stately mausoleum to her lord; then weep and watch incessant over it like the Ephesian matron!

I have heard of one lady, who had not quite so great a veneration for her husband’s tomb, but preferred lying alone in one, to lying on his left hand; perhaps she had an aversion to the German custom of left-handed wives.  I met yesterday with a pretty little dialogue on the subject of constancy tis between a traveller and a dove

Le passant
Que fais tu dans ce bois, plaintive Tourturelle?

Je g`emis, j’ai perdu ma compagne fidelle.

Le passant
Ne crains tu pas que l’oiseleur
Ne te fasse mourir comme elle?

La Tourturelle. 
Si ce n’est lui, ce sera ma douleur.

’Twould have been a little more apposite, if she had grieved for her lover.  I have ventured to turn it into that view, lengthened it, and spoiled it, as you shall see.

P.-Plaintive turtle, cease your moan;
Hence away;
In this dreary wood alone
Why d’ye stay?

T.-These tears, alas! you see flow
For my mate! 
P.-Dread you not from net or bow
His sad fate?

T.-If, ah! if they neither kill,
Sorrow will.

You will excuse this gentle nothing, I mean mine, when I tell you, I translated it out of pure good-nature for the use of a disconsolate wood-pigeon in our grove, that was made a widow by the barbarity of a gun.  She coos and calls me so movingly, ’twould touch your heart to hear her.  I protest to you it grieves me to pity her.  She is so allicholy as any thing.  I’ll warrant you now she’s as sorry as one of us would be.  Well, good man, he’s gone, and he died like a lamb.  She’s an unfortunate woman, but she must have patience; tis what we must all come to, and so as I was saying, Dear George, good bye t’ye, Yours sincerely.

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P. S. I don’t know yet when I shall leave Cambridge.

(151) Mr. Henry Coventry was the son of Henry Coventry, Esq. who had a good estate in Cambridgeshire.  He was born in 1710, and died in 1752.  He wrote four additional Dialogues.  The five were republished shortly after his death, by his cousin, the Rev. Francis Coventry.  The following is transcribed from the MSS. of the Rev. W. Cole:-

“When Henry Coventry first came to the University, he was of a religious turn of mind, as was Mr. Horace Walpole; even so much so as to go with Ashton, his then great friend, to pray with the prisoners in the Castle.  Afterwards, both Mr. Coventry and Mr. Walpole took to the infidel side of the question."-E.

127 Letter 6 To Richard West, Esq.  King’s College, Aug. 17, 1736.

Dear West, Gray is at Burnham,(152) and, what is surprising, has not been at Eton.  Could you live so near it without seeing it?  That dear scene of our quadruple-alliance would furnish me with the most agreeable recollections.  ’Tis the head of our genealogical table, that is since sprouted out into the two branches of Oxford and Cambridge.  You seem to be the eldest son, by having got a whole inheritance to yourself; while the manor of Granta is to be divided between your three younger brothers, Thomas of Lancashire, [153] Thomas of London [154] and Horace.  We don’t wish you dead to enjoy your seat, but your seat dead to enjoy you.  I hope you are a mere elder brother, and live upon what your father left you, and in the way you ’were brought up in, poetry:  but we are supposed to betake ourselves to some trade, as logic, philosophy, or mathematics.  If I should prove a mere younger brother, and not turn to any Profession, would you receive me, and supply me out of your stock, where you have such plenty?  I have been so used to the delicate food of Parnassus, that I can never condescend to apply to the grosser studies of Alma Mater.  Sober cloth of syllogism colour suits me ill; or, what’s worse, I hate clothes that one must prove to be of no colour at all.  If the Muses coelique vias et sidera monstrent, and qua vi maria alta lumescant. why accipiant:  but ’tis thrashing, to study philosophy in the abstruse authors.  I am not against cultivating these studies, as they are certainly useful; but then they quite neglect all polite literature, all knowledge of this world.  Indeed, such people have not much occasion for this latter; for they shut themselves up from it, and study till they know less than any one.  Great mathematicians have been of great use; but the generality of them are quite unconversible:  they frequent the stars, sub pedibusque vident nubes, but they can’t see through them.  I tell you what I see; that by living amongst them, I write of nothing else:  my letters are all parallelograms, two sides equal to two sides; and every paragraph an axiom, that tells you nothing but what every mortal almost knows.  By the way, your letters come under this description; for they contain nothing but what almost every mortal knows too, that knows you-that is, they are extremely agreeable, which they know you are capable of making them:-no one is better acquainted with it than Your sincere friend.

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(152) in Buckinghamshire, where his uncle resided.

(153) Thomas Ashton.  He was afterwards fellow of Eton College, rector of St. Botolph, Bishopsgate-street, and preacher to the Society of Lincoln’s-inn.  It was to him that Mr. Walpole addressed the poetical epistle from Florence, first published in Dodsley’s collection of poems.

(154) Thomas Gray, the poet.


128 Letter 7 To George Montagu Esq.  King’s College, March 20, 1737.

Dear George, The first paragraph in my letter must be in answer to the last in yours; though I should be glad to make you the return you ask, by waiting on you myself.  ’Tis not in my power, from more circumstances than One, which are needless to tell you, to accompany you and Lord Conway(155) to Italy:  you add to the pleasure it would give me, by asking it so kindly.  You I am infinitely obliged to, as I was capable, my dear George, of making you forget for a minute that you don’t propose stirring from the dear place you are now in.  Poppies indeed are the chief flowers in love nosegays, but they seldom bend towards the lady; at least not till the other flowers have been gathered.  Prince Volscius’s boots were made of love-leather, and honour-leather; instead of honour, some people’s are made of friendship; but since you have been so good to me as to draw on this, I can almost believe you are equipped for travelling farther than Rheims.  ’Tis no little inducement to make me wish myself in France, that I hear gallantry is not left off there; that you may be polite and not be thought awkward for it.  You know the pretty men of the age in England use the women with no more deference than they do their coach-horses, and have not half the regard for them that they have for themselves.  The little freedoms you tell me you use take off from formality, by avoiding which ridiculous extreme we are dwindled into the other barbarous one, rusticity.  If you had been at Paris, I should have inquired about the new Spanish ambassadress, who, by the accounts we have thence, at her first audience of the queen, sat down with her at a distance that suited respect and conversation.  Adieu, dear George, Yours most heartily.

(156) Francis Seymour Conway, son of Francis Seymour, Lord Conway, and Charlotte, daughter of John Shorter, Esq. [Sister to Lady Walpole, the mother of Horace, and with her co-heiress of John Shorter, Esq. lord-mayor of London in 1688, who died during his mayoralty, from a fall off his horse, under Newgate, as he was going to proclaim Bartholomew Fair.  Lady Walpole died in the August of the year in which the present letter was written, and Sir Robert soon afterwards married @Miss Skerrit.  Walpole’s well-known fondness for his mother is alluded to by Gray, in a letter to West, dated 22d August, 1737:-” But while I write to you, I hear the bad news of lady Walpole’s death, on Saturday night last.  Forgive me if the thought of what my poor Horace must feel on that account obliges me to have done.”]

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129 Letter 8 To George Montagu, Esq.  Christopher Inn, Eton.

The Christopher.  Lord! how great I used to think anybody just landed at the Christopher!  But here are no boys for me to send for-here I am, like Noah, just returned into his old world again, with all sorts of queer feels about me.  By the way, the clock strikes the old cracked sound-I recollect so much, and remember so little-and want to play about-and am so afraid of my playfellows-and am ready to shirk Ashton and can’t help making fun of myself-and envy a dame over the way, that has just locked in her boarders, and is going to sit down in a little hot parlour to a very bad supper, so comfortably! and I could be so jolly a dog if I did not fat, which, by the way, is the first time the word was ever applicable to me.  In short, I should be out of all bounds if I was to tell you half I feel, how young again I am one minute, and how old the next.  But do come and feel with me, when you will-to-morrow-adieu!  If I don’t compose myself a little more before Sunday morning, when Ashton is to preach, I shall certainly be in a bill for laughing at church; but how to belt it, to see him in the pulpit, when the last time I saw him here, was standing up funking at a conduit to be catechised.  Good night; yours.


130 Letter 9
                       To Richard West, Esq. 
Paris, April 21, N. S. 1739. (157)

Dear West, You figure us in a set of pleasures, which, believe me, we do not find; cards and eating are so universal, that they absorb all variation of pleasures.  The operas, indeed, are much frequented three times a week; but to me they would be a greater penance than eating maigre:  their music resembles a gooseberry tart as much as it does harmony.  We have not yet been at the Italian playhouse; scarce any one goes there.  Their best amusement, and which in some parts, beats ours, is the comedy three or four of the actors excel any we have:  but then to this nobody goes, if it is not one of the fashionable nights; and then they go, be the play good or bad-except on Moli`ere’s nights, whose pieces they are quite weary of.  Gray and I have been at the Avare to-night; I cannot at all commend their performance of it.  Last night I was in the Place de Louis le Grand (a regular octagon, uniform, and the houses handsome, though not so large as Golden Square), to see what they reckoned one of the finest burials that ever was in France.  It was the Duke de Tresmes, governor of Paris and marshal of France.  It began on foot from his palace to his parish-church, and from thence in coaches to the opposite end of Paris, to b interred in the church of the Celestins, where is his family-vault.  About a week ago we happened to see the grave digging, as we went to see the church, which is old and small., but fuller of fine ancient monuments than any, except St. Denis, which we saw on the road, and excels Westminster; for the windows are all ’ painted in mosaic,

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and the tombs as fresh and well preserved as if they were of yesterday.  In the Celestins’ church is a votive column to Francis ii., which says, that it is one assurance of his being immortalised, to have had the martyr Mary Stuart for his wife.  After this long digression, I return to the burial, which was a most vile thing.  A long procession of flambeaux and friars; no plumes, trophies, banners, led horses, scutcheons, or open chariots; nothing but friars, white, black, and grey, with all their trumpery.  This goodly ceremony began at nine at night, and did not finish till three this morning; for, each church they passed, they stopped for a hymn and holy water.  By the bye, some of these choice monks, who watched the body while it lay in state, fell asleep one night, and let the tapers catch fire of the rich velvet mantle lined with ermine and powdered with gold flower-de-luces, which melted the lead coffin, and burnt off the feet of the deceased before it awakened them.  The French love show; but there is a meanness runs through it all.  At the house where I stood to see this procession, the room was hung with crimson damask and gold, and the windows were mended in ten or a dozen places with paper.  At dinner they give you three courses; but a third of the dishes is patched up with sallads, butter, puff-paste, or some such miscarriage of a dish.  None, but Germans, wear fine clothes; but their coaches are tawdry enough for the wedding of Cupid and Psyche.  You would-laugh extremely at their signs:  some live at the Y grec, some at Venus’s toilette, and some at the sucking cat.  You would not easily guess their notions of honour:  I’ll tell you one:  it is very dishonourable for any gentleman not to be ’in @he army, or in the king’s service as they call it, and it is no dishonour to keep public gaming-houses:  there are at least an hundred and fifty people of the first quality in Paris who live by it.  You may go into their houses at all hours of the night, And find hazard, pharaoh, etc.  The men who keep the hazard tables at the duke de Gesvres’ pay him twelve guineas each night for the privilege.  Even the princesses of the blood are dirty enough to have shares in the banks kept at their houses.  We have seen two or three of them; but they are not young, nor remarkable but for wearing their red of a deeper dye than other women, though all use it extravagantly.

The weather is still so bad, that we have not made any excursions to see Versailles and the environs, not even walked in the Tuileries; but we have seen almost every thing else that is worth seeing in Paris, though that is very considerable.  They beat us vastly in buildings, both in number and magnificence.  The tombs of Richelieu and Mazarin at the Sorbonne and the College de Quatre Nations are wonderfully fine, especially the former.  We have seen very little of the people themselves, who are not inclined to be propitious to strangers, especially if they do

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not play and speak the language readily.  There are many English here:  Lord Holderness, Conway(158) and Clinton, (159) and Lord George Bentinck; (160) Mr. Brand,(161) Offley, Frederic, Frampton, Bonfoy, etc.  Sir John Cotton’s son and a Mr. Vernon of Cambridge passed through Paris last week.  We shall stay here about a fortnight longer, and then go to Rheims with Mr. Conway for two or three months.  When you have nothing else to do, we shall be glad to hear from you; and any news.  If we did not remember there was such a place as England, we should know nothing of it:  the French never mention it, unless it happens to be in one of their proverbs!  Adieu!  Yours ever.

To-morrow we go to the Cid.  They have no farces but petites pieces like our “Devil to Pay.”

(157) Mr. Walpole left Cambridge towards the end of the year 1738, and in March, 1739, began his travels by going to Paris, accompanied by Mr. Gray.

(158) Francis, second Lord Conway, in 1750, created Viscount Beauchamp and Earl of Hertford, and in 1793, Earl of Yarmouth and Marquis of Hertford.  He was the elder brother of General Conway, and grandfather of the present Marquis.

(159) Hugh Fortescue, in whose favour the abeyance into which the barony of Clinton had fallen on the death of Edward, thirteenth Baron Clinton, was terminated by writ of summons, in 1721.  He was created, in 1746, Lord Fortescue and Earl of Clinton; and died unmarried, in 1751.-E.

(160) Son of Henry, second Earl and first Duke of Portland; he died in 1759.-E.

(161) Mr. Brand of the Hoo, in Hertfordshire, who afterwards married Lady Caroline Pierrepoint, daughter of the Duke of Kingston by his second wife, and half-sister of Lady Mary Wortley.-E.

132 Letter 10 To Richard West, Esq. >From Paris, 1739.

Dear West, I should think myself to blame not to try to divert you, when you tell me I can.  From the air of your letter you seem to want amusement, that is, you want spirits.  I would recommend to you certain little employments that I know of, and that belong to you, but that I imagine bodily exercise is more suitable to your complaint.  If you would promise me to read them in the Temple garden, I would send you a little packet of plays and pamphlets that we have made up, and intend to dispatch to ‘Dick’s’ the first opportunity.-Stand by, clear the way, make room for the pompous appearance of Versailles le Grand!—­But no:  it fell so short of my idea of it, mine, that I have resigned to Gray the office of writing its panegyric.(162) He likes it.  They say I am to like it better next Sunday; when the sun is to shine., the king is to be fine, the water-works are to play, and the new knights of the Holy Ghost are to be installed!  Ever since Wednesday, the day we were there, we have done nothing but dispute about it.  They say, we did not see it to advantage, that we ran through the apartments, saw the garden

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en passant, and slubbered over Trianon.  I say, we saw nothing.  However, we had time to see that the great front is a lumber of littleness, composed of black brick, stuck full of bad old busts, and fringed with gold rails.  The rooms are all small, except the great gallery, which is noble, but totally wainscoted with looking-glass.  The garden is littered with statues and fountains, each of which has its tutelary deity.  In particular, the elementary god of fire solaces himself in one.  In another, Enceladus, in lieu of a mountain, is overwhelmed with many waters.  There are avenues of water-pots, who disport themselves much in squirting up cascadelins.  In short, ’tis a garden for a great child.  Such was Louis Quatorze, who is here seen in his proper colours, where he commanded in person, unassisted by his armies and his generals, left to the pursuit of his own puerile ideas of glory.

We saw last week a place of another kind, and which has more the air of what it would be, than anything I have yet met with:  it was the convent of the Chartreux.  All the conveniences, or rather (if there was such a word) all the adaptments are assembled here, that melancholy, meditation, selfish devotion, and despair would require.  But yet ’tis pleasing.  Soften the terms, and mellow the uncouth horror that reigns here, but a little, and ’tis a charming solitude.  It stands on a large space of ground, is old and irregular.  The chapel is gloomy:  behind it, through some dark passages, you pass into a large obscure hall, which looks like a combination-chamber for some hellish council.  The large cloister surrounds their buryingground.  The cloisters are very narrow and very long, and let into the cells, which are built like little huts detached from each other.  We were carried into one, where lived a middle-aged man not long initiated into the order.  He was extremely civil, and called himself Dom Victor.  We have promised to visit him often.  Their habit is all white:  but besides this he was infinitely clean in his person; and his apartment and garden, which he keeps and cultivates without any assistance, was neat to a degree.  He has four little rooms, furnished in the prettiest manner, and hung with good prints.  One of them is a library, and another a gallery.  He has several canary-birds disposed in a pretty manner in breeding-cages. in his garden was a bed of good tulips in bloom, flowers and fruit-trees, and all neatly kept.  They are permitted at certain hours to talk to strangers, but never to one another, or to go out of their convent.  But what we chiefly went to see was the small cloister, with the history of St. Bruno their founder, painted by Le Sceur.  It consists of twenty-two pictures, the figures a good deal less than life.  But sure they are amazing!  I don’t know what Raphael may be in Rome, but these pictures excel all I have seen in Paris and England.  The figure of the dead man who spoke at his burial, contains all the strongest and horridest

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ideas of ghastliness, hypocrisy discovered, and the height of damnation, pain and cursing.  A Benedictine monk, who was there at the same time, said to me of this picture C’est une fable, mais on la croyoit autrefois.  Another, who showed me relics in one of their churches, expressed as much ridicule for them.  The pictures I have been speaking of are ill preserved, and some of the finest heads defaced, which was done at first by a rival of Le Soeur’s.  Adieu! dear West, take care of your health; and some time or other we will talk over all these things with more pleasure than I have had in seeing them.

Yours ever.

(162) For Gray’s description of Versailles, which he styles " a huge heap of littleness,” see his letter to West of the 22nd of May, 1739. (Works, by Mitford, vol. ii.  P. 46).edited by the Rev. John Mitford.-E.

134 Letter 11 To Richard West, Esq.  Rheims, (163) June 18, 1739, N. S.

Dear West, How I am to fill up this letter is not easy to divine.  I have consented that Gray shall give an account of our situation and proceedings; (164) and have left myself at the mercy of my own’ invention—­a most terrible resource, and which I shall avoid applying to if I can possibly help it.  I had prepared the ingredients for a description of a ball, and was just ready to serve it up to you, but he has plucked it from me.  However, I was resolved to give you an account of a particular song and dance in it, and was determined to write the words and Sing the tune just as I folded up my letter:  but as it would, ten to one, be opened before it gets to you, I am forced to lay aside this thought, though an admirable one.  Well, but now I have put it into your head, I suppose you won’t rest without it.  For that individual one, believe me ’tis nothing without the tune and the dance; but to stay your stomach, I -will send you one of their vaudevilles or Ballads, (165) which they sing at the comedy after their petites pi`eces.

You must not wonder if all my letters resemble dictionaries, with French on one side and English on t’other; I deal in nothing else at present, and talk a couple of words of each language alternately, from morning till night.  This has put my mouth a little out of tune at present but I am trying to recover the use of it by reading the newspapers aloud at breakfast, and by shewing the title-pages of all my English books.  Besides this, I have paraphrased half of the first act of your new GustavUS (166) which was sent us to Paris:  a most dainty performance, and just what you say of it.  Good night, I am sure you must be tired:  if you are not, I am. yours ever.

(163) Mr. Walpole, with his cousin Henry Seymour Conway and Mr. Gray, resided three months at Rheims, principally to acquire the French language.

(164) Gray’s letter to West has not been preserved; but one addressed to his mother, on the 21 st of June, containing an account of Rheims and the society, is printed in his Works, vol. ii. p. 50.-E.

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(165) This ballad does not appear.

(166) The tragedy of “Gustavus Vasa,” by Henry Brooke, author of “The Fool of Quality.”  It was rehearsed at Drury Lane; but, as it was supposed to satirize Sir Robert Walpole, it was prohibited to be acted.  This, however, did Brooke no injury, as he was encouraged to publish the play by subscription.-E.

134 Letter 12 To Richard West, Esq.  Rheims, July 20, 1739.

Gray says, Indeed you ought to write to West.-Lord, child, so I would, if I knew what to write about.  If I were in London and he at Rheims, I would send him volumes about peace and war, Spaniards, camps, and conventions; but d’ye think he cares sixpence to know who is gone to Compiegne, and when they come back, or who won and lost four livres at quadrille last night at Mr. Cockbert’s?—­No, but you may tell him what you have heard of Compiegne; that they have balls twice a week after the play, and that the Count d’Eu gave the king a most flaring entertainment in the camp, where the Polygone was represented in flowering shrubs.  Dear West, these are the things I must tell you; I don’t know how to make ’em look significant, unless you will be a Rhemois for a little moment.(167) I wonder you can stay out of the city so long, when we are going to have all manner of diversions.  The comedians return hither from Compiegne in eight days, for example; and in a very little of time one attends the regiment of the king, three battalions and an hundred of officers; all men of a certain fashion, very amiable, and who know their world.  Our women grow more gay, more lively, from day to day, in expecting them; Mademoiselle la Reine is brewing a wash of a finer dye, and brushing up her eyes for their arrival.  La Barone already counts upon fifteen of them:  and Madame Lelu, finding her linen robe conceals too many beauties, has bespoke one of gauze.

I won’t plague you any longer with people you don’t know, I mean French ones; for you must absolutely hear of an Englishman that lately appeared at Rheims.  About two days ago, about four o’clock in the afternoon, and about an hour after dinner,-from all which you may conclude we dine at two o’clock,-as we were picking our teeth round a littered table and in a crumby room, Gray in an undress, Mr. Conway in a morning gray coat, and I in a trim white night-gown and slippers, very much out of order, with a very little cold, a message discomposed us all of a sudden, with a service to Mr. Walpole from Mr. More, and that, if he pleased, he would wait on him.  We scuttled upstairs in great confusion, but with no other damage than the flinging down two or three glasses and the dropping a slipper by the way.  Having ordered the room to be cleaned out, and sent a very civil response to Mr. More, we began to consider who Mr. More should be.  Is it Mr. More of Paris!  No.  Oh, ’tis Mr. More, my Lady Teynham’s husband?  No, it can’t be he.  A Mr. More, then, that lives in the Halifax family? 

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No.  In short, after thinking of ten thousand more Mr. Mores, we concluded it could never be a one of ’em.  By this time Mr. More arrives; but such a Mr. More! a young gentleman out of the wilds of Ireland, who has never been in England, but has got all the ordinary language of that kingdom; has been two years at Paris, where he dined at an ordinary with the refugee Irish, and learnt fortification-,, which he does not understand at all, and which yet is the only thing he knows.  In short, he is a young swain of very uncouth phrase, inarticulate speech, and no ideas.  This hopeful child is riding post into Lorrain, or any where else, he is not certain; for if there is a war he shall go home again:  for we must give the Spaniards another drubbing, you know; and if the Dutch do but join us, we shall blow up all the ports in Europe; for our ships are our bastions, and our ravelines, and our hornworks; and there’s a devilish wide ditch for ’em to pass, which they can’t fill up with things-Here Mr. Conway helped him to fascines.  By this time I imagine you have laughed at him as much, and were as tired of him as we were; but he’s gone.  This is the day that Gray and I intended for the first of a southern circuit; but as Mr. Selwyn and George Montagu design us a visit here, we have put off our journey for some weeks.  When we get a little farther, I hope our memories will brighten:  at present they are but dull, dull as Your humble servant ever.

P. S. I thank you ten thousand times for your last letter:  when I have as much wit and as much poetry in me, I’ll send you as good an one.  Good night, child!

(167) The three following paragraphs are a literal translation of French expressions to the same imports.

136 Letter 13 To Richard West, Esq. >From a Hamlet among the Mountains of Savoy, Sept. 28, 1739, N. S.

Precipices, mountains, torrents, wolves, rumblings, Salvator Rosa-the pomp of our park and the meekness of our palace!  Here we are, the lonely lords of glorious, desolate prospects.  I have kept a sort of resolution which I made, of not writing to you as long as I staid in France:  I am now a quarter of an hour out of it, and write to you.  Mind, ’tis three months since we heard from you.  I begin this letter -among the clouds; where I shall finish, my neighbour Heaven probably knows:  ’tis an odd wish in a mortal letter, to hope not to finish it on this side the atmosphere.  You will have a billet tumble to you from the stars hen you least think of it; and that I should write it too!  Lord, how potent that sounds!  But I am to undergo many transmigrations before I come to “yours ever.”  Yesterday I was a shepherd of Dauphin`e; to-day an Alpine savage; to-morrow a Carthusian monk; and Friday a Swiss Calvinist.  I have one quality which I find remains with me in all worlds and in all aethers; I brought it with me from your world, and am admired for it in this-’tis my esteem for you:  this is a common thought among you, and you will laugh at it, but it is new here:  as new to remember one’s friends in the world one has left, as for you to remember those you have lost.

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Aix in Savoy, Sept. 30th.

We are this minute come in here, and here’s an awkward abb`e this minute come in to us.  I asked him if he would sit down.  Oui, oui, oui.  He has ordered us a radish soup for supper, and has brought a chess-board to play with Mr. Conway.  I have left ’em in the act, and am set down to write to you.  Did you ever see any thing like the prospect we saw yesterday?  I never did.  We rode three leagues to see the Grande Chartreuse; (168) expected bad roads and the finest convent in the kingdom.  We were disappointed pro and con.  The building is large and plain, and has nothing remarkable but its primitive simplicity; they entertained us in the neatest manner, with eggs, pickled salmon, dried fish, conserves, cheese, butter, grapes, and figs, and pressed us mightily to lie there.  We tumbled into the hands of a lay-brother, who, unluckily having the charge of the meal and bran, showed us little besides.  They desired us to set down our names in the list of strangers, where, among others, we found two mottos of our countrymen, for whose stupidity and brutality we blushed.  The first was of Sir j * * * D * * *, who had wrote down the first stanza of justum et tenacem, altering the last line to Mente quatit Carthusiana.  The second was of one D * *, Coelum ipsum petimus stultitia; et hic ventri indico bellum.  The Goth!-But the road, West, the road! winding round a prodigious mountain, and surrounded with others, all shagged with hanging woods, obscured with pines, or lost in clouds!  Below, a torrent breaking through cliffs, and tumbling through fragments of rocks!  Sheets of @cascades forcing their silver speed down channelled precipices, and hasting into the roughened river at the bottom!  Now and then an old foot-bridge, with a broken rail, a leaning cross, a cottage, or the ruin of an hermitage!  This sounds too bombast and too romantic to one that has not seen it, too cold for one that has.  If I could send you my letter post between two lovely tempests that echoed each other’s wrath you might have some idea of this noble roaring scene, as you were reading it.  Almost on the summit, upon a fine verdure, but without any prospect, stands the Chartreuse.  We staid there two hours, rode back through this charming picture, wished for a painter, wished to be poets!  Need I tell you we wished for you?  Good night!

Geneva, Oct. 2.

By beginning a new date, I should begin a new letter; but I have seen nothing yet, and the Post is going Out:  ’tis a strange tumbled dab, and dirty too, I am sending you; but what can I do?  There is no possibility of writing such a long history over again.  I find there are many English in the town; Lord Brook, (169) Lord Mansel, (170) Lord Hervey’s eldest son,(171) and a son of-of Mars and Venus, or of Antony and Cleopatra, or, in short, of-.  This is the boy, in the bow of whose hat Mr. Hedges pinned a pretty epigram.  I don’t know if you ever heard it; I’ll suppose you never did, because it will fill up my letter: 

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“Give but Cupid’s dart to me,
Another Cupid I shall be: 
No more distinguish’d from the other,
Than Venus would be from my mother.”

Scandal says, Hedges thought the two last very like; and it says too, that she was not his enemy for thinking so.

Adieu!  Gray and I return to Lyons in three days.  Harry stays here.  Perhaps at our return we may find a letter from you:  it ought to be very full of excuses, for you have been a lazy creature:  I hope you have, for I would not owe your silence to any other reason.  Yours ever.

(168) It was on revisiting it, when returning to England after his unfortunate quarrel with Walpole, that Gray inscribed his beautiful “Alcaic Ode” in the album of the fathers of this monastery.  Gray’s account of this grand scene, where “not a precipice, not a torrent, not a cliff, but is pregnant with religion and poetry,” will be found in his letter to West, dated Turin, Nov. 16, N. S. 1739.  Works, vol. ii. p. 69.-E.

(169) Francis Lord Brooke, advanced to the dignity of Earl Brooke in 1746.-E.

(170) Thomas Lord Mansell, who died in 1743, without issue.  He was succeeded in the title by his uncles Christopher and Bussy; and, On the death of the latter in 1744, it became extinct.-E.

(171) George William Hervey, who succeeded his grandfather as Earl of Bristol in 1751, and died Unmarried in 1775.-E.

138 Letter 14 To Richard West, Esq.  Turin, Nov. 11, 1739, N. S.

So, as the song says, we are in fair Italy!  I wonder we are; for on the very highest precipice of Mount Cenis, the devil of discord, in the similitude of sour wine, had got amongst our Alpine savages, and set them a-fighting with Gray and me in the chairs:  they rushed him by me on a crag, where there was scarce room for a cloven foot.  The least slip had tumbled us into such a fog, and such an eternity, as we should never have found our way out of again.  We were eight days in coming hither from Lyons; the four last in crossing the Alps.  Such uncouth rocks, and such uncomely inhabitants!  My dear West, I hope I shall never see them again!  At the foot of Mount Cenis we were obliged to quit our chaise, which was taken all to pieces and loaded on mules; and we were carried in low arm-chairs on poles, swathed in beaver bonnets, beaver gloves, beaver stockings, muffs, and bear-skins.  When we came to the top, behold the snows fallen! and such quantities, and conducted by such heavy clouds that hung glouting, that I thought we could never have waded through them.  The descent is two leagues, but steep and rough as O * * * * father’s face, over which, you know, the devil walked with hobnails in his shoes.  But the dexterity and nimbleness of the mountaineers are inconceivable:  they run with you down steeps and frozen precipices, where no man, as men are now, could possibly walk.  We had twelve men and nine mules to carry us, our servants, and baggage, and were above five hours in this agreeable

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jaunt The day before, I had a cruel accident, and so extraordinary an one, that it seems to touch upon the traveller.  I had brought with me a little black spaniel of King Charles’s breed; but the prettiest, fattest, dearest creature!  I had let it out of the chaise for the air, and it was waddling along close to the head of the horses, on the top of the highest Alps, by the side of a wood of firs.  There darted out a young wolf, seized poor dear Tory (172) by the throat, and, before we could possibly prevent it, sprung up the side of the rock and carried him off.  The postilion jumped off and struck at him with his whip, but in vain.  I saw it and screamed, but in vain; for the road was so narrow, that the servants that were behind could not get by the chaise to shoot him.  What is the extraordinary part is, that it was but two o’clock, and broad sunshine.  It was shocking to see anything one loved run away with to so horrid a death. .... .

Just coming out of Camber, which is a little nasty old hole, I copied an inscription set up at the end of a great road, which was practised through an immense solid rock by bursting it asunder with gunpowder.  The Latin is pretty enough, and so I send it you: 

“Carolus Emanuel ii.  Sab. dux, Pedem. princeps, Cypri rex,public`a felicitate part`a, singulorum commodis intentus, breviorem securioremque viam regiam, natur`a occlusam, Romanis intentatam, mteris desperatam, dejectis scopulorum repagulus, aquata montiuminiquitate, quae cervicibus imminebant precipitia pedibus substernens, aeternis populorum commerciis patefecit.  A.D. 1670.”

We passed the Pas de Suze, where is a strong fortress on a rock, between two very neighbouring mountains; and then, through a fine avenue of three leagues, we at last discovered Tturin:—­

“E l’un k l’altro mostra, ed in tanto oblia La noia, e’l mal ‘delta passata via."’

’Tis really by far one of the prettiest cities I have seen; not one of your large straggling ones that can afford to have twenty dirty suburbs, but, clean and compact, very new and very regular.  The king’s palace is not of the proudest without, but of the richest within; painted, gilt, looking-glassed, very costly, but very tawdry; in short, a very popular palace.  We were last night at the Italian comedy-the devil of a house and the devil of actors!  Besides this, there is a sort of an heroic tragedy, called “La rapprentatione dell’ Anima Damnata."(173) A woman, a sinner, comes in and makes a solemn prayer to the Trinity:  enter Jesus Christ and the Virgin:  he scolds, and exit:  she tells the woman her son is very angry, but she don’t know, she will see what she can do.  After the play we were introduced to the assembly, which they call the conversazione:  there were many people playing at ombre, pharaoh, and a game called taroc, with cards so high, (174) to the number of seventy-eight.  There are three or four English here Lord Lincoln,(175) with Spence,(176)

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your professor of poetry; a Mr. B*** and a Mr. C*** a man that never utters a syllable.  We have tried all stratagems to make him speak.  Yesterday he did at last open his mouth, and said Bec. all laughed so at the novelty of the thing that he shut it again, and will never speak more.  I think you can’t complain now of my not writing to you.  What a volume of trifles!  I wrote just the fellow to it from Geneva; had it you?  Farewell!  Thine.

(172) This incident is described also by Gray in one of his letters to his mother.  “If the dog,” he adds, “had not been there, and the creature had thought fit to lay hold of one of the horses, chaise and we, and all, must inevitably have tumbled above fifty fathoms perpendicularly down the precipice."-E.

(173) This representation is also mentioned by Spence, in a letter to his mother:-"In spite of the excellence,” he says, “of the actors, the greatest part of the entertainment to me was the countenances of the people in the pit and boxes.  When the devils were like to carry off the Damned Soul, every body was in the utmost consternation and when St. John spoke so obligingly to her, they were ready to cry out for joy.  When the Virgin appeared on the stage, every body looked respectful; and, on several words spoke by the actors, they pulled off, their hats, and crossed themselves.  What can you think of a people, where their very farces are religious, and where they are so religiously received?  It was from such a play as this (called Adam and Eve) that Milton when he was in Italy, is said to have taken the first hint for his divine poem of “Paradise Lost.”  What small beginnings are there sometimes to the greatest things!-E.

(174) In the manuscript the writing of this word is extraordinary tall.

(175) Henry ninth Earl of Lincoln, who having, in 1744, married Catherine, eldest daughter and heiress of the Right Honourable Henry Pelham, inherited, in 1768, the dukedom of Newcastle-under-Line at the demise of the countess’s uncle, Thomas Pelham Holles, who, in 1756, had been created Duke of Newcastle-under-Line, with special remainder to the Earl of Lincoln.-E.

(176) The Rev. Joseph Spence, the author of one of the best collections of ana the English language possesses-the well-known “Anecdotes, Observations, and Characters of Books and Men,” of which the best edition is that edited by Singer.-E.

140 Letter 15 To Richard West, Esq. >From Bologna, 1739.

I don’t know why I told Ashton I would send you an account of what I saw:  don’t believe it, I don’t intend it.  Only think what a vile employment ’tis, making catalogues!  And then one should have that odious Curl (177) get at one’s letters, and publish them like Whitfield’s Journal, or for a supplement to the Traveller’s Pocket Companion.  Dear West, I protest against having seen any thing but what all the world has seen; nay, I have not seen half that, not-some of the most

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common things; not so much as a miracle.  Well, but you don’t expect it, do you?  Except pictures. and statues, we are not very fond of sights; don’t go a-staring after crooked towers and conundrum staircases.  Don’t you hate, too, a jingling epitaph (178) of one Procul and one Proculus that is here?  Now and then we drop in at a procession, or a high-mass, hear the music, enjoy a strange attire, and hate the foul monkhood.  Last week, was the feast of the Immaculate Conception.  On the eve we went to the Franciscans’ church to hear the academical exercises.  There were moult and moult clergy, about two dozen dames, that treated one another with illustrissima and brown kisses, the vice-legate, the gonfalonier, and some senate.  The vice-legate, whose conception was not quite so immaculate, is a young personable person, of about twenty, and had on a mighty pretty cardinal-kind of habit; ’twould make a delightful masquerade dress.  We asked his name:  Spinola.  What, a nephew of the cardinal-legate?  Signor, no:  ma credo che gli sia qualche cosa.  He sat on the right hand with the gonfalonier in two purple fauteuils.  Opposite was a throne of crimson damask, with the device of the Academy, the Gelati; and trimmings of gold.  Here sat at a table, in black, the head of’ the academy, between the orator and the first poet At two semicircular tables on either hand sat three poets and three; silent among many candles.  The chief made a little introduction, the orator a long Italian vile harangue.  Then the chief, the poet, and the poets,-who were a Franciscan, an Olivetan, an old abb`e, and three lay,-read their compositions; and to-day they are pasted up in all parts of the town.  As we came out of the church, we found all the convent and neighbouring houses lighted all over with lanthorns of red and yellow paper, and two bonfires.  But you are sick of this foolish ceremony; I’ll carry you to no more -.  I will only mention, that we found the Dominicans’ church here in mourning for the inquisitor:  ’twas all hung with black cloth, furbelowed and festooned with yellow gauze.  We have seen a furniture here in a much prettier taste; a gallery of Count Caprara’s:  in the panels between the windows are pendent trophies of various arms taken by one of his ancestors from the Turks.  They are whimsical, romantic, and have a pretty effect.  I looked about, but could not perceive the portrait of the lady at whose feet they were indisputably offered.  In coming out of Genoa we were more lucky; found the very spot where Horatio and Lothario were to have fought, “west of the town, a mile among the rocks.”

My dear West, in return for your epigrams of Prior, I will transcribe some old verses too, but which I fancy I can show you in a sort of a new light.  They are no newer than Virgil, and what is more odd, are in the second Georgic.  ’Tis, that I have observed that he not only excels when he is like himself, but even when he is very like inferior poets:  you will say that they rather excel by being like him:  but mind, they are all near one another: 

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“Si non ingenter oribus domus alta superbis Mane sa@atame totis vomit Eedibus uridam:” 

And the four next lines; are they not just like Martial?  In the following he is as much Claudian”

“Illum non populi fasces, non purpura regum
Flexit, et infidos agitans discordia fratres;
Aut conjurato descendens Dacus ab Istro.”

Then who are these like?

“nec ferrea jura, insanumque forum,
aut populi tabularia vidit. 
Sollicitant alii remis freta ceca, ruuntque
In ferrum, penetrant aulas et limina regum. 
Hic petit excidiis urbem miseresque Penates,
Ut gemma, bibat, et Sarrano indormiat ostro.”

Don’t they seem to be Juvenal’s?-There are some more, which to me resemble, Horace; but perhaps I think so from his having some on a parallel subject.  Tell me if I am mistaken; these are they: 

“Interea dulces pendent eircum oscula nati: 
Casta pudicitiam servat domus-”

inclusively to the end of these: 

“Hanc olim veteres vitam colti`ere Sabini
Hanc Remus et frater:  sic fortis Etruria crevit,
Scilicet et retum facta est pulcherrima Roma.”

If the imagination is whimsical; well at least, ’tis like me to have imagined it.  Adieu, child!  We leave Bologna to-morrow.  You know ’tis the third city in Italy for pictures:  knowing that, you know all.  We shall be three days crossing the Apennine to Florence:  would it were over!

My dear West, I am yours from St. Peter’s to St. Paul’s!

(177) Edmund Curll, the well-known bookseller.  The letters between Pope and many of his friends falling into Curll’s hands, they were by him printed and sold.  As the volume contained some letters from noblemen, Pope incited a prosecution against him in the House of Lords for breach of privilege; but, when the orders of the House were examined, none of them appeared to have been infringed:  Curll went away triumphant, and Pope was left to seek some other remedy.-E.

(178) The Epitaph on the outside of the wall of the church of St. Proculo-

Si procul `a Proculo Proculi campana fuisset, Jam procul `a Proculo Proculus ipse foret.  A.D. 1392.

142 Letter 16 To Richard West, Esq.  Florence, Jan. 24, 1740, N. S.

Dear West, I don’t know what volumes I may send you from Rome; from Florence I have little inclination to send you any.  I see several things that please me calmly, but `a force d’en avoir vu I have left off screaming Lord! this! and Lord! that!  To speak sincerely, Calais surprised me more than any thing I have seen since.  I recollect the joy I used to propose if I could but once see the great duke’s gallery; I walk into it now with as little emotion as I should into St. Paul’s.  The statues are a congregation of good sort of people, that I have a great deal of unruffled regard for.  The farther I travel the less I wonder at any thing:  a few days reconcile one to a new spot, or an unseen

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custom; and men are so much the same every where, that one scarce perceives any change of situation.  The same weaknesses, the same passions that in England plunge men into elections, drinking, whoring, exist here, and show themselves in the shapes of Jesuits, Cicisbeos, and Corydon ardebat Alexins.  The most remarkable thing I have observed since I came abroad, is, that there are no people so obviously mad as the English.  The French, the Italians, have great follies, great faults; but then they are so national, they cease to be striking.  In England, tempers vary so excessively, that almost every one’s faults are peculiar to himself.  I take this diversity to proceed partly from our climate, partly from our government:  the first is changeable, and makes us queer; the latter permits our queernesses to operate as they please.  If one could avoid contracting this queerness, it must certainly be the most entertaining to live in England, where such a variety of incidents continually amuse.  The incidents of a week in London would furnish all Italy with news for a twelvemonth.  The only two circumstances of moment in the life of an Italian, that ever give occasion to their being mentioned, are, being married, and in a year after taking a cicisbeo.  Ask the name, the husband, the wife, or the cicisbeo, of any person, et voila qui est fini.  Thus, child, ’tis dull dealing here!  Methinks your Spanish war is little more livel By the gravity of the proceedings, one would think both nations were Spaniard.  Adieu!  Do you remember my maxim, that you used to laugh at?  Every body does every thing, and nothing comes on’t.  I am more convinced of it now than ever.  I don’t know whether S***w,’s was not still better, Well, gad, there is nothing in nothing.  You see how I distil all my speculations and improvements, that they may lie in a small compass.  Do you remember the story of the prince, that, after travelling three years, brought home nothing but a nut?  They cracked it:  in it was wrapped up a piece of silk, painted with all the kings, queens, kingdoms. and every thing in the world:  after many unfoldings, out stepped a little dog, shook his ears, and fell to dancing a saraband.  There is a fairy tale for you.  If I had any thing as good as your old song, I would send it too; but I can only thank you for it, and bid you good night.  Yours ever.

P. S. Upon reading my letter, I perceive still plainer the sameness that reigns here; for I find I have said the same thing ten times over.  I don’t care, I have made out a letter, and that was all my affair.

143 Letter 17 To Richard West, Esq.  Florence, February 27, 1740, N. S.

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Well, West, I have found a little unmasqued moment to Write to you; but for this week past I have been so muffled up in my domino, that I have not had the command of my elbows.  But what have you been doing all the mornings?  Could you not write then?-No, then I was masqued too; I have done nothing but slip out of my domino into bed, and out of bed into my domino.  The end of the Carnival is frantic, bacchanalian; all the morn one makes parties in masque to the shops and coffee-houses, and all the evening to the operas and balls.  Then I have danced, good gods! how have I danced!  The Italians are fond to a degree of our country dances:  Cold and raw-they only know by the tune; Blowzybella is almost Italian, and Buttered peas is Pizelli ag buro.  There are but three days more; but the two last are to have balls all the morning at the fine unfinished palace of the Strozzi; and the Tuesday night a masquerade after supper:  they sup first, to eat gras, and not encroach upon Ash-Wednesday.  What makes masquerading more agreeable here than in England, is the great deference that is showed to the disguised.  Here they do not catch at those little dirty opportunities of saying any ill-natured thing they know of you, do not abuse you because they may, or talk gross bawdy to a woman of quality.  I found the other day, by a play of Etheridge’s, that we have had a sort of Carnival even since the Reformation; Ytis in “She would if She could,” they talk of going a-mumming in Shrove-tide.(179)-After talking so much of diversions, I fear you will attribute to them the fondness I own I contract for Florence; but it has so many other charms, that I shall not want excuses for my taste.  The freedom of the Carnival has given me opportunities to make several acquaintances.; and if I have no found them refined, learned, polished, like some other cities, yet they are civil, good-natured, and fond of the English-.  Their little partiality for themselves, opposed to the violent vanity of the French, makes them very amiable in my eyes.  I can give you a comical instance of their great prejudice about nobility; it happened yesterday.  While we were at dinner at Mr. Mann’S. (180) word was brought by his secretary, that a cavalier demanded audience of him upon an affair of honour.  Gray and I flew behind the curtain of the door.  An elderly gentleman, whose attire was not certainly correspondent to the greatness of his birth, entered, and informed the British minister, that one Martin. an English painter, had left a challenge for him at his house, for having said Martin was no gentleman.  He would by no means have spoke of the duel before the transaction of it, but that his honour, his blood, his etc. would never permit him to fight with one who was no cavalier; which was what he came to inquire of his excellency.  We laughed loud laughs, but unheard:  his fright or his nobility had closed his ears.  But mark the sequel:  the instant he was gone, my very English curiosity hurried me out of the gate

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St. Gallo; ’twas the place and hour appointed.  We had not been driving about above ten minutes, but out popped a little figure, pale but cross, with beard unshaved and hair uncombed, a slouched hat, and a considerable red cloak, in which was wrapped, under his arm, the fatal sword that was to revenge the highly injured Mr. Martin, painter and defendant.  I darted my head out of the coach, just ready to say, " Your servant, Mr. Martin,” and talk about the architecture of the triumphal arch that was building there; but he would not know me, and walked off.  We left him to wait for an hour, to grow very cold and very valiant the more it grew past the hour of appointment.  We were figuring all the poor creature’s huddle of thoughts, and confused hopes of victory or fame, of his unfinished pictures, or his situation upon bouncing into the next world.  You will think us strange creatures; but ’twas a pleasant sight, as we knew the poor painter was safe.  I have thought of it since, and am inclined to believe that nothing but two English could have been capable of such a jaunt.  I remember, ’twas reported in London, that the plague was at a house in the city, and all the town went to see it.

I have this instant received your letter.  Lord!  I am glad I thought of those parallel passages, since it made you translate them.  ’Tis excessively near the original; and yet, I don’t know, ’tis very easy too.-It snows here a little to-night, but it never lies but on the mountains.  Adieu!  Yours ever.

P.S.  What is the history of the theatres this winter?

(179) Sir Charles Etheridge.  “She would if She could,” was brought out at the Duke of York’s theatre in February, 1668:  Pepys, who was present, calls it “a silly, dull thing; the design and end being mighty insipid."-E.

(180) Sir Horace Mann, created a baronet in 1755.  He was appointed minister plenipotentiary from England to the court of Florence in 1740, and continued so until his death, on the 6th November 1786.-E.

145 Letter 18 To The Hon. Henry Seymour Conway, (181) Florence, March 6, 1740, N. S.

Harry, my dear, one would tell you what a monster you are, if one were not sure your conscience tells you so every time you think of me.  At Genoa, in the year of our Lord one thousand seven hundred and thirty-nine, I received the last letter from you; by your not writing to me since, I imagine you propose to make this a leap year.  I should have sent many a scold after you in this long interval, had I known where to have scolded; but you told me you should leave Geneva immediately.  I have despatched sundry inquiries into England after you, all fruitless.  At last drops in a chance letter to Lady Sophy Farmor, (182) from a girl at Paris, that tells her for news, Mr. Henry Conway is here.  Is he, indeed? and why was I to know it only by this scrambling way?  Well, I hate you for this neglect, but I find I love you well enough to tell you so.  But, dear now, don’t let one fall into a train of excuses and reproaches; if the god of indolence is a mightier deity with you than the god of caring for one, tell me, and I won’t dun you; but will drop your correspondence as silently as if I owed you money.

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If my private consistency was of no weight with you, yet, is a man nothing who is within three days’ journey of a conclave?  Nay, for what you knew, I might have been in Rome.  Harry, art thou so indifferent, as to have a cousin at the election of a pope (183) without courting him for news?  I’ll tell you, were I any where else, and even Dick Hammond were at Rome, I think verily I should have wrote to him.  Popes, cardinals, adorations, coronations, St. Peter’s! oh, what costly sounds! and don’t you write to one yet?  I shall set out in about a fortnight, and pray then think me of consequence.

I have crept on upon time from day to day here; fond of Florence to a degree:  ’tis infinitely the most agreeable of all the places I have seen since London:  that you know one loves, right or wrong, as one does one’s nurse.  Our little Arno is not bloated and swelling like the Thames, but ’tis vastly pretty, and, I don’t know how, being Italian, has something visionary and poetical in its stream.  Then one’s unwilling to leave the gallery, and-but-in short, one’s unwilling to get into a postchaise.  I am surfeited with mountains and inns, as if I had eat them.  I have many to pass before I see England again, and no Tory to entertain me on the road?  Well, this thought makes me dull, and that makes me finish.  Adieu!  Yours ever.

P. S. Direct to me, (for to be sure you will not be so outrageous as to leave me quite off), recornmand4 i Mons. Mann, Ministre de sa Majest`e Britannique @ Florence.

(181) Second Son of Francis first Lord Conway. by Charlotte Shorter, his third wife.  He was afterwards secretary in Ireland during the vice-royalty of William fourth Duke of Devonshire; groom of the bedchamber to George ii. and George iii.; secretary of state in 1765; lieutenant-general of the ordnance in 1770; commander in chief in 1782; and a field-marshal in 1793.  This correspondence commences when Mr. Walpole was twenty-three years old, and Mr. Conway two years younger.  They had gone abroad together, with Mr. Gray, in the year 1739, had spent three months together at Rheims, and afterwards separated at Geneva.

(182) Daughter of the first Earl of Pomfret, and married,, in 1744, to John second Lord Carteret and first Earl of Granville.-E.

(183) As successor of Clement XII., who died in the eighty-eighth year of his age, and the tenth of his pontificate, on the 6th Feb. 1740.  The cardinals being uncertain whom to choose, Prosper Lamberteri, the learned and tolerant Archbishop of Ancona, said, with his accustomed good-humour, “If you want a saint, choose Gotti; if a politician, Aldrosandi:  but if a good man, take me.”  His advice was followed, and he ascended the papal throne as Benedict xiv.-E.

146 Letter 19 To Richard West, Esq.  Siena, March 22, 1740, N. S.

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Dear West, Probably now you will hear something of the Conclave:  we have left Florence, and are got hither on the way to a pope.  In three hours’ time we have seen all the good contents of this city:  ’tis old, and very snug, with very few inhabitants.  You must not believe Mr. Addison about the wonderful Gothic nicety of the dome:  the materials are richer, but the workmanship and taste not near so good as in several I have seen.  We saw a college of the Jesuits, where there are taught to draw above fifty boys:  they are disposed in long chambers in the manner of Eton, but cleaner.  N. B. We were not bolstered; (184) so we wished you with us.  Our Cicerone, who has less classic knowledge, and more superstition than a colleger, upon showing 147 us the she-wolf, the arms of Siena, told us that Romolus and Remus were nursed by a wolf, per la volonta di Dio, si pu`o dire; and that one might see by the arms, that the same founders built Rome and Siena.  Another dab of Romish superstition, not unworthy of Presbyterian divinity, we met with in a book of drawings:  ’twas the Virgin standing on a tripod composed of Adam, Eve, and the Devil, to express her immaculate conception.

You can’t imagine how pretty the country is between this and Florence; millions of little hills planted with trees, and tipped with villas or convents.  We left unseen the great Duke’s villas and several palaces in Florence, till our return from Rome:  the weather has been so cold, how could one go to them?  In Italy they seem to have found out how hot their climate is, but not how cold; for there are scarce any chimneys, and most of the apartments painted in fresco so that one has the additional horror of freezing with imaginary marble.  The men hang little earthen pans of coals upon their wrists, and the women have portable stoves under their petticoats to warm their nakedness, and carry silver shovels in their pockets, with which their Cicisbeos stir them-Hush! by them, I mean their stoves.  I have nothing more to tell you; I’ll carry my letter to Rome and finish it there.

R`e di Coffano, March 23, where lived one of the three kings.  The King of Coffano carried presents of myrrh, gold, and frankincense, I don’t know where the devil he found them; for in all his dominions we have not seen the value of a shrub.  We have the honour of lodging under his roof to-night. lord! such a place, such an extent of ugliness!  A lone inn upon a black mountain, by the side of an old fortress! no curtains or windows, only shutters! no testers to the beds! no earthly thing to eat but some eggs and a few little fishes!  This lovely spot is now known by the name of Radi-cofani.  Coming down a steep hill with two miserable hackneys, one fell under the chaise; and while we were disengaging him, a chaise came by with a person in a red cloak, a white handkerchief on its head, and a black hat:  we thought it a fat old woman; but it spoke in a shrill little pipe, and proved itself to be Senesini. (185) I forgot to tell you an inscription I copied from the portal of the dome of Siena: 

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Annus centenus Roma seraper est jubilenus:  Crimina laxantur si penitet ista dortantur; Sic ordinavit Bonifacius et roboravit.

Rome, March 26

We are this instant arrived, tired and hungry!  O! the charming city-I believe it is-for I have not seen a syllable yet, only the Pons Milvius and an obelisk.  The Cassian and Flaminian ways were terrible disappointments; not one Rome tomb left; their very ruins ruined.  The English are numberless.  My dear West, I know at Rome you will not have a grain of pity for one; but indeed ’tis dreadful, dealing with schoolboys just broke loose, or old fools that are come abroad at forty to see the world, like Sir Wilful Witwould.

I don’t know whether you will receive this, or any other I write; but though I shall write often, you and Ashton must not wonder if none come to you; for though I am harmless in my nature, my name has some mystery in it.(186) Good night!  I have no more time or paper.  Ashton, child, I’ll write to you next post.  Write us no treasons, be sure!

(184) An Eton phrase.

(185) Francesco Bernardi, better known by the name of Senesino, a celebrated singer, who, having been engaged for the opera company formed by Handel in 17@20, remained here as principal singer until 1726, when the state of his health compelled him to return to Italy.  In 1730 he revisited England, where he remained until about 1734.  He was the contemporary, if not the rival of Farinelli; and Mr. Hogarth, in his “Memoirs of the Musical Drama,” (i. 431,) tells us, that when Senesino and Farinelli were in England together, they had not for some time the opportunity of hearing each other, in consequence of their engagements at different theatres.  At last, however, they were both engaged to sing on the same stage.  Senesino had the part of a furious tyrant, and Farinelli the part of an unfortunate hero in chains; but, in the course of the first act, the captive so softened the heart of the tyrant, that Senesino, forgetting his stage character, ran to Farinelli, and embraced him in his own.-E.

(186) He means the name of Walpole at Rome, where the Pretender and many of his adherents then resided.

148 letter 20 To Richard West, Esq.  Rome, April 16th, 1740, N. S.

I’ll tell you, West, because one is amongst new things, you think one can always write new things.  When I first came abroad, every thing struck me, and I wrote its history:  but now I am grown so used to be surprised, that I don’t perceive any flutter in myself when I meet with any novelties; curiosity and astonishment wear off, and the next thing is, to fancy that other people nnow as much of places as One’s Self; or, at least, one does not remember that they do not.  It appears to me as odd to write to you of St. Peter’s, as it would do to you to write of Westminster Abbey.  Besides, as one looks at churches, etc. with a book of travels in one’s hand, and sees every thing

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particularized there, it would appear transcribing, to write upon the same subjects.  I know you will hate me for this declaration; I remember how ill I used to take it when any body served me so that was travelling.  Well, I will tell you something, if you will love me:  You have seen prints of the ruins of the temple of Minerva Medica; you shall only hear its situation, and then figure what a villa might be laid out there.  ’Tis in the middle of a garden:  at a little distance are two subterraneous grottos, which were the burial-places of the liberti of Augustus.  There are all the niches and covers of the urns and the inscriptions remaining; and in one, very considerable remains of an ancient stucco Ceiling with paintings in grotesque.  Some of the walks would terminate upon the Castellum Aquae Martioe, St. John Lateran, and St. Maria Maggiore, besides other churches; the walls of the garden would be two aqueducts. and the entrance through one of the old gates of Rome.  This glorious spot is neglected, and only serves for a small vineyard and kitchen-garden.

I am very glad that I see Rome while it yet exists:  before a great number of years are elapsed, I question whether it will be worth seeing.  Between the ignorance and poverty of the present Romans, every thing is neglected and falling to decay; the villas are entirely out of repair, and the palaces so ill kept, that half the pictures are spoiled by damp.  At the villa Ludovisi is a large oracular head of red marble, colossal, and with vast foramina for the eyes and mouth:  the man that showed the palace said it was un ritratto della famiglia?  The Cardinal Corsini has so thoroughly pushed on the misery of Rome by impoverishing it, that there is no money but paper to be seen.  He is reckoned to have amassed three millions of crowns.  You may judge of’ the affluence the nobility live in, when I assure you, that what the chief princes allow for their own eating is a testoon a day; eighteen pence:  there are some extend their expense to five pauls, or half a crown:  Cardinal Albani is called extravagant for laying out ten pauls for his dinner and supper.  You may imagine they never have any entertainments:  so far from it, they never have any company.  The princesses and duchesses particularly lead the dismallest of lives.  Being the posterity of popes, though of worse families than the ancient nobility, they expect greater respect than my ladies the countesses and marquises will pay them; consequently they consort not, but mope in a vast palace with two mniserable tapers, and two or three monsignori, whom they are forced to court and humour, that they may not be entirely deserted.  Sundays they do issue forth in a most unwieldy coach to the Corso.

In short ’child, after sunset one passes one’s time here very ill; and if I did not wish for you in the mornings, it would be no compliment to tell you that I do in the evening.  Lord! how many English I could change for you, and yet buy you wondrous cheap!  And, then French and Germans I could fling into the bargain by dozens.  Nations swarm here.  You will have a great fat French cardinal garnished with thirty abb`es roll into the area of St. Peter’s, gape, turn short, and talk of the chapel of Versailles.  I heard one of them say t’other day, he had been at the Capitale.  One asked of course how he liked it-.Oh! il y a assez de belles choses.

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Tell Ashton I have received his letter, and will write next post but I am in a violent hurry and have no more time; so Gray finishes this delicately.

Not so delicate; nor indeed would his conscience suffer him to write to you, till he received de vos nouvelles, if he had not the tail of another person’s letter to use by way of evasion.  I sha’n’t describe, as being in the only place in the world that deserves it which may seem an odd reason-but they say as how it’s fulsome, and every body does it (and I suppose every body says the same thing); else I should tell’you a vast deal about the Coliseum, and the Conclave, and the Capitol, and these matters.  A-propos du Colis`ee, if you don’t know what it is, the Prince Borghese will be very capable of giving you some account of it, who told an Englishman that asked what it was built for:  “They say ’twas for Christians to fight with tigers in.”  We are just come from adoring a great piece of the true cross, St. Longinus’s spear, and St. Veronica’s handkerchief; all of which have been this evening exposed to view in St. Peter’s.  In the same place, and on the same occasion last night, Walpole saw a poor creature naked to the waist discipline himself with a scourge filled with iron prickles, till he made hii-nself a raw doublet, that he took for red satin torn, and showing the skin through.  I should tell you, that he fainted away three times at the sight, and I twice and a half at the repetition of it.  All this is performed by the light of a vast fiery cross, composed of hundreds of little crystal latmps, which appears through the great altar under the grand tribuna, as if hanging by itself in the air.  All the confraternities of the city resort thither in solemn procession, habited in linen frocks, girt with a cord, and their heads covered with a cowl all over, that has only two holes before to see through.  Some of these are all black, others parti-coloured and white:  and with these masqueraders that vast church is filled, who are seen thumping their breasts, and kissing the pavement with extreme devotion.  But methinks I am describing:-’tis an ill habit; but this, like every thing else will wear off We have sent you our compliments by a friend of yours, and correspondent in a corner, who seems a very agreeable man; one Mr. Williams; I am sorry he staid so little a while in Rome.  I forget Porto-Bello (187) all this while; pray let us know where it is, and whether you or Ashton had any hand in the taking of’it.  Duty to the admiral.  Adieu!  Ever yours,

T. Gray.

(187) Porto-Bello, taken from the Spaniards by Admiral Vernon, with six ships only, On the 21st Nov. 1740.  By the articles of the capitulation, the town was not to be plundered, nor the inhabitants molested in the smallest degree; and the governor and inhabitants expressed themselves in the highest terms, when speaking of the humanity and generosity with which they had been treated by the admiral and the officers of the squadron under his command.-E.

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150 Letter 21 To The Hon. H. S. Conway.  Rome, April, 23, 1740, N. S.

As I have wrote you two such long letters lately, my dear Hal, I did not hurry myself to answer your last; but choose to write to poor SelWyn (188) Upon his illness.  I pity you excessively upon finding him in such a situation- what a shock it must have been to you!  He deserves so much love from all that know him, and you owe him so much friendship, that I can scarce conceive a greater shock.  I am very glad you did not write to me till he was out of danger; for this great distance would have added to my pain, as I must have waited so long for another letter.  I charge you, don’t let him relapse into balls:  he does not love them, and, if you please, your example may keep him out of them.  You are extremely pretty people to be dancing and trading with French poulterers and pastry cooks, when a hard frost is starving half the nation, and the Spanish war ought to be employing the other half.  We are much more public spirited here; we live upon the public news, and triumph abundantly upon the taking Porto-Bello.  If you are not entirely debauched with your balls, you must be pleased with an answer of Lord Harrington’s (189) to the governor of Rome.  He asked him what they had determined about the vessel that the Spaniards took under the canon of Civita Vecchia, whether they had restored it to the English?  The governor said, they had done justice.  My lord replied, “If you had not, we should have’ done it ourselves.”  Pray reverence our spirit, Lieutenant Hal.

Sir, MoscovitEO (190) is not a pretty woman, and she does sing ill; that’s all.

My dear Harry, I must now tell you a little about myself, and answer your questions.  How I like the inanimate part of Rome you will soon perceive at my arrival in England; I am far gone in medals, lamps, idols, prints, etc.” and all the small commodities to the purchase of which I can attain; I would buy the Coliseum if I could:  Judge.  My mornings are spent in the most agreeable manner; my evenings ill enough.  Roman conversations are dreadful things! such untoward mawkins as the princesses! and the princes are worse.  Then the whole city is littered with French and German abb`es, who make up a dismal contrast with the inhabitants.  The conclave is far from enlivening us; its secrets don’t transpire.  I could give you names of this cardinal and that, that are talked of, but each is contradicted the next hour.  I was there t’other day to visit one of them, and one of the most agreeable, Alexander Albani.  I had the opportunity of two cardinals making their entry:  upon that occasion the gate is unlocked, and their eminences come to talk to their acquaintance over the threshold.  I have received great civilities from him I named to you, and I wish he were out, that I might receive greater:  a friend of his does the honours of Rome for him; but you know that it is unpleasant to visit by proxy.  Cardinal Delei, the object of the Corsini faction, is dying; the hot weather will probably despatch half a dozen more.  Not that it is hot yet; I am now writing to you by my fireside.

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Harry, you saw Lord Deskfoord (191) at Geneva; don’t you like him?  He is a mighty sensible man.  There are few young people have so good understandings.  He is mighty grave, and so are you; but you can both be pleasant when you have a mind.  Indeed, one can make you pleasant, but his solemn Scotchery is a little formidable:  before you 1 can play the fool from morning to night, courageously.  Good night.  I have other letters to write, and must finish this.  Yours ever.

(188) John Selwyn, elder brother of George Augustus Selwyn.  He died about 1750.

(189)William Marquis of Hartington.  He succeeded his father as fourth Duke of Devonshire in 1755.-E.

(190) Notwithstanding she laboured under such disadvantages-and want of beauty and want of talent are serious ones to a cantatrice,-it will be seen from Walpole’s letter to Mann, 5th Nov. 1741, that the Moscovita, on her arrival here, received six hundred guineas for the season, instead of four hundred, the salary previously given to the , second woman;” and became, moreover, the mistress of Lord Middlesex, the director of the opera.-E.

(191) Son of the Earl of Findlater and Seafield, who succeeded his father in 1764, and died in 1770.-E.

152 Letter 22 To Richard West, Esq.  Rome, May 7, 1740, N. S.

Dear West, ’Twould be quite rude and unpardonable in one not to wish you joy upon the great conquests that you are all committing all over the world.  We heard the news last night from Naples, that Admiral Haddock (192) had met the Spanish convoy going to Majorca, and taken it all, all; three thousand men, three colonels, and a Spanish grandee.  We conclude it is true, for the Neapolitan Majesty mentioned it at dinner.  We are going thither in about a week, to wish him joy of it too.  ’Tis with some apprehensions we go too, of having a pope chosen in the interim:  that would be cruel, you know.  But, thank our stars, there is no great probability of it. ’ Feuds and contentions run high among the eminences.  A notable one happened this week.  Cardinal Zinzendorff and two more had given their votes for the general of the Capucins:  he is of the Barberini family, not a cardinal, but a worthy man.  Not effecting any thing, Zinzendorff voted for Coscia, and declared it publicly.  Cardinal Petra reproved him; but the German replied, he thought Coscia as fit to be pope as any of them.  It seems, his pique to the whole body is, their having denied a daily admission of a pig into the conclave for his eminence’s use who, being much troubled with the gout, was ordered by his mother to bathe his leg in pig’s blood every morning.

Who should have a vote t other day but the Cardinalino of Toledo!  Were he older, the Queen of Spain might possibly procure more than one for him, though scarcely enough.

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Well, but we won’t talk Politics:  shall we talk antiquities?  Gray and I discovered a considerable curiosity lately.  In an unfrequented quarter of the Colonna garden lie two immense fragments of marble, formerly part of a frieze to some building; ’tis not known of what.  They are of Parian marble:  which may give one some idea of the magnificence of the rest of the building for these pieces were at the very top.  Upon inquiry, we were told they had been measured by an architect, who declared they were larger than any member of St. Peter’s.  The length of one of the pieces is above sixteen feet.  They were formerly sold to a stonecutter for five thousand crowns, but Clement xi. would not permit them to be sawed, annulled the bargain, and laid a penalty of twelve thousand crowns upon the family if they parted with them.  I think it was a right judged thing.  Is it not amazing, that so vast a structure should not be known of, or that it should be so entirely destroyed?  But indeed at Rome this is a common surprise; for, by the remains one sees of the Roman grandeur in their structures, ’tis evident that there must have been more pains taken to destroy those piles than to raise them.  They are more demolished than any time or chance could have effected.  I am persuaded that in an hundred years Rome will not be worth seeing; ’tis less so now than one would believe.  All the public pictures are decayed or decaying; the few ruins cannot last long; and the statues and private collections must be sold, from the great poverty of the families.  There are now selling no less than three of the principal collections, the Barberini, the Sacchetti, and Ottoboni:  the latter belonged to the cardinal who died in the conclave.  I must give you an instance of his generosity, or rather ostentation.  When Lord Carlisle was here last year, who is a great virtuoso, he asked leave to see the cardinal’s collection of cameos and intaglios.  Ottoboni gave leave, and ordered the person who showed them to observe which my lord admired most.  My lord admired many:  they were all sent him the next morning.  He sent the cardinal back a fine gold repeater; who returned him an acate snuff box, and more cameoes of ten times the value.  Voila qui est fini!  Had my lord produced more golden repeaters, it would have been begging more cameos.  Adieu, my dear West!  You see I write often and much, as you desired it.  Do answer one now and then, with any little job that is done in England.  Good night.  Yours ever.

(192) This report, which proved unfounded, was grounded on the fact, that on the 18th of April his Majesty’s ships Lenox, Kent, and Orford, commanded by Captains Mayne, Durell, and Lord Augustus Fitzroy, part of Admiral Balchen’s squadron being on a cruise about forty leagues to the westward of Cape Finisterre, fell in with the Princessa, esteemed the finest ship of war in the Spanish navy, and captured her, after an engagement of five hours.-E.

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(193) Henry fourth Earl of Carlisle, grandfather of the present Earl.  In 1742, he married Isabella, the daughter of William fourth Lord Byron, and died in 1758.-E.

(194) Cardinal Ottoboni, Dean of the Sacred College, who died in 1740:  he had been made a cardinal in 1689.-E.

153 Letter 23 To Richard West, Esq.  Naples, June 14, 1740, N. S.

Dear West, One hates writing descriptions that are to be found in every book of travels; but we have seen something to-day that I am sure you never read of, and perhaps never heard of.  Have you ever heard of a subterraneous town? a whole Roman town, with all its edifices, remaining under ground?  Don’t fancy the inhabitants buried it there to save it from the Goths:  they were buried with it themselves; which is a caution we are not told that they ever took.  You remember in Titus’s time there were several cities destroyed by an eruption of Vesuvius, attended with an earthquake.  Well, this was one of them, not very considerable, and then called Herculaneum. (195) Above it has since been built Portici, about three miles from Naples, where the King has a villa.  This under-ground city is perhaps one of the noblest curiosities that ever has been discovered.  It was found out by chance, about a year and half ago.  They began digging, they found statues; they dug, further, they found more.  Since that they have made a very considerable progress, and find continually.  You may walk the compass of a mile; but by the misfortune of the modern town being overhead, they are obliged to proceed with great caution, lest they destroy both one and t’other.  By this occasion the path is very narrow, just wide enough and high enough for one man to walk upright.  They have hollowed, as they found it easiest to work, and have carried their streets not exactly where were the ancient ones, but sometimes before houses, sometimes through them.  You would imagine that all the fabrics were crushed together; on the contrary., except some columns, they have found all the edifices standing upright in their proper ’ situation.  There is one inside of a temple quite perfect, with the middle arch, two columns, and two pilasters.  It is built of brick plastered over, and painted with architecture almost all the insides of the houses are in the same manner; and, what is very particular the general ground of all the painting is red.  Besides this temple, they make out very plainly an amphitheatre:  the stairs, of white marble and the seats are very perfect; the inside was painted in the same colour with the private houses, and great part cased with white marble.  They have found among other things some fine statues, some human bones, some rice, medals, and a few paintings extremely fine.  These latter are preferred to all the ancient paintings that have ever been discovered.  We have not seen them yet, as they are kept in the King’s apartment, whither all these curiosities are transplanted; and ’tis difficult to see them-but we shall.  I forgot to tell you, that in several places the beams of the houses remain, but burnt to charcoal; so little damaged that they retain visibly the grain of the wood, but upon touching crumble to ashes.  What is remarkable, there are no other marks or appearance of fire, but what are visible on these beams.

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There might certainly be collected great light from this reservoir of antiquities, if a man of learning had the inspection of it; if he directed the working, and would make a journal of the discoveries.  But I believe there is no judicious choice made of directors.  There is nothing of the kind known in the world; I mean a Roman city entire of that age, and that has not been corrupted with modern repairs. (196) Besides scrutinising this very carefully, I should be inclined to search for the remains of the other towns that were partners with this in the general ruin.  ’Tis certainly an advantage to the learned world, that this has been laid up so long.  Most of the discoveries in Rome were made in a barbarous age, where they only ransacked the ruins in quest of treasure, and had no regard to the form and being of the building; or to any circumstances that might give light to its use and history.  I shall finish this long account with a passage which Gray has observed in Statius, and which correctly pictures out this latent city:-

Haec ego Chalcidicis ad te, Marcelle, sonabam
Littoribus, fractas ubi Vestius egerit iras,
Emula Trinacriis volvens incendia flammis. 
Mira fides! credetne viram ventura propago,
Cum segetes iterum, cum jam haec deserta virebunt,
Infra urbes populosque premi? 
SyLv. lib. iv. epist. 4.

Adieu, my dear West! and believe me yours ever.

(195) Some excavations were made at Herculaneum in 1709 by the Prince d’Elbeuf; but, thirty years elapsed after the prince had been forbidden to dig further, before any more notice was taken of them.  In December 1738 the King of the two Sicilies was at Portici, and gave orders for the prosecution of these subterranean labours.  There had been an excavation in the time of the Romans; and another so lately as 1689.  In a letter from Gray to his mother, he describes their visits to Herculaneum; but, not mentioning it by name, Mason supposed it had not then been discovered to be that city.  It is evident, from this observation of Walpole, that Mason’s opinion was unfounded.-E.

  (196) Pompei a was not then discovered.

155 Letter 24 To The Hon. H. S. Conway.  R`e di Cofano, vulg.  Radicofani, July 5, 1740, N. S.

You will wonder, my dear Hal, to find me on the road from Rome:  why, intend I did to stay for a new popedom, but the old eminences are cross and obstinate, and will not choose one the Holy Ghost does not know when.  There is a horrid thing called the mallaria, that comes to Rome, every summer, and kills one, and I did not care for being killed so far from Christian burial.  We have been jolted to death; my servants let us come without springs to the chaise, and we are wore threadbare:  to add to our disasters, I have sprained my ancle, and have brought it along, laid upon a little box of baubles that I have bought for presents in England.  Perhaps I may pick you out some little trifle there, but don’t depend

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upon it; you are a disagreeable creature and may be I shall not care for you.  Though I am so tired in this devil of a place, yet I have taken it into my head, that it is like Hamilton’s Bawn, (197) and I must write to you.  ’Tis the top of a black barren mountain, a vile little town at the foot of an old citadel:  yet this, know you, was the residence of one of the three kings that went to Christ’s birth-day; his name was Alabaster, Abarasser, or some such thing; the other two were kings, one of the East, the other of Cologn.  ’Tis this of Cofano, who was represented in an ancient painting found in the Palatine Mount, now in the possession of Dr. Mead; he was crowned by Augustus.  Well, but about writing-what do you think I write with?  Nay, with a pen; there was never a one to be found in the whole circumference but one, and that was in the possession of the governor, and had been used time out of mind to write the parole with :  I was forced to send to borrow it.  It was sent me under the conduct of a sergeant and two Swiss, with desire to return it when I should have done with it.  ’Tis a curiosity, and worthy to be laid up with the relics which we have just been seeing- in a small hovel of Capucins, on the side of the hill, and which were all brought by his Majesty from Jerusalem.  Among other things of great sanctity there is a set of gnashing of teeth, the grinders very entire; a bit of the worm that never dies, preserved in spirits; a crow of St. Peter’s cock, very useful against Easter; the crisping and curling, frizzling and frowncing of Mary Magdalen, which she cut off on growing devout.  The good man that showed us all these commodities was got into such a train of calling them the blessed this, and blessed that, that at last he showed us a bit of the blessed fig-tree that Christ cursed.

Florence, July 9.

My dear Harry, We are come hither, and I have received another letter from you with Hosier’s Ghost.  Your last put me in pain for you, when you talked of going to Ireland; but now I find your brother and sister go with you, I am not much concerned.  Should I be?  You have but to say, for my feelings are extremely at your service to dispose as you please.  Let us see:  you are to come back to stand for some place; that will be about April.  ’Tis a sort of thing I should do, too; and then we should see one another, and that would be charming; but it is a sort of thing I have no mind to do; and then we shall not see one another, unless you would come hither-but that you cannot do:  nay, I would not have you, for then I shall be gone.  So! there are many @ that just signify nothing at all.  Return I must sooner than I shall like.  I am happy here to a degree.  I’ll tell you my situation.  I am lodged with Mr. Mann, (198) the best of creatures.  I have a terreno all to myself, with an open gallery on the Arno, where I am now writing to you.  Over against me is the famous Gallery; and, on either hand, two fair bridges.  Is not

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this charming and cool?  The air is so serene, and so secure, that one sleeps with all the windows and doors thrown open to the river, and only covered with a slight gauze to keep away the gnats.  Lady Pomfret (199) has a charming conversation once a week.  She has taken a vast palace and a vast garden, which is vastly commode, especially to the cicisbeo-part of mankind, who have free indulgence to wander in pairs about the arbours.  You know her daughters :  Lady Sophia (200) is still, nay she must be, the beauty she was:  Lady Charlotte, (201) is much improved, and is the cleverest girl in the world; speaks the purest Tuscan, like any Florentine.  The Princess Craon (202) has a constant pharaoh and supper every night, where one is quite at one’s ease.  I am going into the country with her and the prince for a little while, to a villa of the Great Duke’s.  The people are good-humoured here and easy; and what makes me pleased with them, they are pleased with me.  One loves to find people care for one, when they can have no view in it.

You see how glad I am to have reasons for not returning; I wish I had no better.

As to Hosier’s Ghost, (203) I think it very easy, and consequently pretty; but, from the ease, should never have guessed it Glover’s.  I delight in your, “the patriots cry it up, and the courtiers cry it down, and the hawkers cry it up and down,” and your laconic history of the King and Sir Robert, on going to Hanover, and turning out the Duke of Argyle.  The epigram, too, you sent me on the same occasion is charming.

Unless I sent you back news that you and others send me, I can send you none.  I have left the conclave, which is the only stirring thing in this part of the world, except the child that the Queen of Naples is to be delivered of in August.  There is no likelihood the conclave will end, unless the messages take effect which ’tis said the Imperial and French ministers have sent to their respective courts for leave to quit the Corsini for the Albani faction:  otherwise there will never be a pope.  Corsini has lost the only one he could have ventured to make pope, and him he designed; ’twas Cenci, a relation of the Corsini’s mistress.  The last morning Corsini made him rise, stuffed a dish of chocolate down his throat, and would carry him to the scrutiny.  The poor old creature went, came back, and died.  I am sorry to have lost the sight of the pope’s coronation, but I might have stayed for seeing it till I had been old enough to be pope myself.

Harry, what luck the chancellor has! first, indeed, to be in himself so great a man; but then in accidents:  he is made chief justice and peer, when Talbot is made chancellor and peer:  (204) Talbot dies in a twelvemonth, and leaves him the seals at an age when others are scarce made solicitors:  (205)-then marries his son into one of the first families of Britain, (206) obtains a patent for a marquisate and eight thousand pounds a year after the Duke of Kent’s

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death:  the duke dies in a fortnightt, and leaves them all!  People talk of Fortune’s wheel, that is always rolling:  my Lord Hardwicke has overtaken her wheel, and rolled with it.  I perceive Miss Jenny (207) would not venture to Ireland, nor stray so far from London; I am glad I shall always know where to find her within threescore miles.  I must say a word to my lord, which, Harry, be sure you don’t read. ["My dear lord, I don’t love troubling you with letters, because I know you don’t love the trouble of answering them; not that I should insist on that ceremony, but I hate to burthen any one’s conscience.  Your brother tells me he is to stand member of parliament:  without telling me so, I am sure he owes it to you.  I am sure you will not repent setting him up; nor will he be ungrateful to a brother who deserves so much, and whose least merit is not the knowing how to employ so great a fortune.”]

There, Harry,-I have done.  Don’t suspect me:  I have said no ill of you behind your back.  Make my best compliments to Miss Conway. (208)

I thoght I had done, and lo, I had forgot to tell you, that who d’ye think is here?-Even Mr. More! our Rheims Mr. More! the fortification, hornwork, ravelin, bastion Mr. More! which is very pleasant sure.  At the end of the eighth side, I think I need make no excuse for leaving off; but I am going to write to Selwyn, and to the lady of the mountain; from whom I have had a very kind letter.  She has at last received the Chantilly brass.  Good night:  write to me from one end of the world to t’other.  Yours ever.

(197) A large old house, two miles from the seat of Sir Arthur Acheson, near Market-hill, and the scene of Swift’s humorous poem, “The Grand Question debated, whether Hamilton’s Bawn should be turned into a barrack or a malt-house."-E.

(198) Afterwards Sir Horace Mann.  He was at this time resident at Florence from George ii.

(199) Henrietta Louisa, wife of Thomas Earl of Pomfret. [She was the daughter of John Lord Jefferies, Baron of Wem.  Lady Pomfret, who was the friend and correspondent of Frances Duchess of Somerset, retired from the court upon the death of Queen Caroline in 1737.]

(200) Afterwards married to John Lord Carteret, who became Earl of Granville on the death of his mother in the year 1744.

(201) Lady Charlotte Fermor married, in August 1746, William Finch, brother of Daniel seventh Earl of Winchelsea, by whom she had issue a son, George, who, on the death of his uncle, in 1769, succeeded to the earldom.  Her ladyship was governess to the children of George iii., and highly esteemcd by him and his royal consort.-E.

(202) The Princess Craon was the favourite mistress of Leopold the last Duke of Lorrain, who married her to M. de Beauveau, and prevailed on the Emperor to make him a prince of the empire.  They at this time resided at Florence, where Prince Craon was at the head of the council of regency.

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(203) This was a party ballad (written by Glover, though by some at the time ascribed to Lord Bath,) on the taking of Porto-Bello by Admiral Vernon.  “The case of Hosier,” says Bishop Percy, in his admirable Reliques, vol. ii. p. 382, where the song is preserved, “The case of Hosier, which is here so pathetically represented, was briefly this.  In April 1726, that commander was sent with a strong fleet into the Spanish West Indies to block up the galleons in the port of that country, or, should they presume to come out, to seize and carry them to England:  he accordingly arrived at Bastimentos, near Porto-Bello; but, being employed rather to overawe than attack the Spaniards, with whom it was probably not our interest to go to war, he continued long inactive on this station.  He afterwards removed to Carthagena, and remained crusing in those seas, till the greater part of his men perished deplorably by the diseases of that unhealthy Climate.  This brave man, seeing his best officers and men thus daily swept away, his ships exposed to inevitable destruction, and himself made the sport of the enemy, is said to have died of a broken heart.-E.

(204) Philip Yorke Lord Hardwicke was the son of an attorney at Dover, and was introduced by the Duke of Newcastle to Sir Robert Walpole.  He was attorney-general, and when Talbot, the solicitor-general, was preferred to him in the contest for the chancellorship, Sir Robert made him chief justice for life, with an increased salary.  He was an object of aversion to Horace Walpole, who, in his Memoirs, tells us, “in the House of Lords, he was laughed at, in the cabinet despised.”  Upon which it is very properly observed by the noble editor of those memoirs, Lord Hollan,-"Yet, in the course of the work, Walpole laments Lord Hardwicke’s influence in the cabinet, where he would have us believe that he was despised, and acknowledges that he exercised a dominion nearly absolute over that house of Parliament which, he would persuade his readers, laughed at him.  The truth is, that, wherever this great magistrate is mentioned, Lord Orford’s resentments blind his judgment and disfigure his narrative."-E.

(205) charles Talbot baron Talbot was, on the 29th Nov. 1733, made lord high chancellor and created a baron; and, dying in Feb. 1737, was succeeded by Lord Hardwicke.  There is a story current, that Sir Robert Walpole, finding it difficult to prevail on Yorke to quit a place for life, for the higher but more precarious dignity of chancellor, worked upon his jealousy, and said that if he persisted in refusing the seals, he must offer them to Fazakerly.  “Fazakerly!” exclaimed Yorke, “impossible! he is certainly a Tory, perhaps a Jacobite.”  “It’s all very true,” replied Sir Robert, taking out his watch; " but if by one o’clock you do not accept my offer, Fazakerly by two becomes lord keeper of the great seal, and one of the staunchest Whigs in all England!” Yorke took the seals and the peerage.-E.

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(206) That of Grey, Duke of Kent, see avove.-E.

(207) Miss Jane Conway, half-sister to Henry Seymour Conway.  She died unmarried in 1749.

(208) Afterwirds married to John Harris, Esq. of Hayne in Devonshire.

159 Letter 25 To Richard West, Esq.  Florence, July 31, 1740, N. S.

Dear West, I have advised with the most notable antiquarians of this city on the meaning of Thur gut Luetis.  I can get no satisfactory interpretation.  In my own opinion ’tis Welsh.  I don’t love offering conjectures on a language in which I have hitherto made little proficiency, but I will trust you with my explication.  You know the famous Aglaughlan, mother of Cadwalladhor, was renowned for her conjugal virtues, and grief on the death of her royal spouse.  I conclude this medal was struck in her regency, by her express order, to the memory of her lord, and that the inscription Thur gut Luetis means no more than her dear Llewis or Llewellin.

In return for your coins I send you two or three of different kinds.  The first is a money of one of the kings of Naples; the device, a horse; the motto, Equitas regni.  This curious pun is on a coin in the Great Duke’s collection, and by great chance I have met with a second.  Another is, a satirical medal struck on Lewis xiv.; ’tis a bomb, covered with flower-de-luces, bursting; the motto, Se ipsissimo.  The last, and almost the only one I ever saw with a text well applied, is a German medal with a Rebellious town besieged and blocked up; the inscription, This kind is not expelled but by fasting.  Now I mention medals, have they yet struck the intended one on the taking of Porto-Bello?  Admiral Vernon will shine in our medallic history.  We have just received the news of the bombarding Carthagena, and the taking Chagre. (209) We are in great expectation of some important victory obtained by the squadron under Sir John Norris. we are told the Duke is to be of the expedition; is it true? (210) All the letters, too, talk of France suddenly declaring war; I hope they will defer it for a season, or one shall be obliged to return through Germany.

The conclave still subsists, and the divisions still increase; it was very near separating last week, but by breaking into two popes; they were on the dawn of a schism.  Aldovrandi had thirty-three voices for three days, but could not procure the requisite two more; the Camerlingo having engaged his faction to sign a protestation against him and each party were inclined to elect.  I don’t know whether one should wish for a schism or not; it might probably rekindle the zeal for the church in the powers of Europe which has been so far decaying.  On Wednesday we expect a third she-meteor.  Those learned luminaries the Ladies Pomfret and Walpole are to be joined by the Lady Mary Wortley Montague.  You have not been witness to the rhapsody of mystic nonsense which these two fair ones debate incessantly, and consequently cannot figure what must be the issue of this triple alliance:  we have some idea of it.  Only figure the coalition of prudery, debauchery, sentiment, history, Greek, Latin, French, Italian, and metaphysics; all, except the second, understood by halves, by quarters, or not at all.  You shall have the journals of this notable academy.  Adieu, my dear West!  Yours ever,

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Hor.  Walpole.

Though far unworthy to enter into so learned and political a correspondence, I am employed pour barbouiller une page de 7 pounces et demie en hauteur, et `a en largeur; and to inform you that we are at Florence, a city of Italy, and the capital of Tuscany:  the latitude I cannot justly tell, but it is governed by a prince called Great Duke; an excellent place to employ all one’s animal sensations in, but utterly contrary to one’s rational powers.  I have struck a medal upon myself:  the device is thus 0, and the motto Nihilissimo, which I take in the most concise manner to contain a full account of my person, sentiments, occupations, and late glorious successes.  If you choose to be annihilated too, you cannot do better than undertake this journey.  Here you shall get up at twelve o’clock, breakfast till three, dine till five, sleep till six, drink cooling liquors till eight, go to the bridge till ten, sup till two, and so sleep till twelve again.

Lahore fessi venimus ad larem nostrum,
Desideratoque acquiescimus lecto;
Hoc est, quod unum est, pro laborious tantis. 
O quid solutis est beatius curis?

We shall never come home again; a universal war is just upon the point of breaking out; all outlets will be shut up.  I shall be secure in my nothingness, while you, that will be so absurd as to exist, will envy me.  You don’t tell me what proficiency you make in the noble science of defence.  Don’t you start still at the sound of a gun?  Have you learned to say ha! ha! and is your neck clothed with thunder?  Are your whiskers of a tolerable length?  And have you got drunk yet with brandy and gunpowders?  Adieu, noble captain!  T. Gray.

(209) On the 24th March, 1740, the Spaniards hung out a white flag, and the place was surrendered by capitulation to Admiral Vernon.-E.

(210) The Duke of Cumberland had resolved to accompany Sir John Norris as a volunteer, and sailed with him from St. Helens on the 10th June; but on the 17th a gale arising drove them into Torbay, Where Sir John continued until the 29th, when he again put to sea; but the wind once more becoming contrary, and blowing very hard, he was constrained to return to Spithead, and on the following day his royal highness returned to London.-E.

161 Letter 26 To The Hon. H. S. Conway.  Florence, September 25, 1740, N. S.

My dear Hal, I begin to answer your letter the moment I have read it, because you bid me; but I grow so unfit for a correspondence with any body in England, that I have almost left it off.  ’Tis so long since I was there, and I am so utterly a stranger to every thing that passes there, that I must talk vastly in the dark to those I write:  and having in a manner settled myself here, where there can be no news, I am void of all matter for filling up a letter.  As, by the absence of the Great Duke, Florence is become in a manner a country town, you

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may imagine that we are not without dem`el`es; but for a country town I believe there never were a set of people so peaceable, and such strangers to scandal.  ’Tis the family of love, where every body is paired, and go as constantly together as paroquets.  Here nobody hangs or drowns themselves; they are not ready to cut one another’s throats about elections or parties; don’t think that wit consists in saying bold truths, or humour in getting drunk.  But I shall give you no more of their characters, because I am so unfortunate as to think that their encomium consists in being the reverse of the English, who in general are either mad, or enough to make other people so.  After telling you so fairly my sentiments, you may believe, my dear Harry, that I had rather see you here than in England.  ’Tis an evil wish for you, who should not be lost in so obscure a place as this.  I will not make you compliments, or else here is a charming opportunity for saying what I think of you.  As I am convinced you love me, and as I am conscious you have One strong reason for it, I will own to you, that for my own peace you should wish me to remain here.  I am so well within and without, that you would scarce know me:  I am younger than ever, think of nothing but diverting myself, and live in a round of pleasures.  We have operas, concerts, and balls, mornings and evenings.  I dare not tell you all One’s idleness:  you would look so grave and senatorial at hearing that one rises at eleven in the morning, goes to the opera at nine at night, to supper at one, and to bed at three!  But literally here the evenings and nights are so charming and so warm, one can’t avoid ’em.

Did I tell you Lady Mary Wortley is here?  She laughs at my Lady Walpole, scolds my Lady Pomfret, and is laughed at by the whole town. (211) Her dress, her avarice, and her impudence must amaze any one that never heard her name.  She wears a foul mob, that does not cover her greasy black locks, that hang loose, never combed or curled; an old mazarine blue wrapper, that gapes open and discovers a canvass petticoat.  Her face swelled violently on one side with the remains of a-, partly covered with a plaster, and partlv with white paint, which for cheapness she has bought so coarse, that you would not use it to wash a chimney.-In three words I will give you her picture (212) as we drew it in the Sortes Virgilianae-Insanam vatem aepicies.

I give you my honour, we did not choose it; but Mr. Gray, Mr. Cooke, (213) Sir Francis Dashwood, (214) and I, and several others, drew it fairly amongst a thousand for different people, most of which did not hit as you may imagine:  those that did I will tell you.

For our most religious and gracious-
-Dii, talem terris avertite pestem.

For one that would be our most religious and gracious. 
Purpureus veluti cum flos succisus aratro
Languescit moriens, lassove papavera collo
Demis`ere caput, pluvia cum fort`e gravantur.

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For his son. 
Regis Romani:  primus qui legibus urbem Fundabit, Curibus
parvis et paupere terra, Missus in imperium magnum.

For Sir Robert. 
Res dura et regni novitas me talia cogunt Moliri, et late
fines custode tueri.

I will show you the rest when I see you.

(211) In a letter from Florence, written by Lady Mary to Mr. Wortley, on the 11th of August, she says, “Lord and Lady Pomfret take pains to make the place agreeable to me, and I have been visited by the greatest part of the people of quality.”  See the edition of her works, edited by Lord Wharncliffe, vol. ii. p. 325.-E.

(212) The following favourable picture” of Lady Mary is by Spence, who met her at Rome, in the ensuing January:-” She is one of the most shining characters in the world, but shines like a comet; she is all irregularity, and always wandering; the most wise, most imprudent; loveliest, most disagreeable; best-natured, cruellest woman in the world; ’all things by turns, and nothing long.’"-E.

(213) George Cooke, Esq. afterwards member for Tregony, and chief prothonotary in the Court of Common Pleas.  On Mr. Pitt’s return to office in 1766 he was appointed joint paymaster-general, and died in 1768.  See Chatham Correspondence, vol. ii. p. 338.-E.

(214) Sir Francis Dashwood, who, on the death of John Earl of Westmoreland, succeeded to the barony of Le Despencer, as being the only son of Mary, eldest sister of the said Earl, and which was confirmed to him 19th April’1763.-E.

163 Letter 27 To Sir Richard West, Esq.  Florence, Oct. 2, 1740, N. S.

Dear West, T’other night as we (you know who we are) were walking on the charming bridge, just before going to a wedding assembly, we said, Lord, I wish, just as we are got into the room, they would call us out, and say, West is arrived!  We would make him dress instantly, and carry him back to the entertainment.  How he would stare and wonder at a thousand things, that no longer strike us as odd!” Would not you?  One agreed that you should come directly by sea from Dover, and be set down at Leghorn, without setting foot in any other foreign town, and so land at Us, in all your first full amaze; for you are to know, that astonishment rubs off violently; we did not cry out Lord! half so much at Rome as at Calais, which to this hour I look upon as one of the most surprising cities in the universe.  My dear child, what if you were to take this little sea-jaunt?  One would recommend Sir John Norris’s convoy to you, but one should be laughed at now for supposing that he is ever to sail beyond Torbay.(215) The Italians take Torbay for an English town in the hands of the Spaniards, after the fashion of Gibraltar, and imagine ’tis a wonderful strong place, by our fleet’s having retired from before it so often, and so often returned.  We went to this wedding that I told you of; ’twas a charming feast:  a large palace finely illuminated;

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there were all the beauties, all the jewels, and all the sugarplums of Florence.  Servants loaded with great chargers full of comfits heap the tables with them, the women fall on with both hands, and stuff their pockets and every creek and corner about them.  You would be as much amazed at us as at any thing you saw:  instead of being deep in the arts, and being in the Gallery every morning, as I thought of course to be sure I would be, we are in all the idleness and amusements of the town.  For me, I am grown so lazy, and so tired-of seeing sights, that, though I have been at Florence six months, I have not seen Leghorn, Pisa, Lucca, or Pistoia; nay, not so much as one of the Great Duke’s villas.  I have contracted so great an aversion to postchaises, and have so absolutely lost all curiosity, that, except the towns in the straight road to Great Britain, I shall scarce see a jot more of a foreign land; and trust me, when I returt), I will not visit the Welsh mountains, like Mr. Williams.  After Mount Cenis, the Boccheto, the Giogo, Radicofani, and the Appian Way, one has mighty little hunger after travelling.  I shall be mighty apt to set up my staff at Hyde Park corner:  the alehouseman there at Hercules’s Pillars(216) was certainly returned from his travels into foreign parts.

Now I’ll answer your questions.

I have made no discoveries in ancient or modern arts.  Mr. Addison travelled through the poets, and not through Italy; for all his ideas are borrowed from the descriptions, and not from the reality.  He saw places as they were, not as they are.  I am very well acquainted with Dr. Cocchi; (217) he is a good sort of man, rather than a great man; he is a plain honest creature, with quiet knowledge, but I dare say all the English have told you, he has a very particular understanding:  I really don’t believe they meant to impose on you, for they thought so.  As to Bondelmonti, he is much less; he is a low mimic; the brightest cast of his parts attains to the composition of a sonnet:  he talks irreligion with- English boys, sentiment with my sister, (218) and bad French with any one that will hear him.  I will transcribe you a little song that he made t’other day; ’tis pretty enough; Gray turned it into Latin, and I into English; you will honour him highly by putting it into French, and Asheton into Greek.  Here ’tis.  Spesso Amor sotto la forma D’amista ride, e s’asconde; Poi si mischia, e si confonde Con lo sdegno e col rancor.

In pietade ei si trasforma,
Pas trastullo e par dispetto;
ma nel suo diverso aspetto,
Sempre egli `a l’istesso Amor.

Risit amicitiae interd`um velatus amictu,
Et ben`e composit`a veste fefellit Amor: 
Mox irae assumpsit cultus faciemque minantem,
Inque odium versus, versus et in lacrymas: 
Ludentem fuge, nec lacrymanti aut furenti;
Idem est dissimili semper in ore Deus.

Love often in the comely mien
Of friendship fancies to be seen;
Soon again he shifts his dress,
And wears disdain and rancour’s face.

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To gentle pity then he changes-
Thro’ wantonness, thro’ piques he ranges;

But in whatever shape he moves,
He’s still himself, and still is Love.

See how we trifle! but one can’t pass one’s youth too amusingly for one must grow old, and that in England; two most serious circumstances, either of which makes people gray in the twinkling of a bedstaff; for know you there is not a country upon earth where there are so many old fools and so few young ones.

Now I proceed in my answers.

I made but small collections, and have only bought some bronzes and medals, a few busts, and two or three pictures:  one of my busts is to be mentioned; ’tis the famous vespasian in touchstone, reckoned the best in Rome, except the Caracalia of the Farnese- I gave but twenty-two POUDds for it at Cardinal Ottoboni’s sale.  One of my medals is as great a curiosity; ’tis of Alexander Severus, with the amphitheatre in brass; this reverse is extant on medals of his, but mine is a medagliuncino, or small medallion, and The Only one with this reverse known in the world:  ’twas found by a peasant while I was in Rome, and sold by him for sixpence to an antiquarian, to whom I paid for it seven guineas and a half:  but to virtuosi ’tis worth any sum.

As to Tartini’s (219) musical compositions, ask Gray; I know but little in music.

But for the Academy, I am not of it, but frequently in company with it:  ’tis all disjointed.  Madame * * *, who, though a learned lady, has not lost her modesty and character, is extremely scandalized with the other two dames, especially Moll Worthless, who knows no bounds.  She is at rivalry with Lady W. for a certain Mr. * * *, whom perhaps you knew at Oxford.  If you did not, I’ll tell you:  he is a grave young man by temper, and a rich one by constitution; a shallow creature by nature, but a wit by the grace of our women here, whom he deals with as of old with the Oxford toasts.  He fell into sentiments with my Lady W. and was happy to catch her at Platonic love; but as she seldom stops there, the poor man will be frightened out of his senses when she shall break the matter to him; for he never dreamt that her purposes were so naught.  Lady Mary is so far gone, that to get him from the mouth of her antagonist she literally took him out to dance country dances last night at a formal ball, where there was no measure kept in laughing at her old, foul, tawdry, painted, plastered personage.  She played at pharaoh two or three times at Princess Craon’s, where she cheats horse and foot.  She is really entertaining:  I have been reading her works, which she lends out in manuscript, but they are too womanish:  I like few of her performances.  I forgot to tell you a good answer of Lady Pomfret to mr.  W. *** who asked her if she did not approve Platonic love.  “Lord, sir,” says she, , “I am sure any one that knows me never heard that I had any love but one, and there sit two proofs of it,” pointing to her two daughters.

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So I have given you a sketch of our employments, and answered your questions, and will with pleasure as many more as you have about you.  Adieu!  Was ever such a lon@ letter?  But ’tis nothing to what I shall have to say to you.  I shaft scold you for never telling us any news, public or private, no deaths, riiarriages, or mishaps; no account of new books:  Oh, you are abominable!  I could find it in my heart to hate You if I did not love you so well; but we will quarrel now, that we may be the better friends when we meet:  there is no danger of that, is there?  Good night, whether friend or foe!  I am most sincerely Yours.

(215) Though brave, skilful, and enterprising Sir John failed to acquire renown, in consequence of mere accidents.  On the breaking out of the Spanish war, he was ordered to cruise in the Bay of Biscay; but, owing to tempestuous weather, was compelled to put into port for the winter.  The following lines were addressed to him upon this occasion: 

“Homeward, oh! bend thy course; the seas are rough; To the Land’s End who sails has sailed enough.”  E.

(216) Walpole calls the Hercules’ Pillars an alehouse.  Whatever it might have been at the period he wrote, it is very certain that, after the peace of 1762, it was a respectable tavern, where the Marquis of Granby, and other persons of rank, particularly military men, had frequent dinner parties, which were then fashionable.  It was also an inn of great repute among the west-country gentlemen, coming to London for a few weeks, who thought themselves fortunate if they could secure accommodations for their families at the Hercules’ Pillars.  The spot where it once stood, is now occupied by the noble mansion of the Duke of Wellington.-E.

(217) Dr. Antonio Cocchi, a learned physician, resident at Florence, who published a collection of Greek writers upon medicine.  He figures conspicuously in Spence’s Anecdotes.-E.

(218) Margaret Rolle, wife of Robert Walpole, eldest son of Sir Robert Walpole, created Lord Walpole during the lifetime of his father.

(219) Giuseppe Tartini of Padua, whom Viotti pronounced the last great improver of the practice of the violin.  Several of Tartini’s compositions are particularized in that amusing little volume, “The Violin and its Professors,” by Mr. Dubourg, who has recorded in quaint verse the well-known story of the “Devil’s Sonata,” a piece of diablerie, the result of which is that to this day, Tartini’s tale hath made all fiddlers say, A hard sonata is the devil to play!-E.

166 Letter 28 To Richard West, Esq. >From Florence, Nov. 1740.

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Child, I am going to let you see your shocking proceedings with us.  On my conscience, I believe ’tis three months since you wrote to either Gray or me.  If you had been ill, Ashton would have said so; and if you had been dead the gazettes would have said it.  If you had been angry,-but that’s impossible; how can one quarrel with folks three thousand miles off?  We are neither divines nor commentators, and consequently have not hated you on paper.  ’Tis to show that my charity for you cannot be interrupted at this distance that I write to you, though I have nothing to say, for ’tis a bad time for small news; and when emperors and czarinas are dying all up and down Europe, one can’t pretend to tell you of any thing that happens within our sphere.  Not but that we have our accidents too. if you have had a great wind in England, we have had a great water at Florence.  We have been trying to set out every day, and pop upon you (220) * * * * * It is fortunate that we stayed, for I don’t know what had become of us!  Yesterday, with violent rains, there came flouncing down from the mountains such a flood that it floated the whole city.  The jewellers on the Old Bridge removed their commodities, -and in two hours after the bridge was cracked.  The torrent broke down the quays and drowned several coach-horses, which are kept here in stables under ground.  We were moated into our house all day, which is near the Arno, and had the miserable spectacles of the ruins that were washed along with the hurricane.  There was a cart with two oxen not quite dead, and four men in it drowned:  but what was ridiculous, there came tiding along a fat haycock, with a hen and her eggs, and a cat.  The torrent is considerably abated; but we expect terrible news from the country, especially from Pisa, which stands so much lower, and nearer the sea.  There is a stone here, which, when the water overflows, Pisa is entirely flooded.  The water rose two ells yesterday above that stone.  Judge!

For this last month we have passed our time but dully; all diversions silenced on the emperor’s death, (221) and everybody out of town.  I have seen nothing but cards and dull pairs of cicisbeos.  I have literally seen so much love and pharaoh since being here, that I believe I shall never love either again so long as I live.  Then I am got in a horrid lazy way of a morning.  I don’t believe I should know seven o’clock in the morning again if I was to see it.  But I am returning to England, and shall grow very solemn and wise!  Are you wise’( Dear West, have pity on one who have done nothing of gravity for these two years, and do laugh sometimes.  We do nothing else, and have contracted such formidable ideas of the good people of England that we are already nourishing great black eyebrows and great black beards, and teasing our countenances into wrinkles.  Then for the common talk of the times, we are quite at a loss, and for the dress.  You would oblige us exceedingly

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by forwarding to us the votes of the houses, the king’s speech, and the magazines; or if you had any such thing as a little book called the Foreigner’s Guide through the city of London and the liberties of Westminster; or a letter to a Freeholder; or the Political Companion:  then ’twoulg be an infinite obligation if you would neatly band-box up a baby dressed after the newest Temple fashion now in use at both play-houses.  Alack-a-day!  We shall just arrive in the tempest of elections!

As our departure depends entirely upon the weather, we cannot tell you to a day when we shall say Dear West, how glad I am to see you! and all the many questions and answers that we shall give and take.  Would the day were come!  Do but figure to yourself the journey we are to pass through first!  But you can’t conceive Alps, Apennines, Italian inns, and postchaises.  I tremble at the thoughts.  They were just sufferable while new and unknown, and as we met them by the way in coming to Florence, Rome, and Naples; but they are passed, and the mountains remain!  Well, write to one in the interim; direct to me addressed to Monsieur Selwyn, chez Monsieur.Ilexandre, Rue St. Apolline, a Paris.  If Mr. Alexandre is not there, the street is, and I believe that will be sufficient.  Adieu, my dear child!  Yours ever.

(220) A line of the manuscript is here torn away.

(221) Charles the Sixth, Emperor of Germany, upon whose death, on the 9th of October, his eldest daughter, Maria-Theresa, in virtue of the Pragmatic Sanction, instantly succeeded to the whole Austrian inheritance.-E.

168 Letter 29 To The Rev. Joseph Spence. (222) Florence, Feb. 21, 1741, N. S.

Sir, Not having time last post, I begged Mr. Mann to thank you for the obliging paragraph for me in your letter to him.  But as I desire a nearer correspondence with you than by third hands, I assure you in my own proper person that I shall have great pleasure, on our meeting in England, to renew an acquaintance that ’I began with so much pleasure in Italy. (223) I Will not reckon you among my modern friends, but in the first article of virtu:  you have given me so many new lights into a science that but a warmth and freedom that will flow from my friendship, and which will not be contained within the circle of a severe awe.  As I shall always be attentive to give you any satisfaction that lies in my power, I take the first opportunity of sending you two little poems, both by a hand that I know you esteem the most; if you have not seen them, you will thank me for lilies of Mr. Pope:  if you have, why I did not know it.

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I don’t know whether Lord Lincoln has received any orders to return home:  I had a letter from one of my brothers last post to tell me from Sir Robert that he would have me leave Italy as soon as possible, lest I should be shut up unawares by the arrival of the Spanish troops; and that I might pass some time in France if I had amind.  I own I don’t conceive how it is possible these troops should arrive without its being known some time before.  And as to the Great Duke’s dominions, one can always be out of them in ten hours or less.  If Lord Lincoln has not received the same orders..  I shall believe what I now think, that I am wanted for some other reason.  I beg my kind love to Lord Lincoln, and that Mr. Spence will believe me, his sincere humble servant HorWalpole.

(222) The well-known friend of Pope and author of the Polymetis, who was then travelling on the Continent with Henry, Earl of Lincoln, afterwards Duke of Newcastle.  See ante p. 140, (Letter 14, and footnote 175).-E.

(223) This acquaintance proved of infinite service to Walpole, shortly after the date of this letter, when he was laid up with a quinsy at Reggio.  Spence thus describes the circumstance:  “About three or four in the morning I was surprised with a message, saying that Mr. Walpole was very much worse, and desired to see me; I went, and found him scarce able to speak.  I soon learned from his servants that he had been all the while without a physician, and had doctored himself; so I immediately sent for the best aid the place would afford, and despatched a messenger to the minister at Florence, desiring him to send my friend Dr. Cocchi.  In about twenty-four hours I had the satisfaction to find Mr. Walpole better:  we left him in a fair way of recovery, and we hope to see him next week at Venice.  I had obtained leave of Lord Lincoln to stay behind some days if he had been worse.  You see what luck one has sometimes in going out of one’s way.  If Lord Lincoln had not wandered to Reggio, Mr. Walpole (who is one of the best-natured and most sensible young gentlemen England affords) would have, in all probability, fallen a sacrifice to his disorder."-E.

169 Letter 30 To The Hon. H. S. Conway.  Florence, March 25th, 1741, N. S.

Dear Hal, You must judge by what you feel yourself of what I feel for Selwyn’s recovery, with the addition of what I have suffered from post to post.  But as I find the whole town have had the same sentiments about him, (though I am sure few so strong as myself,) I will not repeat what you have heard so much.  I shall write to him to-night, though he knows without my telling him how very much I love him.  To you, my dear Harry, I am infinitely obliged for the three successive letters you wrote me about him, which gave me double pleasure, as they showed your attention for me at a time that you know I must be so unhappy; and your friendship for him.  Your account of Sir Robert’s victory (224) was so extremely

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well told, that I made Gray translate it into French, and have showed it to all that could taste It, or were inquisitive on the occasion.  I have received a print by this post that diverts me extremely; ‘the Motion.’ (225) Tell me, dear, now, who made the design, and who took the likenesses; they are admirable:  the lines are as good as one sees on such occasions.  I wrote last post to Sir Robert, to wish him joy; I hope he received my letter.

I was to have set out last Tuesday, but on Sunday came the news of the Queen of Hungary being brought to bed of a son; (226) on which occasion here will be great triumphs, operas and masquerades, which detain me for a short time.

I won’t make you any excuse for sending you the follOWing lines; you have prejudice enough for me to read with patience any Of My idlenesses. (227)

My dear Harry, you enrage me with talking of another journey to Ireland; it will shock me if I don’t find you at my return:  pray take care and be in England.

I wait with some patience to see Dr. Middleton’s Tully, as I read the greatest part of it in manuscript; though indeed ’tis rather a reason for my being impatient to read the rest.  If Tully can receive any additional honour, Dr. Middleton is most capable of conferring it. (228)

I receivc with great pleasure any remembrances of my lord and your sisters; I long to see all of you.  Patapan is so handsome that he has been named the silver fleece; and there is a new order of knighthood to be erected to his honour, in opposition to the golden.  Precedents are searching, and plans drawing up for that purpose.  I hear that the natives pretend to be companions, upon the authority of their dogskin waistcoats; but a council that has been held on purpose has declared their pretensions impertinent.  Patapan has lately taken wife unto him, as ugly as he is genteel, but of a very great family, being the direct heiress of Canis Scaliger, Lord of Verona:  which principality we design to seize `a la Prussienne; that is, as soon as ever we shall have persuaded the republic of Venice that we are the best friends they have in the world.  Adieu, dear child!  Yours ever.

P. S. I left my subscriptions for Middleton’s Tully with Mr. Selwyn; I won’t trouble him, but I wish you would take care and get the books, if Mr. S. has kept the list.

(224) On the event of Mr. Sandys’ motion in the House of commons to remove Sir Robert Walpole from the King’s presence and councils for ever. [The motion was negatived by 290 against 106:  an unusual majority, which proceeded from the schism between the Tories and the Whigs, and the secession of Shippen and his friends.  The same motion was made by Lord-Carteret in the House of Lords, and negatived by 108 against 59.-E.)

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(225) The print alluded to exhibits an interesting view of Whitehall, the Treasury, and adjoining buildings, as they stood at the time.  The Earl of Chesterfield, as postilion of a coach which is going full speed towards the Treasury, drives over all in his way.  The Duke of Argyle is coachman, flourishing a sword instead of a whip; while Doddington is represented as a spaniel, sitting between his legs.  Lord Carteret, perceiving the coach about to be overturned, is calling to the coachman,"Let me get out!” Lord Cobbam, as the footman, is holding fast on by the straps; while Lord Lyttleton is ambling by the side on a rosinante as thin as himself.  Smallbrook, Bishop of Lichfield, is bowing obsequiously as they pass; while Sandys, letting fall the place-bill, exclaims, ,I thought what would come of putting him on the box.”  In the foreground is Pulteney, leading several figures by strings from their noses, and wheeling a barrow filled with the Craftsman’s Letters, Champion, State of the Nation, and Common Sense, exclaiming, “Zounds, they are over!” This caricature, and another, entitled " The Political Libertines, or Motion upon Motion,” had been provoked by one put forth by Sir Robert Walpole’s opponents, entitled “The Grounds for the Motion;” and were followed up by another from the supporters of Sandys’ motion, entitled “The Motive or Reason for his Triumph,” which the caricaturist attributes entirely to bribery.-E.

(226) Afterwards Joseph the Second, emperor of Germany.-E.

(227) Here follows the Inscription for the neglected column in the place of St. Mark, at Florence, afterwards printed in the Fugitive Pieces.

(228) Dr. Middleton’s “History of the Life of Cicero” was published in the early part of this year, by subscription, and dedicated to Pope’s enemy, Lord Hervey.  This laboured encomium on his lordship obtained for the doctor a niche in the Dunciad:-

Narcissus, praised with all a Parson’s power,
Look’d a white lily sunk beneath a shower."-E.

170 Letter 31
To Richard West, Esq. 
Reggio, May 1 1741, N. S.

Dear West, I have received the end of your first act, (229) and now will tell you sincerely what I think of it.  If I was not so pleased with the beginning as I usually am with your compositions, believe me the part of Pausanias has charmed me.  There is all imaginable art joined with all requisite simplicity:  and a simplicity, I think, much preferable to that in the scenes of Cleodora and Argilius.  Forgive me, if I say they do not talk laconic but low English in her, who is Persian too, there would admit more heroic.  But for the whole part of Pausanias, ’tis great and well worried up, and the art that is seen seems to proceed from his head, not from the author’s.  As I am very desirous you should continue, so I own I wish you would improve or change the beginning:  those who know you not so well as I do, would not wait with so much patience for the entrance of Pausanias.  You see I am frank; and if I tell you I do not approve of the first part, you may believe me as sincere when I tell you I admire the latter extremely.

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My letter has an odd date.  You would not expect I should be writing in such a dirty place as Reggio:  but the fair is charming; and here come all the nobility of Lombardy, and all the broken dialects of Genoa, Milan, Venice, Bologna, etc.  You never heard such a ridiculous confusion of tongues.  All the morning one goes to the fair undressed, as to the walks of Tunbridge:  ’tis Just in that manner, with lotteries, raffles, etc.  After dinner all the company return in their coaches, and make a kind of corso, with the ducal family, who go to shops, where you talk to ’em, from thence to the opera, in mask if you will, and afterwards to the ridotto.  This five nights in the week, Fridays there are masquerades, and Tuesdays balls at the Rivalta, a villa of the Duke’s.  In short, one diverts oneself.  I pass most part of the opera in the Duchess’s box, who is extremely civil to me and extremely agreeable.  A daughter of the Regent’s, (230) that could please him, must be so.  She is not young, though still handsome, but fat; but has given up her gallantries cheerfully, and in time, and lives easily with a dull husband, two dull sisters of his, and a dull court.  These two princesses are wofully ugly, old maids and rich.  They might have been married often; but the old Duke was whimsical and proud, and never would consent to any match for them, but left them much money, and pensions of three thousand pounds a year apiece.  There was a design to have given the eldest to this King of Spain, and the Duke was to have had the Parmesan princess; so that now he would have had Parma and Placentia, Joined to Modena, Reggio, Mirandola, and Massa.  But there being a Prince of Asturias, the old Duke Rinaldo broke off the match, and said his daughter’s children should not be younger brothers:  and so they mope old virgins.

I am goin@ from hence to Venice, in a fright lest there be a war with France, and then I must drag myself through Germany.  We have had an imperfect account of a sea-fight in America . but we are so out of the way, that one can’t be sure of it.  Which way soever I return, I shall be soon in England, and there you ’will find me again.

As much as ever yours.

(229) of a tragedy called Pausanias, The first act, and probably all that was ever written by Mr. West. [In the preceding month West had forwarded to Gray the sketch of this tragedy, which he appears to have criticised with much freedom; but Mr. Mason did not find among Gray’s papers either the sketch itself, or the free critique upon it.]

(230) Philip Duke of Orleans.

172 Letter 32
To Sir Horace Mann. (231)
Calais, and Friday, and here I have been these two days, 1741.

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Is the wind laid?  Shall I Dever get aboard?  I came here on Wednesday night, but found a tempest that has never ceased since.  At Boulogne I left Lord Shrewsbury and his mother, and brothers and sisters, waiting too:  Bulstrode (232) passes his winter at the court of Boulogne, and then is to travel with two young Shrewsburys.  I was overtaken by Amorevoli and Monticelli, (233) who are here with me and the Viscontina, and Barberina, and Abbate Vanneschi (234)-what a coxcomb!  I would have talked to him about the opera, but he preferred politics.  I have wearied Amorevoli with questions about you.  If he was not just come from you, and could talk to me about you, I should hate him; for, to flatter me, he told me that I talked Italian better than you.  He did not know how little I think it a compliment to have any thing preferred to you-besides, you know the consistence of my Italian!  They are all frightened out of their senses about going on the sea, and are not a little afraid of the English.  They went on board the William and Mary yacht yesterday, which waits here for Lady Cardigan from Spa.  The captain clapped the door, and swore in broad English that the Viscontina should not stir till she gave him a song, he did not care whether it was a catch or a moving ballad; but she would not submit.  I wonder he did!  When she came home and told me, I begged her not to judge of all the English from this specimen; but, by the way, she will find many sea-captains that grow on dry land.

Sittinburn, Sept. 13, O. S.

Saturday morning, or yesterday, we did set out, and after a good passage of four hours and a half, landed at Dover.  I begin to count my comforts, for I find their contraries thicken on my apprehension.  I have, at least, done for a while with postchaises.  My trunks were a little opened at Calais, and they would have stopped my medals, but with much ado and much three louis’s they let them pass.  At Dover I found the benefit of the motions (235) having miscarried last year, for they respected Sir Robert’s son even in the person of his trunks.  I came over in a yacht with East India captains’ widows, a Catholic girl, coming from a convent to be married, with an Irish priest to guard her, who says he studied medicines for two years, and after that he studied learning for two years more.  I have not brought over a word of French or Italian for common use; I have so taken pains to avoid affectation in this point, that I have failed Only now and then in a chi`a l`a! to the servants, who I can scarce persuade myself yet are English.  The COUntry-town (and you will believe me, who, you know, am not prejudiced) delights me; the populousness, the ease, the gaiety, and well-dressed every body amaze me.  Canterbury, which on my setting out I thought deplorable, is a paradise, (236) to Modena, Reggio, Parma, etc.  I had before discovered that there was nowhere but in England the distinction of middling people; I perceive now, that there is peculiar to us middling houses:  how snug they are!  I write to-night because I have time; to-morrow I get to London just as the post goes.  Sir Robert is at Houghton.  Good night till another post.  You are quite well I trust, but tell me so always.  My loves to the Chutes (237) and all the etc.’s.

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Oh! a story of Mr. Pope and the prince:-"Mr. Pope, you don’t love princes.”  “Sir, I beg your pardon.”  “Well, you don’t love kings, then!""Sir, I own I love the lion best before his claws are grown.”  Was it possible to make a better answer to such simple questions?  Adieu! my dearest child!  Yours, ten thousand times over.

P. S. Patapan does not seem to regret his own country.

(231) This is the first of the series of letters addressed by Walpole to Sir Horace Man, British envoy at the court of Tuscany.  The following prefatory note, entitled “Advertisement by the Author,” explains the views which led Walpole to preserve them for publication:-

“The following Collection of Letters, written very carelessly by a young man, had been preserved by the person to whom they were addressed.  The author, some years after the date of the first, borrowed them, on account of some anecdotes interspersed.  On the perusal, among many trifling relations and stories, which were only of consequence or amusing to the two persons concerned in the correspondence, he found some facts, characters, and news, which, though below the dignity of history, might prove entertaining to many other people:  and knoing how much pleasure, not only himself, but many other persons have found in a series of private and familiar letters, he thought it worth his while to preserve these, as they contain something of the customs, fashions, politics, diversions, and private history of several years; which, if worthy of any existence, can be properly transmitted to posterity only in this manner.

“The reader will find a few pieces of intelligence which did not prove true; but which are retained here as the author heard and related them, lest correction should spoil the simple air of the narrative.* When the letters were written, they were never intended for public inspection; and now they are far from being thought correct, or more authentic than the general turn of epistolary correspondence admits.  The author would sooner have burnt them than have taken the trouble to correct such errant trifles, which are here presented to the reader, with scarce any variation or omissions, but what private friendships and private history, or the great haste with which the letters were written, made indispensably necessary, as will plainly appear, not only by the unavoidable chasms, where the originals were worn out or torn away, but by many idle relations and injudicious remarks and prejudices of a young man; for which @the only excuse the author can pretend to make, is, that as some future reader may possibly be as young as he was when he first wrote, he hopes they may be amused with what graver people (if into such hands they should fall) will very justly despise.  Who ever has patience to peruse the series, will find, perhaps, that as the author grew older, some of his faults became less striking.” * They are marked in the notes.

(232) Tutor to the young Earl of Shrewsbury. [.Charles Talbot, fifteenth Earl of Shrewsbury, born December 1719.  He married, in 1753, Elizabeth, daughter of the Hon. John Dormer, afterwards Lord Dormer, and died in 1787, without issue.]

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(233) Italian singers. [Angelo Maria Monticelli, a celebrated singer of the same class as Veluti, was born at Milan in 1715, and first attained the celebrity which he enjoyed by singing with Mingotti at the Royal Opera at Naples in 1746.  After visiting most of the cities of the Continent, he was induced by the favour with which he was received at Dresden to make that city his residence, until his death in 1764.  Is the name of Amorevoli, borne by one of the first singers of that day, an assumed one, or an instance of name fatality?  Certain it is,that Amorevole is a technical term in music somewhat analogous in its signification with Amabile and Amoroso.]

(234) An Italian abb`e, who directed and wrote the operas under the protection of Lord Middlesex.

(235) The motion in both houses of Parliament, 1740, for removing Sir Robert Walpole from the King’s councils. [See ante, p. 169 (Letter 30).)

(236) ("On!  On! through meadows, managed like a garden,
A paradise of hops and high production;
For, after years of travel by a bard in
Countries of greater heat, but lesser suction,
A green field is a sight which makes him pardon
The absence of that more sublime construction,
Which mixes up vines, olives, precipices,
Glaciers, volcanos, oranges, and ices."-Byron, 1823.)

(237) John Chute and Francis Whithed, Esqrs. two great friendls of Mr. W.’s, whom he had left at Florence, where he had been himself thirteen months, in the house of Mr. Mann, his relation and particular friend.

174 Letter 33 To Sir Horace Mann. [The beginning of this letter is lost.)

****I had written and sealed my letter, but have since received another from you, dated Sept. 24.  I read Sir Robert your account of Corsica; he seems to like hearing any account sent this way-indeed, they seem to have more superficial relations in general than I could have believed!  You will oblige me, too, with any farther account of Bianca Colonna:  (238) it is romantic, her history!

I am infinitely obliged to Mr. Chute for his kindness to me, and still more for his friendship to you.  You cannot think how happy I am to hear that you are to keep him longer.  You do not mention his having received my letter from Paris:  I directed it to him, recommended to you.  I would not have him think me capable of neglecting to answer his letter, which obliged me so much.  I will deliver Amorevoli his letter the first time I see him.

Lord Islay (239) dined here; I mentioned Stosch’s (240) Maltese cats.  Lord Islay begged I would write to Florence to have the largest male and female that can be got.  If you will speak to Stosch, you will oblige me:  they may come by sea.  You cannot imagine my amazement at your not being invited to Riccardi’s ball; do tell me, when you know, what can be the meaning of it; it could not be inadvertence-nay, that were as bad!  Adieu my dear child, once more!

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(238A kind friend of Joan of Are, who headed the Corsican rebels against the Genoese.

(239) Archibald Campbell, Earl of Islay, and, on his brother’s death in 1743, Duke of Argyle.

(240) Baron Stosch, a Prussian virtuoso, and spy for the court of England on the Pretender.  He had been driven from Rome, though it was suspected that he was a spy on both sides:  he was a man of a most infamous character in every respect. according to the Biographic Universelle, the Baron “ne put s’acquitter de fonctions aussi d`elicates sans se voir expos`e `a des naines violentes, qui le forc`erent `a se retirer `a Florence;” where he died in 1757.  He was one of the most skilful and industrious antiquaries of his time.  A catalogue of his gems was drawn up by Winkelmann.]

175 Letter 34 To The Hon. H. S. Conway.  London, 1741.

My Dearest Harry, Before I thank you for myself, I must thank you for that excessive good nature you showed in writing to poor Gray.  I am less impatient to see you, as I find you are not the least altered, but have the same tender friendly temper you always had.  I wanted much to see if you were still the same-but you are.

Don’t think of coming before your brother, he is too good to be left for any one living:  besides, if it is possible, I will see you in the country.  Don’t reproach me, and think nothing could draw me into the country:  impatience to see a few friends has drawn me out of Italy; and Italy, Harry, is pleasanter than London.  As I do not love living en famille so much as you (but then indeed my family is not like yours), I am hurried about getting myself a house; for I have so long lived single, that I do not much take to being confined with my own family.

You won’t find me much altered, I believe; at least, outwardly.  ’I am not grown a bit shorter, or a bit fatter, but am just the same long lean creature as usual.  Then I talk no French., but to my footman; nor Italian, but to myself.  What inward alterations may have happened to me, you will discover best; for you know ’tis said, one never knows that one’s self.  I will answer, that that part of it that belongs to you, has not suffered the least change-I took care of that.  For virt`u, I have a little to entertain you:  it is my sole pleasure.-I am neither young enough nor old enough to be in love.

My dear Harry, will you take care and make my compliments to that charming Lady Conway, (241) who I hear is so charming, and to Miss Jenny [Conway], who I know is so?  As for Miss Anne, (242) and her love as far as it is decent:  tell her, decency is out of the question between us, that I love her without any restriction.  I settled it yesterday with Miss Conway, that you three are brothers and sister to me, and that if you had been so, I could not love you better.  I have so many cousins, and uncles and aunts, and bloods that grow in Norfolk, that if I had portioned out my affections to them, as they say I should, what a modicum would have fallen to each!-So, to avoid fractions, I love my family in you three, their representatives. (243)

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Adieu, my dear Harry!  Direct to me at Downing Street.  Good-bye!  Yours ever.

(241) Isabella Fitzroy, daughter of Charles Duke of Grafton.  She had been married in May, to(Walpole’s maternal cousin), Francis Seymour Conway, afterwards Earl of Hertford.(

242) Miss Anne conway, youngest sister of Henry Seymour Conway.

(243) They were first cousins by the mother’s side; Francis first Lord conway having married Charlotte, eldest daughter of John Shorter of Bybrook in Kent, sister to Catherine Shorter Lady Walpole.

176 Letter 35 To Sir Horace Mann.  Downing Street, Oct. 8, 1741, O. S.

I have been very near sealing this letter with black wax; Sir Robert came from Richmond on Sunday night extremely ill, and on Monday was in great danger.  It was an ague and looseness; but they have stopped the latter, and converted the other into a fever, which they are curing with the bark.  He came out of his chamber to-day for the first time, and is quite out of danger.  One of the newspapers says, Sir R. W. is so bad that there are no Hopes of him.

The Pomfrets (244) are arrived; I went this morning to visit my lord, but did not find him.  Lady Sophia is ill, and my earl (245) still at Paris, not coming.  There is no news, nor a soul in town.  One talks of nothing but distempers, like Sir Robert’s.  My Lady Townsende (246) was reckoning up the other day the several things that have cured them; such a doctor so many, such a medicine, so many; but of all, the greatest number have found relief from the sudden deaths of their husbands.

The opera begins the day after the King’s birthday:  the singers are not permitted to sing till on the stage, so no one has heard them, nor have I seen Amorovoli to give him the letter.  The opera is to be on the French system of dancers, scenes, and dresses.  The directors have already laid out great sums.  They talk of a mob to silence the operas, as they did the French players; but it will be more difficult, for here half the young noblemen in town are engaged, and they will not be so easily persuaded to humour the taste of the mobility:  in short, they have already retained several eminent lawyers from the Bear Garden (247) to plead their defence.  I have had a long visit this morning from Don Benjamin:  (248) he is one of the best kind of agreeable men I ever saw-quite fat and easy, with universal knowledge:  he is in the greatest esteem at my court.

I am going to trouble you with some commissions.  Miss Rich, (249) who is the finest singer except your sister (250) in the world, has begged me to get her some music, particularly “the office of the Virgin of the Seven Sorrows,” by Pergolesi, (251) the “Serva Padrona, il Pastor se torna Aprile,” and “Symplicetta Pastorella.”  If you can send these easily, you will much oblige me.  Do, too, let me know by your brother, what you have already laid out for me, that I may pay him. 

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I was mentioning to Sir Robert some pictures in italy, which I wished him to buy; two particularly, if they can be got, would make him delight in you beyond measure.  They are, a Madonna, and Child, by Dominichino, (252) in the palace Zambeccari, at Boloana, or Caliambec, (253) as they call it; Mr. Chute knows the picture.  The other is by Corregio, in a convent at Parma, and reckoned the second best of that hand in the world.  There are the Madonna and Child, St. Catherine, St. Matthew, and other figures:  it is a most known picture, and has been engraved by Augustin Caracei.  If you can employ any body privately to inquire about these pictures, be so good as to let me know; Sir R. would not scruple almost any price, for he has of neither hand:  the convent is poor:  the Zambeccari collection is to be sold, though, when I inquired after this picture, they would not set a price.

Lord Euston is to be married to Lady Dorothy Boyle (254) tomorrow, after so many delays.  I have received your long letter, and Mr. Chute’s too, which I will answer next post.  I wish I had the least politics to tell you; but all is silent.  The opposition sav not a syllable, because they don’t know what the Court will think of public ’affairs; and they will not take their part till they are sure of contradicting.  The Court will not be very ready to declare themselves, as their present situation is every way disagreeable.  All they say, is to throw the blame entirely on the obstinacy of the Austrian Court, who -,vould never stir or soften for themselves, while they thought any one obliged to defend them.  All I know of news is, that Poland is leaning towards the acquisition side, like her neighbours, and proposes to get a lock of the Golden Fleece too.  Is this any part of Gregory’s (255) negotiation?  I delight in his Scapatta—­“Scappata, no; egli solamente ha preso la posta.”  My service to Seriston; he is charming.

How excessively obliging to go to Madame Grifoni’s (256) festino! but believe me, I shall be angry, if for my sake, you do things that are out of your character:  don’t you know that I am infinitely fonder of that than of her?

I read your story of the Sposa Panciatici at table, to the great entertainment of the company, and Prince Craon’s epitaph, which Lord Cholmley (257) says he has heard before, and does not think it is the prince’s own; no more do I, it is too good; but make my compliments of thanks to him; he shall have his buckles the first opportunity I find of sending them.  Say a thousand things for me to dear Mr. Chute, till I can say them next post for myself:  till then, adieu.  Yours ever.

(244) Thomas Earl of Pomfret, and Henrietta Louisa, his consort, and his two eldest daughters, Sophia and Charlotte, had been in Italy at the same time with Mr. Walpole.  The Earl had been master of the horse to Queen Caroline, and the countess lady of the bedchamber.

(245) Henry Earl of Lincoln was at that time in love with Lady Sophia Fermor.

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(246) Ethelreda Harrison, wife of Charles Lord Viscount Townsend, but parted from him.

(247) Boxers.

(248) Sir Benjamin Keene, ambassador at Madrid.

(249) Elizabeth, eldest daughter of Sir Robert Rich, since married to Sir George Lyttelton. [Eldest son of sir Thomas Lyttelton of hagley; in 1744 appointed one of the lords of the treasury, and in 1755, chancellor of the exchequer.  In 1757,when he retired from public life, he was raised to the peerage, by the title of Lord Lyttelton.  He died in 1773.  His prose works were printed collectively in 1774; and his poems have given him a place among the British poets.]

(250) Mary, daughter of R. Mann, Esq. since married to Mr. Foote.

(251) Better known to all lovers of the works of this great composer as his " Stabat mater."-E.

(252) It will be seen by Walpole’s letter to Mr. Chute, of the 20th August 1743, now first published, that he eventually succeeded in purchasing this picture.-E.

(253) A corrupted pronunciation of the Bolognese.

(254) This unfortunate marriage is alluded to several times in the course of the subsequent letters.  George Earl of Euston was the eldest son of Charles the second Duke of Grafton.  He married, in 1741, Lady Dorothy Boyle, eldest daughter and co-heir of Richard, third and last heir of B(irlington.  She died in 1742, from the effects, as it is supposed, of his brutal treatment of her.  The details of his cruelty towards her are almost too revolting to be believed.  In Sir Charles Hanbury Williams’s poems are some pretty lines on her death, beginning, “Behold one moment Dorothea’s fate."-D.

(255) Gregorio ALdollo, an Asiatic, from being a prisoner at Leghorn, raised himself to be employed to the Great Duke by the King of Poland.

(256) Elisabetta Capponi, wife of signor Grifoni, a great beauty.

(257) George third Earl of Cholmondeley, had married Mary Walpole, only legitimate daughter of Sir Robert Walpole-D.

178 Letter 36
To Sir Horace Mann. 
London, Oct. 13, 1741.
[The greatest part of this letter is wanting.]

**** The Town will come to town, and then one shall know something.  Sir Robert is quite recovered.

Lady Pomfret I saw last night:  Lady Sophia has been ill with a cold; her head is to be dressed French, and her body English, for which I am sorry; her figure is so fine in a robe:  she is full as sorry as I am.  Their trunks are not arrived yet, so they have not made their appearance.  My lady told me a little out of humour that Uguecioni wrote her word, that you said her things could not be sent away yet:  I understood from you, that very wisely, you would have nothing to do about them, so made no answer.

The parliament meets the fifteenth of November. **** Amorevoli has been with me two hours this evening; he is in panics about the first night, which is the next after the birthday.

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I have taken a master, not to forget my Italian-don’t it look like returning to Florence’!-some time or other.  Good night.  Yours ever and ever, my dear child.

178 Letter 37
To Sir Horace Mann. 
London, Oct. 19, 1741, O. S.
[Great part wanting.]

I write to you up to the head and ears in dirt, straw, and unpacking.  I have been opening all my cases from the Custom-house the whole morning; and-are not you glad?-every individual safe and undamaged.  I am fitting up an apartment in Downing Street ***(258) was called in the morning, and was asleep as soon as his head touched the pillow, for I have frequently known him snore ere they had drawn his curtains, now never sleeps above an hour without waking; and he, who at dinner always forgot he was minister, and was more gay and thoughtless than all his company, now sits without speaking, and with his eyes fixed for an hour together.  Judge if this is the Sir Robert you knew.

The politics of the age are entirely suspended; nothing is mentioned; but this bottling them up, will make them fly out with the greater violence the moment the parliament meets; till *** a word to you about this affair.

I am sorry to hear the Venetian journey of the Suares family; it does not look as if the Teresina was to marry PandOlfini; do you know, I have set my heart upon that match.

You are very good to the Pucci, to give her that advice, though I don’t suppose she will follow it.  The Bolognese scheme *** In return for Amorevoli’s letter, he has given me two.  I fancy it will be troublesome to you; so put his wife into some other method of correspondence with him.

Do you love puns?  A pretty man of the age came into the playhouse the other night, booted and spurred:  says he, “I am come to see Orpheus"-"And Euridice- You rid I see,” replied another gentleman.

(258) The omissions in these letters marked with stars occur in the original ms.-D.

179 Letter 38 To Sir Horace Mann.  London, Oct. 22, 1741, O. S.

Your brother has been with me this morning, and we have talked over your whole affair.  He thinks it will be impossible to find any servant of the capacities you require, that will live with you under twenty, if not thirty pounds a-year, especially as he is not to have your clothes:  then the expense of the journey to Florence, and of back again, in case you should not like him, will be considerable.  He is for your taking one from Leghorn; but I, who know a little more of Leghorn than he does, should be apprehensive of any person from thence being in the interest of Goldsworthy, (259) or too attached to the merchants:  in short, I mean, he would be liable to prove a spy upon you.  We have agreed that I shall endeavour to find out a proper man, if such a one will go to you for twenty pounds a-year, and then you shall ficar from me.  I am very sensible that Palombo (260) is not fit for you, and shall be extremely diligent

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in equipping you with such a one as you want.  You know how much I want to be of service to you even in trifles.  I have been much diverted privately, for it is a secret that not a hundred persons know yet, and is not to be spoken of.  Do but think on a duel between Winnington (261) and Augustus Townshend; (262) the latter a pert boy, captain of an Indiaman; the former declared cicisbeo to my Lady Townshend.  The quarrel was something that Augustus had said of them; for since she was parted from her husband, she has broke with all his family.  Winnington challenged; they walked into Hyde Park last Sunday morning, scratched one another’s fingers, tumbled into two ditches-that is Augustus did,-kissed, and walked home together.  The other night at Mrs. Boothby’s-

Well, I did believe I should never find time to write to you again; I was interrupted in my letter last post, and could not finish it; to-day I came home from the King’s levee, where I Kissed his hand, without going to the drawing-room, on purpose to finish my letter, and the moment I sat down they let somebody in.  That somebody is gone, and I go on-At Mrs. Boothby’s Lady Townshend was coquetting with Lord Baltimore:  (263) he told her, if she meant any thing with him he was not for her purpose; if only to make any one jealous, he would throw away an hour with her with all his heart.

The whole town is to be to-morrow night at Sir Thomas Robinson’s (264) ball, which he gives to a little girl of the Duke of Richmond’s.  There are already two hundred invited, from miss in bib and apron, to my lord chancellor (265) in bib and mace.  You shall hear about it next post.

I wrote you word that Lord Euston is married:  in a week more I believe that I shall write you word that he is divorced.  He is brutal enough; and has forbid Lady Burlington (266) his house, and that in very ungentle terms.  The whole family is in confusion:  the Duke of Grafton half dead. and Lord Burlington half mad.  The latter has challenged Lord Euston, who accepted the challenge, but they were prevented.  There are different stories:  some say that the duel would have been no breach of consanguinity; others, that there’s a contract of marriage come out in another place, which has had more consanguinity than ceremony in it:  in short, one cannot go into a room but you hear something of it.  Do you not pity the poor girl? of the softest temper, vast beauty, birth, and fortune, to be so sacrificed!

The letters from the West Indies are not the most agreeable.  You have heard of the fine river and little town which Vernon took, and named, the former dugusta, the latter Cumberland.  Since that, they have found out that it is impracticable to take St. Jago by sea — on which Admiral Vernon and Ogle insisted that Wentworth, with the land forces, should march to it by land, which he, by advice of all the land-officers, has refused; for their march would have been of eighty miles, through a mountainous, unknown country, full of defiles, where not two men could march abreast; and they have but four thousand five hundred men, and twenty-four horses.  Quires of paper from both sides are come over to the council, who are to determine from hence what is to be done.  They have taken a Spanish man-of-war and a register ship, going to Spain, immensely valuable.

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The parliament does not meet till the first of December, which relieves me into a little happiness, and gives me a little time to settle myself.  I have unpacked all my things, and have not had the least thing suffer.  I am now only in a fright about my birthday clothes, which I bespoke at Paris:  Friday is the day, and this is Monday, without any news of them!

I have been two or three times at the play, very unwillingly; for nothing was ever so bad as the actors, except the company.  There is much in vogue a Mrs. Woffington, (267) a bad actress; but she has life.

Lord Hartington (268) dines here:  it is said (and from his father’s partiality to another person’s father, I don’t think it impossible) that he is to marry a certain miss:(269) Lord Fitzwilliam is supposed another candidate.

Here is a new thing which has been much about town, and liked; your brother Gale (270) gave me the copy of it: 

“Les cours de l’Europe

L’Allemagne craint tout;
L’Autriche risque tout;
La Bavi`ere esp`ere touut;
La Prusse entreprend tout;
La Mayence vend tout;
Le Portugal regarde tout;
L’Angleterre veut faire tout;
L’Espagne embrouille tout;
La Savoye se d`efie de tout;
Le Mercure se m`ele de tout;
La France sch`ete tout;
Les Jesuites se trouvent par tout;
Rome b`enit tout’
Si dieu ne pourvoye `a tout,
Le diable emportera tout.”

Good night, my dear child:  you never say a word of your own health; are not you quite recovered? a thousand services to Mr. Chute and Mr. Whithed, and to all my friends:  do they begin to forget me?  I don’t them.  Yours, ever.

(259) Consul at Leghorn, who was endeavouring to supplant Mr. Mann.

(260)An Italian, secretary to Mr. Mann.

(261"Winnington,” says Walpole, (Memoirs, i.  P. 151), “had been bred a Tory, but had left them in the height of Sir Robert Walpole’s power -. when that minister sunk. he had injudiciously, and, to please my Lady Townshend, who had then the greatest influence over him, declined visiting him, in a manner to offend the steady old Whigs; and his jolly way of his own want of principles had revolted all the graver sort, who thought deficiency of honesty too sacred and profitable a commodity to be profaned and turned into ridicule.  He had infinitely more wit than any man I ever knew, and it was as ready and quick as it was constant and Unmeditated.  His style was a little brutal, his courage not at all so; his good-humour inexhaustible; it was impossible to hate or to trust him.”  Winnington was first Ynade lord of the admiralty, then of the treasury, then cofferer, and lastly paymaster of the forces:  to which office, on his death in 1746, Mr. Pitt succeeded.-E.

(262) The Hon. Augustus Townshend was second son of the minister, Lord Townshend, by his second wife, the sister of Sir Robert Walpole.  He was consequently half-brother to Charles, the third viscount, husband to Ethelreda, Lady Townshend.-D.

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(263) Charles Calvert, sixth Lord Baltimore in Ireland.  He was at this time member of parliament for the borough of St. Germains, and a lord of the admiralty.-D.

(264) Sir Thomas Robinson, of Rokeby Park, in Yorkshire, commonly called “Long Sir Thomas,” on account of his stature, and in order to distinguish him from the diplomatist, Sir Thomas Robinson, afterwards created Lord Grantham. [He has elsewhere been styled the new Robinson Crusoe by Walpole, who says, when speaking of him, " He was a tall, uncouth man; and his stature was often rendered still more remarkable by his hunting-dress, a postilion’s cap, a tight green jacket, and buckskin breeches.  He was liable to sudden whims, and once set off on a sudden in his hunting suit to visit his sister, who was married and settled at Paris.  He arrived while there was a large company at dinner.  The servant announced M. Robinson, and he came in to the great amazement of the hosts.  Among others, -a French abb`e thrice lifted his fork to his mouth and thrice laid it down, with an eager stare of surprise.  Unable to restrain his curiosity any longer, he burst out with I Excuse me, sir, are you the famous Robinson Crusoe so remarkable in history?’”]

(265) Philip Yorke, Lord Hardwicke.-D.

(266) Lady Dorothy Savile, eldest daughter and co-heiress of William second Marquis of Halifax, the mother of the unhappy Lady Euston.-D.

(267) Margaret Woffington, the celebrated beauty.-D.

(268) William, Marquis of Hartington, afterwards fourth Duke of Devonshire.  He married Lady Charlotte Boyle, second daughter of Richard, third Earl of Burlington.-D.

(269) Miss Mary Walpole, daughter of Sir Robert Walpole by his second wife, Maria Skerrett, but born before their marriage.  When her father was made an earl, she had the rank of an earl’s daughter given to her.-D.

(270) Galfridus Mann.

182 Letter 39
To Sir Horace Mann. 
London, Nov. 2, 1741.

You shall not hear a word but of balls and public places:  this one week has seen Sir T. Robinson’s ball, my lord mayor’s, the birthday, and the opera.  There were an hundred and ninety-seven persons at Sir Thomas’s, and yet was it so well conducted that nobody felt a crowd.  He had taken off all his doors, and so separated the old and the young, that neither were inconvenienced with the other.  The ball began at eight; each man danced one minuet with his partner, and then began country dances.  There were four-and-twenty couple, divided into twelve a@d twelve:  each set danced two dances, and then retired into another room, while the other set took their two; and so alternately.  Except Lady Ancram, (271) no married woman danced; so you see, in England, we do not foot it till five-and-fifty.  The beauties were the Duke of Richmond’s two daughters (272) and their mother, still handsomer than they:  the duke (273) sat by his wife all night, kissing her hand: 

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how this must sound in the ears of Florentine cicisbeos, cock or hen!  Then there was Lady Euston, Lady Caroline Fitzroy, (274) Lady Lucy Manners, (275) Lady Camilla Bennett, (276) and Lady Sophia, (277) handsomer than all, but a little out of humour at the scarcity of minuets; however, as usual, she danced more than any body, and, as usual too, took out what men she liked or thought the best dancers.  Lord Holderness (278) is a little what Lord Lincoln (279) will be to-morrow; for he is expected.  There was Churchill’s daughter (280) who is prettyish, and dances well; and the Parsons (281) family from Paris, who are admired too; but indeed it is `a force des muscles.  Two other pretty women were Mrs. Colebroke (did you know the he-Colebroke in Italy?) and a Lady Schaub, a foreigner, who, as Sir Luke says, would have him.  Sir R. was afraid of the heat, and did not go.  The supper was served at twelve; a large table of hot for the lady-dancers; their partners and other tables stood round.  We danced (for I country-danced) till four, then had tea and coffee, and came home.-Finis Balli.

* * Friday was the birthday; it was vastly full, the ball immoderately so, for there came all the second edition of my lord mayor’s, but not much finery:  Lord Fitzwilliam (282) and myself were far the most superb.  I did not get mine till nine that morning.

The opera will not tell as well as the other two shows, for they were obliged to omit the part of Amorevoli, who has a fever.  The audience was excessive, without the least disturbance, and almost as little applause; I cannot conceive why, for Monticelli ***** be able to sing to-morrow.

At court I met the Shadwells; (283) Mademoiselle Misse Molli, etc.  I love them, for they asked vastly after you, and kindly.  Do you know, I have had a mind to visit Pucci, the Florentine minister, but he is so black, and looks so like a murderer in a play, that I have never brought it about yet?  I know none of the foreign ministers, but Ossorio, (284) a little; he is still vastly in fashion, though extremely altered.  Scandal, who, I believe, is not mistaken, lays a Miss Macartney to his charge; she is a companion to the Duchess of Richmond, as Madame Goldsworthy was; but Ossorio will rather be Wachtendonck (285) than Goldsworthy:  what a lamentable story is that of the hundred sequins per month!  I have mentioned Mr. Jackson, as you desired, to Sir R., who says, he has a very good opinion of him.  In case of any change at Leghorn, you will let me know.  He will not lose his patron, Lord Hervey, (286) so soon as I imagined; he begins to recover.

I believe the Euston embroil is adjusted; I was with Lady Caroline Fitzroy on Friday evening; there were her brother and the bride, and quite bridal together, quite honeymoonish.

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I forgot to tell you that the prince was not at the opera; I believe it has been settled that he should go thither on Tuesdays, and Majesty on Saturdays, that they may not meet.  The Neutrality (287) begins to break out, and threatens to be an excise or convention.  The newspapers are full of it, and the press teems.  It has already produced three pieces:  “The Groans of Germany,” which I will send you by the first opportunity:  “Bedlam, a poem on His Maj’esty’s happy escape from his German dominions, and all the wisdom of his conduct there.”  The title of this is all that is remarkable in it.  The third piece is a ballad, which, not for the goodness, but for the excessive abuse of it, I shall transcribe: 

The late gallant exploits of A famous balancing captain
A new songTo the tune of the king and the Miller.

Mene tekel.  The handwriting on the wall.

1.  I’ll tell you a story as strange as ’tis new, Which all, who’re concerned, will allow to be true, Of a Balancing Captain, well-known herabouts, Returned home, God save him as a mere King of Clouts.

2.  This Captain he takes, in a gold-ballast’d ship,
Each summer to Terra damnosa a trip,
For which he begs, borrows, scrapes all he can get,
And runs his poor Owners most vilely in debt.

3.  The last time he set out for this blessed place,
He met them, and told them a most piteous case,
Of a Sister of his, who, though bred up at court,
Was ready to perish for want of support.

4.  This Hungry Sister, he then did pretend,
Would be to his Owners a notable friend,
If they would at that critical junction supply her-
 They did-but alas! all the fat’s in the fire!

5.  This our Captain no sooner had finger’d the cole,
But he hies him abroad with his good Madam Vole-
Where, like a true tinker, he managed this metal,
And while he stopp’d one hole, made ten in the kettle.

6.  His Sister, whom he to his Owners had,,;worn,
To see duly settled before his return,
He gulls with bad messages sent to and fro,
Whilst he underhand claps up a peace with her foe.

7. on He then turns this Sister adrift, and declares Her most mortal foes were her Father’s right heirs-“G-d z-ds!” cries the world, “such a step was ne’er taken!” “O, ho!” says Nol Bluff, “I have saved my own bacon.”

8.  Let France damn the Germans, and undam the Dutch,
And Spain on Old England pish ever so much,
Let Russia bang Sweden, or Sweden bang that,
I care not, by Robert! one kick of my hat.

9.  So I by myself can noun substantive stand,
Impose on my Owners, and save my own land;
You call me masculine, feminine, neuter, or block,
Be what will the gender, sirs, hic, haec, or hoc.

10.  Or should my choused Owners begin to look sour,
I’ll trust to Mate Bob to exert his old power,
Regit animos dictis, or nummis, with ease,
So, spite of your growling, I’ll act as I please.”

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11.  Yet worse in this treacherous contract, ’tis said,
Such terms are agreed to, such promises made,
That his Owners must soon feeble beggars become-
“Hold!” cries the crown office, “’twere scandal-so, mum!”

12.  This secret, however, must out on the day When he meets his poor Owners to ask for more pay; And I fear when they come to adjust the account, zero for balance will prove their amount.

One or two of the stanzas are tolerable; some, especially the ninth, most nonsensically bad.  However, this is a specimen of what we shall have amply commented upon in parliament.

I have already found out a person, who, I believe, will please you, in Palombo’s place:  I am to see your brother about it to-morrow, and next post you shall hear more particularly.  I am quite in concern for the poor prinCess,(289) and her conjugal and amorous distresses:  I really pity them; were they in England, we should have all the old prudes dealing out judgments on her, and mumbling toothless ditties to the tune of Pride will have a fall.  I am bringing some fans and trifles for her, si mignons!  Good night.  Yours ever.

(271) Lady Caroline D’Arcy, daughter of Robert third Earl of Holdernesse, and wife of William Henry fourth Marquis of Lothian, at this time, during his father’s lifetime, called Earl of Ancram.-D

(272) Lady Caroline and Lady Emily Lenox. [The former was married, in 1744, to Henry Fox, the first Lord Holland; the latter in 1746-7, to James, twentieth Earl of Kildare, in 1766 created Duke of Leinster.]

(273) Charles, second Duke of Richmond, and Lady Sarah Cadogan, his duchess, eldest daughter of William Earl Cadogan.-D.

(274) Eldest daughter of Charles Duke of Grafton.-[In 1746 married to Lord Petersham, afterwards Earl of Harrington.]

(275) Sister to John Duke of’Rutland; married in 1742, to the Duke of Montrose.

(276) Only daughter of Charles second Earl of Tankerville.  She married, first, Gilbert Fane Fleming, Esq. and secondly, Mr. Wake, of Bath.-D.

(277) Lady Sophia Fermor.-D.

(278) Robert D’Arcy, fourth and last Earl of Holdernesse.-E.

(279) Lord Lincoln was at this time an admirer of Lady Sophia Fermor,-D.

(280) Harriet, natural daughter of General Churchill; afterwards married to Sir Everard Fawkener.

(281) The son and daughters of Alderman Parsons, a Jacobite brewer, who lived much in France, and had, somehow or other, been taken notice of by the king.

(282) William third Earl Fitzwilliam, in Ireland; created an English peer in 1742; and in 1746 an English earl.-D.

(283) Sir John Shadwell, a physician, his wife and daughters, the youngest of whom was pretty, and by the foreigners generally called Mademoiselle Misse Molli, had been in Italy, when Mr. W. was there.

(284) The Chevalier Ossorio, minister from the King of Sardinia.

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(285) General Wachtendonck, commander of the great dukes troops at Leghorn, was cicisbeo to the conslil’s wife there.

(286) John Lord Hervey, lord privy seal, and eldest son of John first Earl Of Bristol.  He was a man of considerable celebrity in his day; but is now principally known from his unfortunate rivalry with Pope, for the good graces of Lady Mary Wortley Montagu.  He died August 5, 1743, at the age of forty-seven.-D.

(287) The Neutrality for the electorate of Hanover.(

(288) This song is a satire upon George ii., ,the balancing Captain,” and upon that in his vacillating and doubtful conduct, which his fears for the electorate of Hanover made him pursue, whenever Germany was the seat of war.  His Sister, whom he is accused of deserting, was Maria Theresa, Queen of Hungary.-E.

(289) The Prince de Craon, and the princess his wife, who had been favourite mistress to Leopold, the last Duke of Lorrain, resided at this time at Florence, where the prince was head of the council of regency; but they were extremely ill-treited and mortified by the Count de Richcourt, a low Lorrainer, who, being a creature of the great duke’s favourite minister, had the chief ascendant and power there.

186 Letter 40 To Sir Horace Mann.  Downing Street, Nov. 5, 1741, O. S.

I just mentioned to you in my letter on Monday, that I had found such a person as you wanted; I have since seen your brother, who is so satisfied with him, that he was for sending him directly away to you, without staying six weeks for an answer from you, but I chose to have your consent.  He is the son of a tradesman in this city, so not yet a fine gentleman.  He is between fifteen and sixteen, but very tall of his age:  he was disappointed in not going to a merchant at Genoa, as was intended; but was so far provided for it as to have learned Italian three months:  he speaks French very well, writes a good hand, and casts accounts; so, you see there will not be much trouble in forming him to your purpose.  He will go to you for twenty pounds a-year and his lodging.  If you like this, Nvrite me word by the first post, and he shall set out directly.

We hear to-day that the Toulon squadron is airived at Barcelona; I don’t like it of’ all things, for it has a look towards Tuscany.  If it is suffered to go thither quietly, it will be no small addition to the present discontents.

Here is another letter, which I am entreated to send you, from poor Amorevoli; he has a continued fever, though not a high one.  Yesterday, Monticelli was taken ill, so there will be no opera on Saturday; nor was on Tuesday.  MOnticelli is infinitely admired; next to Farinelli.  The Viscontina is admired more than liked.  The music displeases every body, and the dances.  I am quite uneasy about the opera, for Mr. Conway is one of’ the directors, and I fear they will lose considerably, which he cannot afford.  There are eight; Lord

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Middlesex, (290) Lord Holderness, Mr. Frederick, (291) Lord Conway, (292) Mr. Conway, (293) Mr. Damer, (294) Lord Brook, (295) and Mr. Brand. (296) The five last are directed by the three first; they by the first, and he by the Abb`e Vanneschi, (297) who will make a pretty sum.  I Will give you Some instances; not to mention the improbability of eight young thoughtless men of fashion understanding economy -. it is usual to give the poet fifty guineas for composing the books-Vanneschi and Rolli are allowed three hundred.  Three hundred more VannesChi had for his journey to Italy to pick up dancers and performers, which was always as well transacted by bankers there.  Be has additionally brought over an Italian tailor-because there are none here!  They have already given this Taylorini four hundred pounds, and he has already taken a house of thirty pounds a-year.  Monticelli and the Visconti are to have a thousand guineas apiece; Amorevoli eight hundred and fifty:  this at the rate of the great singers, is not so extravagant; but to the Muscovita (though the second woman never had above four hundred,) they give six; that is for secret services. (298) By this you may judge of their frugality!  I am quite uneasy for poor Harry, who will thus be to pay for Lord Middlesex’s pleasures!  Good night; I have not time now to write more.  Yours, ever.

(290) Charles Sackville, Earl of Middlesex, and subsequently second Duke of Dorset, eldest son of Lionel, first Duke of Dorset.  He was made a lord of the treasury in 1743, and master of the horse to Frederick, Prince of Wales, in 1747-D.

(291) John Frederick, Esq. afterwards Sir John Frederick, Bart. by the death of his cousin, Sir Thomas.  He was a commissioner of customs, and member of parliament for West Looe.-D.

(292) Francis Seymour Conway, first Earl and Marquis of Hertford, ambassador at Paris, lord chamberlain of the household, etc.-D.

(293) Henry Seymour Conway, afterwards secretary of state, and a field marshal in the army.-D.

(294) Joseph Damer, Esq. created in 1753 Baron Milton, in Ireland, and by George iii. an English peer, by the same title, and eventually Earl of Dorchester.-D.

(295) Francis Greville, eighth Lord Brooke; created in 1746 Earl Brooke, and in 1759 Earl of Warwick.-D.

(296) Mr. Brand of the Hoo, in Hertfordshire, one of the original members of the society of Dilettanti.—­D.

(297) If this anticipation of Walpole’s was ever realized, “the pretty sum” was eventually lost on the spot where it had been gained.  Vanneschi, having in 1753 undertaken the management of the opera-house on his own account, continued it until 1756, when his differences with Mingotti, which excited almost as much of the public attention as the rivalries of Handel and Bononcini or of Faustina and Cuzzoni, completely prejudiced the public against him, and eventually ended in making him a bankrupt, a prisoner in the Fleet, and at last a fugitive.-E.

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(298) She was kept by Lord Middlesex.

187 Letter 41
To Sir Horace Mann. 
Downing Street, Nov. 12, 1741.

Nothing is equal to my uneasiness about you.  I hear or think of nothing but Spanish embarkations for Tuscany:  before you receive this, perhaps, they will be at Leghorn.  Then, your brother tells me you have received none of my letters.  He knows I have never failed writing once a week, if not twice.  We have had no letters from You this post.  I shall not have the least respite from anxiety, till I hear about you, and what you design to do. it is immpossible but the great duke must lose Tuscany; and I suppose it is as certain, (I speak on probabilities, for, upon honour, I know nothing of the matter,) that as soon as there is a peace, we shall acknowledge Don Philip, and then you may return to Florence again.  In the mean while I will ask Sir R. if it is possible to get your appointments continued, while you stay in readiness at Bologna, Rome, Lucca, or where you choose.  I talk at random; but as I think so much of you, I am trying to find out something that may be of service to you.  I write in infinite hurry, and am called away, so scarce know what I say.  Lord Conway and his family are this instant come to town, and have sent for me.

It is Admiral Vernon’s birthday, (299) and the city-shops are full of favours, the streets of marrowbones and cleavers, and the night will be full of mobbing, bonfires, and lights.

The opera does not succeed; Amorevoli has not sung yet; here is a letter to his wife; mind, while he is ill, he sends to the Chiaretta!  The dances are infamous and ordinary.  Lord Chesterfield was told that the Viscontina said she was but four-and-twenty:  he answered, “I suppose she means four-and-twenty stone!”

There is a mad parson goes about; he called to a sentinel the other day in the Park; “Did you ever see the Leviathan?” “No.”  “Well, he is as like Sir.  R. W. as ever two devils were like one another.”

Never was such unwholesome weather!  I have a great cold, and have not been well this fortnight:  even immortal majesty has had a looseness.

The Duke of Ancaster (300) and Lord James Cavendish (301) are dead.

This is all the news I know:  I would I had time to write more; but I know you will excuse me now.  If I wrote more, it would be still about the Italian expedition, I am so disturbed about it.  Yours, ever.

(299) Admiral Vernon was now in the height of his popularity, in consequence of his successful attack upon Porto-Bello, in November, 1739, and the great gallantry he had shown upon that occasion.  His determined and violen’t opposition, as a member of parliament, to the measures of the government, assisted in rendering him the idol of the mob, which he continued for many years.-D. [The admiral was actually elected for Rochester, Ipswich, and Penryn:  he’was also set up for the City of London, where

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he was beaten by two thousand votes; and in Westminster, where he was beaten by four hundred.  After the affair of Porto-Bello, he took Chagre, and continued in the service till 1748; when several matters which had passed between him and the lords of the admiralty being laid before the king, be was struck off the list of flag officers.  He died in 1757.  A handsome monument was erected to his memory in Westminster Abbey.]

(300) Peregrine Bertie, second Duke of Ancaster and Kesteven, great chamberlain of England, and chief justice in Eyre, north of Trent.  The report of his death was premature.  His grace survived till the 1st of January.-E.

(301) The second son of William, second Duke of Devonshire.  He was colonel of a regiment of foot-guards, and member for Malton.-E.

189 Letter 42 To Sir Horace Mann.  Downing Street, Nov. 23, 1741.

Your letter has comforted me much, if it can be called comfort to have one’s uncertainty fluctuate to the better side.  You make me hope that the Spaniards design on Lombardy ; my passion for Tuscany, and anxiety for you, make me eager to believe it; but alas! while I am in the belief of this, they may be in the act of conquest in Florence, and poor you retiring politically!  How delightful is Mr. Chute for cleaving unto you like Ruth!  “Whither thou goest, I will go; and where thou lodgest, I will lodge!” As to the merchants of Leghorn and their concerns, Sir R. thinks you are mistaken, and that if the Spaniards come thither, they will by no means be safe.  I own I write to you under a great dilemma; I flatter myself, all is well with you; but if not, how disagreeable to have one’s letters fall into strange hands.  I write, however.

A brother Of Mine, (302) Edward by name, has lately had a call to matrimony:  the virgins name was Howe. (303) He had agreed to take her with no fortune, she him with his four children.  The father of him, to get rid of his importunities, at last acquiesced.  The very moment he had obtained this consent, he repented; and, instead of flying on the wings of love to notify it, he went to his fair One, owned his father had mollified, but hoped she would be so good as to excuse him.  You cannot imagine what an entertaining fourth act of the opera we had the other night.  Lord Vane, (304) in the middle of the pit, making love to my lady.  The Duke of Newcastle (305) has lately given him three-score thousand pounds, to consent to cut off the entail of the Newcastle estate.  The fool immediately wrote to his wife, to beg she would return to him from Lord Berkeley; that he had got so much money, and now they might live comfortably:  but she will not live comfortably:  she is at Lord Berkeley’s house, whither go divers after her.  Lady Townshend told me an admirable history; it is of our friend Lady Pomfret.  Somebody that belonged to the Prince of Wales said, they were going to Court; it was objected that they ought to

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say, going to Carlton House; that the only Court is where the king resides.  Lady P. with her paltry air of significant learning and absurdity, said, “Oh Lord! is there no Court in England, but the king’s? sure, there are many more!  There is the Court of Chancery, the Court of Exchequer, the Court of King’s Bench, etc.”  Don’t you love her?  Lord Lincoln does her dauhter:  he is come over, and met her the other night:  he turned pale, spoke to her several times in the evening, but not long, and sighed to me at going away.  He came over all alive; and not only his uncle-duke, but even majesty is fallen in love with him.  He talked to the king at his levee, without being spoken to.  That was always thought high treason; but I don’t know how the gruff gentleman liked it; and then he had been told that Lord Lincoln designed to have made the campaicn, if we had gone to war; in short, he says, Lord Lincoln (306) is the handsomest man in England

I believe I told you that Vernon’s birthday passed quietly, but it was not designed to be pacific; for at twelve at night, eight gentlemen, dressed like sailors, and masked, went round Covent Garden with a drum, beating up for a volunteer mob, but it did not take; and they retired to a great supper that was prepared for them at the Bedford Head, and ordered by Whitehead (307) the author of Manners.  It has been written into the country that Sir R. has had two fits of an apoplexy, and cannot live till Christmas; but I think he is recovered to be as well as ever.  To-morrow se’nnight is the Day! (308) It is critical.  You shall hear faithfully.

The opera takes:  Monticelli (309) pleases almost equal to Farinelli:  Amorevoli is much liked; but the poor, fine Viscontina scarce at all. (310)I carry the two former to-night to my Lady Townshend’s.

Lord Coventry (311) has had his son thrown out by the party:  he went to Carlton House; the prince asked him about the election.  “Sir,” said he, “the Tories have betrayed me, as they will you, the first time you have occasion for them.”  The merchants have petitioned the King for more guardships.  My lord president, (312) referred them to the Admiralty; but they bluntly refused to go, and said they would have redress from the King himself.

I am called down to dinner, and cannot write more now.  I will thank dear Mr. Chute and the Grifona next post.  I hope she and you liked your things.  Good night, my dearest child!  Your brother and I sit upon your affairs every morning.  Yours ever.

(302) Second son of Sir Robert Walpole.  He was clerk of the pells, and afterwards knight of the Bath. [Sir Edward died unmarried, in 1784, leaving three natural daughters; Laura, married to the Hon. and Rev. Frederick Keppel, afterwards Bishop of Exeter; maria, married, first to the Earl of Waldegrave, and, secondly to the Duke of Gloucester; and Charlotte, married to the Earl of Dysart.]

(303) Eldest sister of the Lord Viscount Howe.  She was soon after this married to a relation of her own name. [John Howe, Esq. of Hanslop, Bucks.]

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(304) William, second Viscount Vane, in Ireland.  His “lady” was the too-celebrated Lady Vane, first married to Lord William Hamilton, and secondly to Lord Vane; who has given her own extraordinary and disreputable adventures to the world, in Smollett’s novel of “Peregrine Pickle,” under the title of “Memoirs of a Lady of Quality.”  She is also immortalized in different ways, by Johnson, in his ,Vanity of Human Wishes,” and by Sir Charles Hanbury Williams, in one of his Odes.-D. [She was the daughter of Mr. Hawes, a South Sea director, and died in 1788.  Lord Vane died in 1789.  Boswell distinctly states, that the lady mnentioned in Johnson’s couplet “was not the celebrated Lady Vane, whose Memoirs were given to the public by Dr. Smollett, but Ann Vane, who was mistress to Frederick Prince of Wales, and died in 1736, not long before Johnson settled in London.”  See Boswell’s Johnson, vol. i. p. 226, ed. 1835.]

(305) Uncle of Lord Vane, whose father, Lord Barnard, had married Elizabeth, eldest daughter of Gilbert Holles, Earl of Clare, and sister and coheir of John Duke of Newcastle.

(306) Henry Clinton, ninth Earl of Lincoln, succeeded as Duke of Newcastle in 1768, on the death of his uncle, the minister.

(307) Paul Whitehead, a satirical poet of bad character, was the son of a tailor, who lived in Castle-yard, Holborn.  He wrote several abusive poems, now forgotten, entitled “The State Dances,” “Manners,” “The Gymnasiad,” etc.  In “Manners,” having attacked some members of the House of Lords, that assembly summoned Dodsley, the publisher, before them, (Whitehead having absconded,) and subsequently imprisoned him.  In politics, Whitehead was a follower of Bubb Dodington; in private life be was the friend and companion of the profligate Sir Francis Dashwood, Wilkes, Churchill, etc. and, like them, was a member of the Hell-fire Club, which held its orgies at Mednam Abbey, in Bucks.  The estimation in which he was held even by his friends may be judged of by the lines in which Churchill has damned him to everlasting fame: 

“May I (can worse disgrace on mankind fall?) Be born a Whitehead and baptized a Paul.”

Paul Whitehead died in 1774.-D. [The proceedings in the House of Lords against the author of “Manners” which took place in February, 1739, was, in the opinion of Dr. Johnson, “intended rather to intimidate Pope, than to punish Whitehead.”]

(308) The day the parliament was to meet.

(309) His voice was clear, sweet, and free from defects of every kind.  He was a chaste performer, and never hazarded any difficulty which he was not certain of executing with the utmost precision.  He was, moreover, an excellent actor, so that nothing but the recent remembrance of the gigantic talents of Farinelli, and the grand and majestic style of Senesino, could have lefl an English audience any thing to wish.-E.

(310) Amorevoli was an admirable tenor.  “I have heard,” says Dr. Burney, “better voices of his pitch, but never, on the stage, more taste and expression.  The Visconti had a shrill flexible voice, and pleased more in rapid songs than those that required high colouring and pathos."-E.

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(311) William, fifth Earl of Coventry.  He died in 1751.-D.

(312) Spencer Compton, Earl of Wilmington, a man of moderate abilities, but who had filled many great offices.  He died in 1743, when his titles extinguished.-D.

191 Letter 43 To Sir Horace Mann.  Nov. 26, 1741.

I don’t write you a very long letter, because you will see the inclosed to Mr. Chute.  I forgot to thank you last post for the songs, and your design on the Maltese cats.

It is terrible to be in this uncertainty about you!  We have not the least news about the Spaniards, more than what you told us, of a few vessels being seen off Leghorn.  I send about the post, and ask Sir R. a thousand times a-day.

I beg to know if you have never heard any thing from Parker about my statue:  (313) it was to have been finished last june.  What is the meaning he does not mention it?  If it is done, I beg it may not stir from Rome till there is no more danger of Spaniards.

If you get out of your hurry, I will trouble you with a new commission:  I find I cannot live without Stosch’s (314) intaglio of the Gladiator, with the vase, upon a granite.  You know I offered him fifty pounds:  I think, rather than not have it, I would give a hundred.  What will he do if the Spaniards should come to Florence?  Should he be driven to straits, perhaps he would part with his Meleager too.  You see I am as eager about baubles as if I were going to Louis at the Palazzo Vecchio!  You can’t think what a closet I have fitted up; such a mixture of French gaiety and Roman virtu! you would be in love with it:  I have not rested till it was finished:  I long to have you see it.  Now I am angry that I did not buy the Hermaphrodite; the man would have sold it for twenty-five sequins:  do buy it for me; it was a friend of Bianchi.  Can you forgive me’!  I write all this upon the hope and presumption that the Spaniards go to Lombardy.  Good night.  Yours, ever.

(313) A copy of the Livia Mattei, which Mr. W. designed for a tomb of his mother:  it was erected in Henry vii.’s Chapel, in Westminster Abbey, in 1754.

(314) He gave it afterwards to Lord Duncannon, for procuring him the arrears of his pension.

192 Letter 44 To Sir Horace Mann.  Downing Street, Dec. 3, 1741, O. S.

Here I have two letters from you to answer.  You cannot conceive my joy on the prospect of the Spaniards going to Lombardy:  all advices seem to confirm it.  There is no telling you what I have felt, and shall feel, till I am certain you are secure.  You ask me about Admiral Haddock; you must not wonder that I have told you nothing of him:  they know nothing of him here.  He had discretionary powers to act as he should judge proper from his notices.  He has been keeping in the Spanish fleet at Cales. (315) Sir R. says, if he had let that go out, to prevent the embarkation, the Tories would have complained, and said he had

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favoured the Spanish trade, under pre tence of hindering an expedition which was never designed.  It was strongly reported last week that Haddock had shot himself; a satire on his having been neutral, as they call it.  The parliament met the day before yesterday, and there were four hundred and eighty-seven members present.  They did no business, only proceeded to choose a speaker, which was, unanimously, Mr. Onslow, moved for by Mr. Pelham, (316) and seconded by Mr. Clutterbuck.  But the Opposition, to flatter his pretence to popularity and impartiality, call him their own speaker.  They intend to oppose Mr. Earle’s being chairman of the committee, and to set up a Dr. Lee, a civilian.  To- morrow the King makes his speech.  Well, I won’t keep you any longer in suspense.  The Court will have a majority of forty-a vast number for the outset:  a good majority, like a good sum of money, soon makes itself bigger.  The first great point will be the Westminster election; another, Mr. Pultney’s (317) election at Heydon; Mr. Chute’s brother is one of the petitioners.  It will be an ugly affair for the Court, for Pultney has asked votes of the courtiers, and said Sir R. was indifferent about it; but he is warmer than I almost ever saw him, and declared to Churchill, (318) of whom Pultney claims a promise, that he must take Walpole or Pultney.  The Sackville finally were engaged too, by means of George Berkeley, brother to Lady Betty Germain, (319) whose influence with the Dorset I suppose you know; but the King was so hot with his grace about his sons, that I believe they will not venture to follow their inclinations **** to vote (320) for Pultney, though he has expressed great concern about it to Sir R.

So much for politics! for I suppose you know that Prague is taken by storm, in a night’s time.  I forgot to tell you that Commodore Lestock, with twelve ships, has been waiting for a wind this fortnight, to join Haddock. (321)

I write to you in defiance of a violent headache, which I got last night at another of Sir T. Robinson’s balls.  There were six hundred invited, and I believe above two hundred there.  Lord Lincoln, out of prudence, danced with Lady Caroline Fitzroy, and Mr. Conway, with Lady Sophia; the two couple were just mismatched, as every body soon perceived, by the attentions of each man to the woman he did not dance with, and the emulation of either lady:  it was an admirable scene.  The ball broke up at three; but Lincoln, Lord Holderness, Lord Robert Sutton, (322) Young Churchill (323) and a dozen more grew ‘oily,’ stayed till seven in the morning, and drank thirty-two bottles.

I will take great care to send the knee-buckles and pocket-book; I have got them, and Madame Pucci’s silks, and only wait to hear that Tuscany is quiet, and then I will convey them by the first ship.  I would write to them to-night, but have not time now; old Cibber, (324) plays to-night, and all the world will be there.

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Here is another letter from Amorevoli, who is out of his wits at not hearing from his wife.  Adieu! my dearest child.  How happy shall I be when I know you are in peace; Yours, ever.

(315) Cadiz.

(316) The Right Hon. Henry Pelham, so long in conjunction with his brother, the Duke of Newcastle, one of the principal rulers of this country.  He was a man of some ability, and a tolerable speaker.  The vacillations, the absurdity, the foolish jealousy of the duke, greatly injured the stability and respectability of Mr. Pelham’s administration.  Mr. Pelham was born in 1696, and died in 1754.-D.

(317) William Pulteney, afterwards Earl of Bath, whose character and history are too well known to require to be here enlarged upon.-D.

(318) General Charles Churchill, groom of the bedchamber to the King.

(319) Lady Betty Berkeley, married to the notorious adventurer and gambler, Sir John Germain, who had previously married the divorced Duchess of Norfolk, (Lady Mary Mordaunt,) by whose bequest he became possessed of the estate of Drayton, in Northamptonshire, which he left on his own death to Lady Betty, his second @wife.  Lady Betty left it to Lord George Sackville, third son of Lionel first Duke of Dorset.  Sir John Germain was so ignorant, that he is said to have left a legacy to Fair Matthew Decker, as the author of St. Matthew’s Gospel.-D.

(320) sic, in the manuscript.-D.

(321) But for this circumstance, and the junction of the French squadron, Haddock would certainly have destroyed the Spanish fleet, and thereby escaped the imputation which was circulated with much industry, that his hands had been tied up by a neutrality entered into for Hanover; than which nothing could be more false.  These reports, though ostensibly directed against Haddock, were, in reality, aimed at Sir Robert Walpole, a general election being at hand, and his opponents wishing to render him as unpopular with the people as possible.-E.

(322) Second son of John, third Duke of Rutland.  He took the name of Sutton, on inheriting the estate of his maternal grandfather, Robert Sutton, Lord Lexington.-D.

(323) Natural son of General Charles Churchill, afterwards married to Mary, daughter of Sir Robert Walpole.-D.

(324) Colley Cibber, the celebrated dramatic author and actor.  He had left the stage in 1731; but still occasionally acted, in spite of his age, for he was now seventy.-D. [For those occasional performances he is said to have had fifty guineas per night.  So late as 1745, he appeared in the character of Pandulph, the pope’s legate, in his own tragedy, called “Papal Tyranny.”  He died in 1757.]

194 letter 45 To Sir Horace Mann.  Somerset House, (for I write to you wherever I find myself,) Dec. 10, 1741.

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I have got no letter from you yet, the post should have brought it yesterday.  The Gazette says, that the cardinal (325) has declared that they will suffer no expedition against Tuscany.  I wish he had told me so! if they preserve this guarantee, personally, I can forgive their breaking the rest.  But I long for your letter; every letter now from each of us is material.  You will be almost as impatient to hear of the parliament, as I of Florence.  The lords on Friday went upon the King’s speech; Lord Chesterfield made a very fine speech against the address, all levelled at the House of Hanover.  Lord Cholmley, they say, answered him well.  Lord Halifax (326) spoke Very ill, and was answered by little Lord Raymond, (327) who always will answer him.  Your friend Lord Sandwich (328) affronted his grace of Grafton, (329) extremely, who was ill, and sat out of his place, by calling him to order; it was indecent in such a boy to a man of his age and rank:  the blood of Fitzroy will not easily pardon it.  The court had a majority of forty-one, with some converts.

On Tuesday we had the Speech; there were great differences among the party; the Jacobites, with Shippen (330) and Lord Noel Somerset at their head, were for a division, Pultney and the Patriots against one; (332) the ill success in the House of lords had frightened them; we had no division, but a very warm battle between Sir.  R. and Poltney.  The latter made a fine speech, very personal, on the state of affairs.  Sir R. with as much health, as much spirits, as much force and command as ever, answered him for an hour; said, He hadbeen taxed with all our misfortunes; but did he raise the war in Germany? or advise the war with Spain? did he kill the late Emperor or King of Prussia?’ did he counsel this King? or was he first minister to the King of Poland? did he kindle the war betwixt Muscovy and Sweden?” For our troubles at home, he said, “all the grievances of this nation were owing to the Patriots.”  They laughed much at this; but does he want proofs of it? he said, They talked much of an equilibrium in this parliament, (333) and of what they designed against him; if it was so, the sooner he knew it the better; and there-fore if any man would move for a day to examine the state of the nation, he would second it.”  Mr. Pultney did move for it; Sir R. did second it, and it is fixed for the twenty-first of January.  Sir R. repeated some words of Lord Chesterfield’s in the House of Lords, that this was a time for truth, for plain truth for English truth, and hinted at the reception (334) his lordship had met in France.  After these speeches of such consequence, and from such men, Mr. Lyttelton (335) got up to justify, or rather to flatter Lord Chesterfield, though every body then had forgot that he had been mentioned.  Danvers (336) who is a rough, rude beast, but now and then mouths out some humour, said, “that Mr. P. and Sir R. were like two old bawds, debauching young members.”

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That day was a day of triumph, but yesterday (Wednesday) the streamers of victory did not fly so gallantly.  It was the day of receiving petitions; Mr. Pultney presented an immense piece of parchment, which he said he could but just lift; it was the Westminster petition, and is to be heard next Tuesday, when we shall all have our brains knocked out by the mob; so if you don’t hear from me next post, you will conclude my head was a little out of order.  After this we went upon a cornish petition, presented by Sir William Yonge, (337) which drew on a debate and a division, when lo! we were but 222 to 215-how do you like a majority of seven?  The Opposition triumphs highly, and with reason; one or two such victories, as Pyrrhus, the member for Macedon, said, will be the ruin of us.  I look upon it now, that the question is, Downing Street or the Tower; will you come and see a body, if one should happen to lodge at the latter?  There are a thousand pretty things to amuse you; the lions, the Armoury, the crown, and the axe that beheaded Anna Bullon.  I design to make interest for the room where the two princes were smothered; in long winter evenings, when one wants company, (for I don’t suppose that many people will frequent me then,) one may sit and scribble verses against Crouch-back’d Richard, and dirges on the sweet babes.  If I die there, and have my body thrown into a wood, I am too old to be buried by robin redbreasts, am not I?

Bootle, (338) the prince’s chancellor, made a most long and stupid speech; afterwards, Sir R. called to him, “Brother Bootle, take care you don’t get my old name.”  “What’s that?” “Blunderer.”

You can’t conceive how I was pleased with the vast and deserved applause that Mr. Chute’s (339) brother, the lawyer, got:  I never heard a clearer or a finer speech.  When I went home, “Dear Sir,” said I to Sir R.  “I hope Mr. Chute will carry his election for Heydon; he would be a great loss to you.”  He replied.  “We will not lose him.”  I, who meddle with nothing, especially elections, and go to no committees, interest myself extremely for Mr. Chute.

Old Marlborough (340) is dying-but who can tell! last year she had lain a great while ill, without speaking; her physicians said, “She must be blistered, or she will die.”  She called out, “I won’t be blistered, and I won’t die.”  If she takes the same resolution now, I don’t believe she will. (341)

Adieu! my dear child:  I have but room to say, yours, ever.

(325) Cardinal Fleury, first minister of France.

(326) George Montague Dunk, second Earl of Halifax, of the last creation.  Under the reign of George iii., he became secretary of state, and was so unfortunate in that capacity as to be the opponent of Wilkes, on the subject of General Warrants, by which he is now principally remembered.-D.

(327) Robert, second Lord Raymond, only son of the chief justice of that name and title.-D.

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(328) John Montagu, fourth Earl of Sandwich, passed through a long life of office, and left behind him n indifferent character, both in public and private He was, however, a man of some ability.-D.

(329) Charles Fitzroy, second Duke of Grafton, and grandson of Charles ii., was a person of considerable weight and influence at the court of George ii., where he long held the post of chamberlain of the household.

(330) “Honest Will Shippen,” as he was called, or ,Downright Shippen,” as Pope terms him, was a zealous Jacobite member of parliament, possessed of considerable talents, and a vehement opposer of Sir Robert Walpole’s government.  He, however, did justice to that able minister, for he was accustomed to say, “Robin and I are honest men; but as for those fellows in long perriwigs” (meaning the Tories of the day,) " they only want to get into office themselves.”  He was the author of a satirical poem, entitled, “Faction Displayed,” which possesses considerable merit.-D. [Shippen was born in 1672, and died in 1743.  Sir Robert Walpole repeatedly declared, that he would not say who was corrupted, but he would say who was not corruptible-that man was Shippen.  His speeches generally contained some pointed period, which he uttered with great animation.  He usually spoke in a low tone of voice, with too great rapidity, and held his glove before his mouth.]

(331) Lord Charles Noel Somerset, second son of Henry, second Duke of Beaufort.  He succeeded to the family honours in 1746, when his elder brother, Henry, the third duke, died without children.-D. [After the death of Sir William Wyndham, which happened in 1740, Lord Noel Somerset was considered as the rising head of the Tory interest.  “He was,” says Tindal, “a man of sense, spirit, and activity, unblameable in his morals, but questionable in his political capacity.”  He died in 1756.)

(332) Mr. Pulteney declared against dividing; observing, with a witticism, that “dividing was not the way to multiply.”

(333) In speaking of the balance of power, Mr. Pulteney had said, ,He did not know how it was abroad, not being in secrets, but congratulated the House, that he had not, for these many years, known it so near an equilibrium as it now was there."-E.

(334) Lord Chesterfield had been sent by the party, in the preceding September, to France, to request the Duke of Ormond (at Avignon,) to obtain the Pretender’s order to the Jacobites, to vote against Sir R. W. upon any question whatever; many of them having either voted for him, or retired, on the famous motion the last year for removing him from the, King’s councils. [Lord Chesterfield’s biographer, Dr. Maty states that the object of his lordship’s visit to France was the restoration of his health, which required the assistance of a warmer climate.  The reception he met with during his short stay at Paris, is thus noticed in a letter from Mr. Pitt, of the 10th of September:-” I hope you liked the

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court of France as well as it liked you.  The uncommon distinctions I hear the Cardinal (Fleury) showed you, are the best proof that, old as he is, his judgment is as good as ever.  As this great minister has taken so much of his idea, of the men in power here, from the person of a great negotiator who has left the stage, (Lord Waldegrave,) I am very glad he has, had an opportunity, once before he dies, of forming an idea of those out of power from my Lord Chesterfield.”  See Chatham Correspondence, vol. i. p. 3.]

(335) George Lyttelton, afterwards created Lord lyttelton.-D.

(336) Joseph Danvers, Esq. of Swithland, in the county of Leicester, at this time member for Totness.  In 1746 he was created a baronet.  He married Frances, the daughter of thomas babington, Esq. of Rothley Temple, Leicestershire.-E.

(337) the Right Hon. Sir William Yonge, Bart., secretary at war, to which office he had succeeded in May, 1735.  Walpole, who tells us (Memoires, i. p. 20,) that " he was vain, extravagant, and trifling; simple out of the House, and too ready at assertions in it,” adds, “that his vivacity and parts, whatever the cause was, made him shine, and he was always content with the lustre that accompanied fame, without thinking of what was reflected from rewarded fame-a convenient ambition to ministers, who had few such disinterested combatants.  Sir Robert Walpole always said of him ’that nothing but Yonge’s character could keep down his parts, and nothing but his parts support his character.’” That these parts were very great is shown by the fact, that Sir Robert Walpole often, when he did not care to enter early into the debate himself, gave Yonge his notes, as the latter came late into the House, from which be could speak admirably and fluently, though he had missed the preceding discussion.  Sir William, who had a proneness to poetry, wrote the epilogue to Johnson’s tragedy of “Irene.”  ’When I published the plan for my Dictionary,” says the Doctor, “Lord’Chesterfield told me that the word great should be pronounced so as to rhyme to state; and Sir William Yonge sent me word, that it should be pronounced so as to rhyme to seat, and that none but an Irishman would pronounce it great.  Now, here were two men of the highest rank, the one the best speaker in the House of Lords, the other the best speaker in the House of Commons, differing entirely.”  See Boswell’s Johnson,vol.iii.p.191.

(338) Sir Thomas Bootle, chancellor to the Prince of Wales; a dull, heavy man, and who is, therefore, ironically called, by Sir C. H. Williams, “Bright Bootle,"-D.

(339) Francis Chute, an eminent lawyer, second brother of Anthony Chute, of the Vine, in Hampshire, had, in concert with Luke Robinson, another lawyer, disputed Mr. Pultney’s borough of Heydon with him at the general elections and been returned but on a petition, and the removal of Sir R. W. they were voted out of their seats, and Mr. Chute died soon after.-E.

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(340) Sarah, Dowager Duchess of Marlborough.

(341) Nor did she, Her grace survived the date of this letter nearly three years.  She died on the 18th of October 1744, being then eighty-four years of age.-E.

197 Letter 46 To Sir Horace Mann.  Wednesday night, eleven o’clock, Dec. 16, 1741.

Remember this day.

Nous voil`a de la Minorit`e! entens-tu cela! h`e!  My dear child, since you will have these ugly words explained, they just mean that we ar—­ metamorphosed into the minority.  This was the night of choosing a chairman of the committee of elections.  Gyles Earle, (342) (as in the two last parliaments) was named by the Court; Dr. Lee, (343) a civilian, by the Opposition, a man of a fair character. (344) Earle was formerly a dependent on the Duke of Argyle,(345) is of remarkable covetousness and wit, which he has dealt out largely against the Scotch and the Patriots.  It was a day of much expectation, and both sides had raked together all probabilities:  I except near twenty who are in town, but stay to vote on a second question, when the majority may be decided to either party. have you not read of such in story?  Men, who would not care to find themselves on the weaker side, contrary to their intent.  In short, the determined sick were dragged out of their beds; zeal came in a great coat.  There were two vast dinners at two taverns, for either-party; at six we met in the House.  Sir William Yonge, seconded by my uncle Horace, (346) moved for Mr. Earle:  Sir Paul Methuen (347) and Sir Watkyn Williams (348) proposed Dr. Lee-and carried him, by a majority of four:  242 against 238-the greatest number, I believe, that ever lost a question.  You have no idea of their huzza! unless you can conceive how people must triumph after defeats of twenty years together.  We had one vote shut out, by coming a moment too late; one that quitted us, for having been ill used by the Duke of Newcastle but yesterday-for which in all probability, he will use him well to-morrow-I mean, for quitting us.  Sir Thomas Lowther,(349) Lord Hartington’s (350) uncle, was fetched down by him and voted against us.  Young Ross,(351) son to a commissioner of the customs, and saved from the dishonour of not liking to go to the West Indies when it was his turn, by Sir R.s giving him a lieutenancy, voted against us; and Tom Hervey,(352) who is always with us, but is quite mad; and being asked why he left us, replied, “Jesus knows my thoughts; one day I blaspheme, and pray the next.” so, you see what accidents were against us, or we had carried our point.  They cry, Sir R. miscalculated:  how should he calculate, when there are men like Ross, and fifty others he could name!  It was not very pleasant to be stared in the face to see how one bore it-you can guess at my bearing it, who interest myself so little about any thing.  I have had a taste of what I am to meet from all sorts of people.  The moment we had lost the question, I went from the

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heat of the house into the Speaker’s chamber, and there were some fifteen others of us-an under door-keeper thought a question was new put, when it was not, and, withou@ giving us notice, clapped the door to.  I asked him how he dared lock us out without calling us:  he replied insolently, “It was his duty, and he would do it again:”  one of the party went to him, commended him, and told him he should be punished if he acted otherwise.  Sir R. is in great spirits, and still sanguine.  I have so little experience, that I shall not be amazed at whatever scenes follow.  My dear child, we have triumphed twenty years; is it strange that fortune should at last forsake us; or ought we not always to expect it, especially in this kingdom?  They talk loudly of the year forty-one, and promise themselves all the confusions that began a hundred years ago from the same date.  I hope they prognosticate wrong; but should it be so, I can be happy in other places.  One reflection I shall have, very sweet, though very melancholy; that if our family is to be the sacrifice that shall first pamper discord, at least the one,’ the part of it that interested all my concerns, and must have suffered from our ruin, is safe, secure, and above the rage of confusion:  nothing in this world can touch her peace now!

To-morrow and Friday we go upon the Westminster election-you will not wonder, shall you, if you hear the next post that we have lost that too?  Good night.  Yours, ever.

(342) Giles Earle, Esq. one of the lords of the treasury and who had been chairman of the committees of the House of Commons from 1727 to the date of this letter.  He had been successively groom of the bedchamber to the Prince of Wales in 1718, clerk comptroller of the King"s household in 1720, commissioner of the Irish revenue in 1728, and a lord of the treasury in 1738.  Mr. Earle was a man of broad coarse wit, and a lively image of his style and sentiments has been preserved by Sir C. H. Williams, in his “Dialogue between Giles Earle and Bubb Dodington."-E.

(343) George Lee, brother to the lord-chief justice; he was appointed one of the lords of the admiralty on the following change, which post he resigned on the disgrace of his patron, Lord Granville.  He was designed by the Prince of Wales for his first minister, and, immediately on the prince’s death, was appointed treasurer to the princess dowager, and soon after made dean of the arches, a knight, and privy counsellor.  He died in 1758.

(344) In a letter to Dodington, written from Spa, on the 8th of September, Lord Chesterfield says:-"I am for acting at the very beginning of the session.  The court generally proposes some servile and shameless tool of theirs to be chairman of the committee of privileges.  Why should not we, therefore, pick up some Whig of a fair character, and with personal connexions, to set up in opposition?  I think we should be pretty strong upon this point."-E.

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(345) John, the great Duke of Argyle and Greenwich.-D.

(346) Horace Walpole, younger brother of Sir Robert, created. in his old age, Lord Walpole of Wolterton.  He was commonly called “Old Horace,” to distinguish him from his nephew, the writer of these letters.-D.

(347) The son of John Methuen, Esq. the diplomatist, and author of the celebrated Methuen treaty with Portugal.  Sir Paul was a knight of the Bath, and died in 1757.-D.

(348) Sir Watkyn Williams Wynn, Bart. the third baronet of the family, was long one of the leaders in the House of Commons.-D. (349) Sir Thomas Lowther, Bart. of Holker, in Lancashire.  He had married Lady Elizabeth Cavendish, daughter of the second Duke of Devonshire.-D.

(350) Afterwards the fourth Duke of Devonshire.

(351) Charles Ross, killed in flannders, at the battle of Fontenoy, 1745.

(352) Thomas Hervey, second son of John, first Earl of Bristol, ’and Surveyor of the royal gardens.  He was at this time writing his famous letter to Sir Thomas Hanmer. [With whose wife he had eloped.  In the letter alluded to, he expresses his conviction that his conduct was natural and delicate, and that, finally, in heaven, Lady Hanmer, in the distribution of wives, would be considered to be his.  Dr. Johnson (to whom he had left a legacy of fifty pounds, but -,afterwards gave it him in his life-time) characterises him as “very vicious.” " Alas!” observes Mr. Croker, “it is but too probable that he was disordered in mind, and that what was called vice was. in truth, disease, and required a madhouse rather than a prison.”  He died in 1775.  See Boswell’s Johnson, Vol. iii.  P. 18, ed. 1835.)

(353) His mother, Catherine Lady Walpole, who died August 20, 1737.

199 Letter 47 To Sir Horace Mann.  Thursday, six o’clock. [Dec. 17, 1741.

You will hardly divine where I am writing to you-in the Speaker’s chamber.  The House is examining witnesses on the Westminster election, which will not be determined to-day; I am not in haste it should, for I believe we shall lose it.  A great fat fellow, a constable, on their side, has just deposed, that Lord Sundon,(355) and the high constable, took him by the collar at the election, and threw him down stairs.  Do you know the figure of Lord Sundon?  If you do, only think of that little old creature throwing any man down stairs!

As I was coming down this morning, your brother brought me a long letter from you, in answer to mine of the 12th of November.  You try to make me mistrust the designs of Spain against Tuscany, but I will hope yet:  hopes are all I have for any thing I know!

As to the young man, I will see his mother the first moment I can; and by next post, hope to give you a definite answer, whether he will submit to be a servant or not; in every other respect, I am sure he will please you.

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Your friend, Mr. Fane,(356) would not come for us last night, nor will vote till after the Westminster election:  be is brought into parliament by the Duke of Bedford,(357) and is unwilling to disoblige him in this.  We flattered ourselves with better success; for last Friday, after sitting till two in the morning we carried a Cornish election in four divisions-the first by a majority of six, then of twelve, then of fourteen, and lastly by thirty-six.  You can’t imagine the zeal of the young men on both sides:  Lord Fitzwilliam, Lord Hartington, and my friend Coke (358) on ours, are warm as possible; Lord Quarendon (359) and Sir Francis Dashwood (360) are as violent on theirs:  the former speaks often and well.  But I am talking to you of nothing but parliament; why, really, all one’s ideas are stuffed with it, and you yourself will not dislike to hear things so material.  The Opposition who invent every method of killing Sir R., intend to make us sit on Saturdays; but how mean and dirty is it, how scandalous! when they can’t ruin him by the least plausible means, to murder him by denying him air and exercise.(361) There was a strange affair happened on Saturday; it was strange, yet very English.  One Nourse, an old gamester, said, in the coffee-house, that Mr. Shuttleworth, a member, only pretended to be ill.  This was told to Lord Windsor,(362) his friend, who quarrelled with Nourse, and the latter challenged him.  My lord replied, he would not fight him, he was too old.  The other replied, he was not too old to fight with pistols.  Lord Windsor still refused:  Nourse, in a rage, went home and cut his own throat.  This was one of the odd ways in which men are made.

I have scarce seen Lady Pomfret lately, but I am sure Lord Lincoln is not going to marry her daughter.  I am not surprised at her sister being shy of receiving civilities from you-that was English too!

Say a great deal for me to the Chutes.  How I envy your snug suppers!  I never have such suppers!  Trust me, if we fall, all the grandeur, all the envied grandeur of our house, will not cost me a sigh:  it has given me no pleasure while we have it, and will give me no pain when I part with it.  My liberty, my ease, and choice of my own friends and company, will sufficiently counterbalance the crowds of Downing-street.  I am so sick of it all, that if we are victorious or not, I propose leaving England in the spring,.  Adieu!  Yours, ever and ever.

(355) William clayton, Lord Sundon, in Ireland, so created in 1735.  His wife was a favourite of Queen Caroline, to whom she was mistress of the robes.

(356) Charles Fane, Only son of Lord Viscount Fane, whom he succeeded, had been minister at Florence.

(357) John Russell, fourth Duke of Bedford.-D.

(358) Edward, Lord Viscount Coke, only son of the Earl of Leicester.  He died in 1753.

(359) George Henry Lee, Lord Viscount Quarendon, eldest son of the Earl of Lichfield, whom he succeeded in that title.

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(360) Sir Francis Dashwood, Bart., afterwards Lord Le Despencer.  Under the administration of Lord Bute he was, for a short time, chancellor of the exchequer.-D.

(361) Sir Robert always went every Saturday to Newpark, Richmond, to hunt. (From his early youth, Sir Robert was fond of the diversions of the field.  He was accustomed to hunt in Richmond Park with a pack of beagles.  On receiving a packet of letters, he usually opened that from his gamekeeper first.] (362) Herbert Windsor Hickman, second Viscount Windsor in Ireland, and Baron Montjoy of the Isle of Wight. [His lordship died in 1758, when all his honours, in default of male issue, became extinct.]

201 Letter 48 To Sir Horace Mann.  Christmas eve, 1741.

My dearest child, if I had not heard regularly from you, what a shock it would have given me!  The other night at the opera, Mr. Worseley, with his peevish face, half smiling through ill-nature, told me (only mind!) by way of news, “that he heard Mr. Mann was dead at Florence!"’ How kind!  To entertain one with the chitchat of the town, a man comes and tells one that one’s dearest friend is dead!  I am sure he would have lost his speech if he had had any thing pleasurable to tell.  If ever there is a metempsychosis, his soul will pass into a vulture and prey upon carcases after a battle, and then go and bode at the windows of their relations.  But I will say no more of him; I will punish him sufficiently, if sufficiently there be, by telling him you are perfectly well:  you are, are you not?  Send me certificate signed by Dr. Cocchi,(363) and I will choke him with it:  another’s health must be venomous to him.

Sir Francis Dashwood too,-as you know all ill-natured people hear all ill news,-told me he heard you was ill:  I vowed you was grown as strong as the Farnese Hercules.  Then he desires you will send him four of the Volterra urns, of the chimney-piece size; send them with any of my things; do, or he will think I neglected it because he is our enemy; and I would not be peevish, not to be like them.  He is one of the most inveterate; they list under Sandys,(364) a parcel of them with no more brains than their general; but being malicious they pass for ingenious, as in these countries fogs are reckoned warm weather.  Did you ever hear what Earle said of Sandys? “that he never laughed but once, and that was when his best friend broke his thigh.”

Last Thursday I wrote you word of our losing the chairman of the committee.  This winter is to be all ups and downs.  The next day (Friday) we had a most complete victory.  Mr. Pultney moved for all papers and letters, etc. between the King and the Queen of Hungary and their ministers.  Sir R. agreed to give them all the papers relative to those transactions, only desiring to except the letters written by the two sovereigns themselves.  They divided, and we carried it, 237 against 227.  They moved to have those relations to France, Prussia,

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and Holland.  Sir R. begged they would defer asking for those of Prussia till the end of January, at which time a negotiation would be at an end with that King, which now he might break off, if he knew it was to be made public.  Mr. Pultney persisted; but his obstinacy, which might be so prejudicial to the public, revolted even his own partisans, and seven of them spoke against him.  We carried that question by twenty-four; and another by twenty-one, against sitting on the next day (Saturday).  Monday and Tuesday we went on the Westminster election.  Murray (365) spoke divinely; he Was their counsel.  Lloyd (366) answered him extremely well:  but on summing up the evidence on both sides, and in his reply, Murray was in short, beyond what was ever heard at the bar.That day (Tuesday) we went on the merits of the cause, and at ten at night divided, and lost it.  They had 220, we 216; so that the election was declared void.  You see four is a fortunate number to them.  We had forty-one more members in town, who would not, or could not come down.  The time. is a touchstone for wavering consciences.  All the arts, money, promises, threats,, all the arts of the. former year 41, are applied; and self-interest, in the shape of Scotch members-nay, and of English ones, operates to the aid of their party, and to the defeat of ours.  Lord Doneraile,(367) a young Irishman, brought in by the court, was petitioned against, though his competitor had but one vote.  This young man spoke as well as ever any one spoke in his own defence insisted on the petition being heard, and concluded with declaring, that, “his cause was his Defence, and Impartiality must be his support.”  Do you know that, after this, he went and engaged if they would withdraw the petition, to vote with them in the Westminster affair!  His friends reproached him so strongly with his meanness, that he was shocked, and went to Mr. Pultney to get off; Mr. P. told him he had given him his honour, and he would not release him, though Lord Doneraile declared it was against his conscience:  but he voted with them, and lost us the next question which they put (for censuring the High Bailiff) by his single vote; for in that the numbers were 217 against 215:  the alteration of his vote would have made it even; and then the Speaker, I suppose, would have chosen the merciful side, and decided for us.  After this, Mr. Pultney, with an affected humanity, agreed to commit the High Bailiff only to the serjeant-at-arms.  Then, by a majority of six, they voted that the soldiers, who had been sent for after the poll was closed, to save Lord Sundon’s (368) life, had come in a military and illegal manner, and influenced the election.  In short, they determined, as Mr. Murray had dictated to them, that no civil magistrate, on any pretence whatsoever, though he may not be able to suppress even a riot by the assistance of the militia and constables, may call in the aid of the army.  Is not this doing the work of the Jacobites? have they any other

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view than to render the riot act useless? and then they may rise for the Pretender whenever they please.  Then they moved to punish Justice Blackerby for calling in the soldiers; and when it was desired that he might be heard in his own defence, they said he had already confessed his crime.  Do but think on it! without being accused, without knowing, or being told it was a crime, a man gives evidence in another cause, not his own, and then they call it his-own accusation of himself, and would condemn him for it.  You see what justice we may expect if they actually get the majority.  But this was too strong a pill for one of their own leaders to swallow:  Sir John Barnard(369 did propose and persuade them to give him a day to be heard.  In short we sat till half an hour after four in the morning; the longest day that ever was known.  I say nothing of myself, for I could but just speak when I came away; but Sir Robert was as well as ever, and spoke with as much spirit as ever, at four o’clock.  This way they will not kill him; I Will not answer for any other.  As he came out, Whitehead,(370) the author of Manners, and agent with one Carey, a surgeon, for the Opposition, said “D-n him, how well he looks!” Immediately after their success, Lord Gage (371) went forth, and begged there might be no mobbing; but last night we had bonfires all over the town, and I suppose shall have notable mobbing at the new election; though I do not believe there will be any opposition to their Mr. Edwin and Lord Perceval.(372) Thank God! we are now adjourned for three weeks.  I shall go to Swallowfield (373) for a few days:  so for one week you will miss hearing from me.  We have escaped the Prince’S (374) affair hitherto, but we shall have it after the holidays.  All depends upon the practices of both sides in securing or getting new votes during the recess.  Sir Robert is very sanguine:  I hope, for his sake and for his honour, and for the nation’s peace, that he will get the better:  but the moment he has the majority secure, I shall be very earnest with him to resign.  He has a constitution to last some years, and enjoy some repose; and for my own part (and both my brothers agree with me in it), we wish most heartily to see an end of his ministry.  If I can judge of them by myself, those who want to be in our situation, do not wish to see it brought about more than we do.  It is fatiguing to bear so much envy and ill-will undeservedly.-Otium Divos rogo; but adieu, politics, for three weeks!

The Duchess of Buckingham, (375) who is more mad with pride than any merchant’s wife in Bedlam, came the other night to the opera en princesse, literally in robes, red velvet and ermine.  I must tell you a story of her:  last week she sent for Cori,(376) to pay him for her opera-ticket; he was not at home, but went in an hour afterwards.  She said, “Did he treat her like a tradeswoman?  She would teach him to respect women of her birth; said he was in league with Mr. Sheffield (377) to abuse her, and bade him come the next morning at nine.”  He came, and she made him wait till eight at night, only sending him an omlet and a bottle of wine, “as it was Friday, and he a Catholic, she supposed he did not eat meat.”  At last she received him in all the form of a princess giving audience to an ambassador.  “Now,” she said, “she had punished him.”

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In this age we have some who pretend to impartiality:  you will scarce guess how Lord Brook (378) shows his:  he gives one vote on one side, one on the other, and the third time does not vote at all, and so on, regularly.

My sister is ,up to the elbows in joy and flowers that she has received from you this morning and begs I will thank you for her.

You know, or have heard of, Mrs. Nugent, Newsham’s mother; she went the other morning to Lord Chesterfield to beg “he would encourage Mr. Nugent (379) to speak in the house; for that really he was so bashful, she was afraid his abilities would be lost on the world.”  I don’t know who has encouraged him; but so it is, that this modest Irish converted Catholic does talk a prodigious deal of nonsense in behalf of English liberty.

Lord Gage (380) is another; no man would trust him in a wager, unless he stakes, and yet he is trusted by a whole borough with their privileges and liberties!  He told Mr. Winnington the other day, that he would bring his son into parliament, that he would not influence him, but leave him entirely to himself.  “D-n it,” said Winnington, “so you have all his lifetime.”

Your brother says you accuse him of not writing to you, and that his reasons are, he has not time, and next, that I tell you all that can be said.  So I do, I think:  tell me when I begin to tire you, or if I am too circumstantial; but I don’t believe you will think so, for I remember how we used to want such a correspondent when I was with you.

I have spoke about the young man who is well content to live with you as a servant out of livery.  I am to settle the affair finally with his father on Monday, and then he shall set out as soon as possible.  I will send the things for Prince Craon etc. by him.  I will write to Madame Grifoni the moment I hear she is returned from the country.

The Princess Hesse (381) is brought to bed of a son.  We are going into mourning for the Queen of Sweden;(382) she had always been apprehensive of the small-pox, which has been very fatal in her family.

You have heard, I suppose, of the new revolution (383) in Muscovy.  The letters from Holland to-day say, that they have put to death the young Czar and his mother, and his father too:  which, if true,(384) is going very far, for he was of a sovereign house in another country, no subject of Russia, and after the death of his wife and son, could have no pretence or interest to raise more commotions there.

We have got a new opera, not so good as the former; and we have got the famous Bettina to dance, but she is a most indifferent performer.  The house is excessively full every Saturday, never on Tuesday:  here, you know, we make every thing a fashion.

I am happy that my fears for Tuscany vanish every letter.  There! there is a letter of twelve sides!  I am forced to page it, it is so long, and I have not time to read it over and look for the mistakes.  Yours, ever.

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(363) Antonio Cocchi, a learned physician and author, at Florence; a particular friend of Mr. Mann. [The following favourable character of Dr. Cocchi is contained in a letter from the Earl of Cork to Mr. Duncombe, dated Florence, November 29, 1754.  “Mr Mann’s fortunate in the friendship, skill, and care of his physician, Dr. Cocchi.  He is a man of most extensive learning; understands, reads, and speaks all the European languages; studious, polite, modest, humane, and instructive.  He is always to be admired and beloved by all who know him.  Could I live with these two gentlemen only, and converse with few or none others, I should scarce desire to return to England for many years.”]

(364) Samuel Sandys, a republican, raised on the fall of Sir R.’W. to be chancellor of the exchequer, then degraded to a peer and cofferer, and soon afterwards laid aside. [In 1743, he was raised to the peerage by the title of Lord Sandys, Baron of Omberley in the county of Worcester, and died in 1770.  Dr. Nash, in his history of that county, states him to have been “a very useful, diligent senator-a warm, steady friend-a good neighbor, and a most hospitable country gentleman and provincial magistrate.”]

(365) William Murray, brother of Lord- Stormont, and of Lord Dunbar, the Pretender’s first minister.  He is known by his eloquence and the friendship of Mr. Pope.  He was soon afterwards promoted to be solicitor-general. (Afterwards the celebrated chief-justice of the King’s Bench, and Earl of Man’s’field.-D.)

(366) Sir Richard Lloyd, advanced in 1754 to be solicitor-general, in the room of Mr. Murray, appointed attorney-general. [And in 1759, appointed one of the Barons of the exchequer.]

(367) Arthur St. Leger, Lord Doneraile, died in 1750, being lord of the bedchamber to the Prince of Wales.

(368) Lord Sundon and Sir Charles Wager had been the Court candidates for Westminster at the late election against Admiral Vernon and Charles Edwin, Esq.-D.

(369) A great London merchant, and one of the members for the City.  His reputation for integrity and ability gave him much weight in the House of Commons.-D. (Lord Chatham, when mr.  Pitt, frequently calls him the Great Commoner.  In 1749, he became father of the City; when, much against his will, the merchants erected a statue of him in the Royal Exchange.  He died in 1764.]

(370) Paul Whitehead, an infamous but not despicable poet. [See ante, p. 190, Letter 42.]

(371) Thomas Lord Viscount Gage had been a Roman Catholic, and was master of the household to the Prince. [Lord Gage, in 1721, was elected for the borough of Tewksbury; which he represented till within a few months of his death, in 1754.  He was a zealous politician, and distinguished himself, in 1732, by detecting the fraudulent sale of the Derwentwater estates.]

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(372) John Perceval, second Earl of Egmont, in Ireland, created, in 176@, Lord Lovel and Rolland in the peerage of Great Britain.  He became, in 1747, a lord of the bedchamber to Frederick Prince of Wales, and in the early part of the reign of George iii. held successively the offices of postmaster-general and first lord of the admiralty.  He was a man of some ability and a frequent and fluent speaker, and was the author of a celebrated party pamphlet of’ the day, entitled “Faction Detected.”  His excessive love of ancestry led him, in Conjunction with his father, and assisted by Anderson, the genealogist, to print two thick octavo volumes respecting his family, entitled “History of the House of Ivery;” a most remarkable monument of human vanity.-D. [Boswell was not of this opinion.  “Some have affected to laugh,” he says, “at the History of the House of Ivery:  it would be well if many others would transmit their pedigrees to posterity, with the same accuracy and generous zeal with which the noble lord who compiled that work has honoured and perpetuated his ancestry.  Family histories, like the imagines majorum of the ancients, excite to virtue.”  See “Life of Johnson,” vol viii. p. 188.]

(373) Swallowfield, in Berkshire, the seat of John Dodd, Esq.

(374) A scheme for obtaining a larger allowance for the Prince of Wales.

(375) Catherine, Duchess Dowager of Buckingham, natural daughter of King James ii. (Supposed to be really the daughter of Colonel Graham, a man of Gallantry of the time, and a lover of her mother, Lady Dorchester.-D.) [This remarkable woman was extravagantly proud of her descent from James the Second, and affected to be the head of the Jacobite party in England.  She maintained a kind of royal state, and affected great devotion to the memory of her father and grandfather.  On the death of her son, the second Duke of Buckingham of the Sheffield family (whose funeral was celebrated in a most extraordinary manner), she applied to the old Duchess of Marlborough, who was as high spirited as herself, for the loan of the richly-ornamented hearse which had conveyed the great duke to his grave.  “Tell her,” said Sarah, “it carried the Duke of Marlborough, and shall never carry any one else.”  “My upholsterer,” rejoined Catherine of Buckingham in a fury, “tells me I can have a finer for twenty pounds."-” This last stroke,” says the editor of the Suffolk Correspondence, " was aimed at the parsimony of their Graces of Marlborough, which was supposed to have been visible even in the funeral; but the sarcasm was as unjust as the original request of borrowing the hearse was mean and unfeeling."-E.]

(376) Angelo Maria Cori, prompter to the Opera.

(377) Mr. Sheffield, natural son of the late Duke of Buckingham, with whom she was at law.

(378) Francis, Baron, and afterwards created Earl Brooke.

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(379) Robert Nugent, a poet, a patriot, an author, a lord of the treasury, (and finally an Irish peer by the titles of Lord Clare and Earl Nugent.  He seems to have passed his long life in seeking lucrative places and courting rich widows, in both of which pursuits be was eminently successful.-D.) [He married the sister and heiress of Secretary Craggs, and his only daughter married the first Marquis of Buckingham.  A volume of his ,Odes and Epistles” were published anonymously in 1733.  He died in 1788.)

(380) Lord Gage was one of those persons to whom the privileges of parliament were of extreme consequence, as their own liberties were inseparable from them.

(381) Mary, fourth daughter of King George ii.

(382) Ulrica, Queen of Sweden, sister of Charles XII.

(383) This relates to the revolution by which the young Czar John was deposed, and the Princess Elizabeth raised to the throne.

(384) This was not true.  The Princess Anne of Mecklenburgh died in prison at Riga, a few years afterwards.  Her son, the young Czar, and her husband, Prince Antony of Brunswick Wolfenbuttle, were confined for many years.

206 Letter 49 To Sir Horace Mann.  London, Dec. 29, 1741.

I write to you two days before the post goes out, because to-morrow I am to go out of town; but I would answer your letter by way of Holland, to tell you how much you have obliged both Sir Robert and me about the Dominichini;(385) and to beg you to thank Mr. Chute and Mr. Whithed-but I cannot leave it to you.

“My dear Mr. Chute, was ever any thing so kind!  I crossed the Giogo (386) with Mr. Coke,(387) but it was in August, and I thought it then the greatest compliment that ever was paid to mortal; and I went with him too! but you to go only for a picture, and in the month of December:  What can I say to you?  You do more to oblige your friend, than I can find terms to thank you for.  If I was to tell-it here, it would be believed as little as the rape of poor Tory (388) by a wolf.  I can only say that I know the Giogo, its snows and its inns, and consequently know the extent of the obligation that I have to you and Mr. Whithed.”

Now I return to you, my dear child:  I am really so much obliged to you and to them, that I know not what to say.  I read Pennee’s letter to Sir.  R., who was much pleased with his discretion; he will be quite a favourite of mine.  And now we are longing for the picture; you know, of old, my impatience.

Your young secretary-servant is looking out for a ship, and will set out in the first that goes:  I envy him.

The Court has been trying but can get nobody to stand for Westminster.  You know Mr. Doddington has lost himself extremely by his new turn, after so often changing sides:  he is grown very fat and lethargic; my brother Ned says, “he is grown of less consequence, but more weight."(389)

One hears of nothing but follies said by the Opposition, who grow mad on having the least prospect.  Lady Carteret,(390) who, you know, did not want any new fuel to her absurdity, says, “they talk every day of making her lord first minister, but he is not so easily persuaded as they think for.”  Good night.  Yours, ever.

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(385) A celebrated picture of a Madonna and Child by Dominichino, in the palace Zembeccari, at Bologna, now in the collection of the Earl of Orford, at Houghton, in Norfolk.  (Since sent to Russia with the rest of the collection.-D.)

(386) The Giogo is the highest part of the Apennine between Florence and Bologna.

(387) Son of Lord Lovel, since Earl of Leicester. [In 1744, Lord Lovel was created Viscount Coke of Holkham and Earl of Leicester.  His only son Edward died before him, in 1753, without issue; having married Lady Mary, one of the co-heirs of John Duke of Argyle and Greenwich.]

(388) A black spaniel of Mr. Walpole’s was seized by a wolf on the Alps, as it was running at the head of the chaise-horses, at noonday. [See ante, p. 139 letter 14.]

(389) George Bubb Dodington had lately resigned his post of one of the lords of the treasury, and gone again into opposition. [In Walpole’s copy of the celebrated Diary of this versatile politician, he had written a “Brief account of George Bubb Doddington, Lord Melcombe,” which the noble editor of the “Memoires” has inserted.  It describes him, “as his Diary shows, vain, fickle, ambitious, and corrupt,’ and very lethargic; but gives him credit for great wit and readiness.”  Cumberland, in his Memoirs, thus paints him:-"Dodington, lolling in his chair, in perfect apathy and self-command, dozing, and even snoring, at intervals, in his lethargic way, broke out every now and then into gleams and flashes of wit and humour.”  In 1761, he was created Lord Melcombe, and died in the following year.]

(390) Frances, daughter of Sir Robert Worseley, and first wife of John Lord Carteret, afterwards Earl of Granville.

207 Letter 50 To Sir Horace Mann.  London, Jan. 7, 1741-2, O. S.

I must answer for your brother a paragraph that he showed me in one of your letters:  “Mr. W.’s letters are full of wit; don’t they adore him in England?” Not at all-and I don’t wonder at them:  for if I have any wit in my letters, which I do not at all take for granted, it is ten to one that I have none out of my letters.  A thousand people can write, that cannot talk; and besides, you know, (or I conclude so, from the little one hears stirring,) that numbers of the English have wit, who don’t care to produce it.  Then, as to adoring; you now See Only my letters, and you may be sure I take care not to write you word of any of my bad qualities, which other people must see in the gross; and that may be a great hindrance to their adoration.  Oh! there are a thousand other reasons I could give you, why I am not the least in fashion.  I came over in an ill season:  it is a million to one that nobody thinks a declining old minister’s son has wit.  At any time, men in opposition have always most; but now, it would be absurd for a courtier to have even common sense.  There is not a Mr. Stuart, or a Mr. Stewart, whose names begin but with the first letters of Stanhope,(391) that

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has not a better chance than I, for being liked.  I can assure you, even those of the same party would be fools, not to pretend to think me one.  Sir Robert has showed no partiality for me;(392) and do you think they would commend where he does not? even supposing they had no envy, which by the way, I am far from saying they have not.  Then. my dear child, I am the coolest man of my party, and if I am ever warm, it is by contagion; and where violence passes for parts, what will indifference be called?  But how could you think of such a question ’!  I don’t want money, consequently Do old women pay me for my wit; I have a very flimsy constitution, consequently the young women won’t taste my wit, and it is a long while before wit makes its own way in the world; especially, as I never prove it, by assuring people that I have it by me.  Indeed, if I were disposed to brag, I could quote two or three half-pay officers, and an old aunt or two, who laugh prodigiously at every thing I say; but till they are allowed judges, I will not brag of such authorities.

If you have a mind to know who is adored and has wit, there is old Churchill has as much God-d-n-ye wit as ever-except that he has lost two teeth.  There are half a dozen Scotchmen who vote against the Court, and are cried up by the Opposition for wit, to keep them steady.  They are forced to cry up their parts, for it would be too barefaced to commend their honesty.  Then Mr. Nugent has had a great deal of wit till within this week; but he is so busy and so witty, that even his own party grow tired of him.  His plump wife, who talks of nothing else, says he entertained her all the way on the road with repeating his speeches.

I did not go into the country, last week, as I intended, the weather was so bad; but I shall go on Sunday for three or four days, and perhaps shall not be able to write to you that week.  You are in an agitation, I suppose, about politics:  both sides are trafficking deeply for votes during the holidays.  It is allowed, I think, that we shall have a majority of twenty-six:  Sir R. says more; but now, upon a pinch, he brags like any bridegroom.

The Westminster election passed without any disturbance, in favour of Lord Perceive-all (394) and Mr. Perceive-nothing, as my uncle calls them.  Lord Chesterfield was vaunting to Lord Lovel, that they should have carried it, if they had set up two broomsticks.  “So I see,” replied Lovel.  But it seems we have not done with it yet:  if we get the majority, this will be declared a void election too, for my Lord Chancellor (395) has found out, that the person who made the return, had no right to make it:  it was the High Bailiff’s clerk, the High Bailiff himself being in custody of the sergeant-at-arms. it makes a great noise, and they talk of making subscriptions for a Petition.

Lord Stafford (396) is come over.  He told me some good stories of the Primate.(397)

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Last night I had a good deal of company to hear Monticelli and Amorevoli, particularly the three beauty-Fitzroys, Lady Euston, Lady Conway, and Lady Caroline.(398) Sir R. liked the singers extremely:  he had not heard them before, I forgot to tell you all our beauties there was Miss Hervey,(399) my lord’s daughter, a fine, black girl, but as masculine as her father should be;(400) and jenny Conway, handsomer Still,(401) though changed with illness, than even the Fitzroys.  I made the music for my Lord Hervey, who is too ill to go to operas:  yet, with a coffin-face, is as full of his little dirty politics as ever.  He will not be well enough to go to the House till the majority is certain somewhere, but lives shut up with my Lord Chesterfield and Mr. Pultney-a triumvirate, who hate one another more than any body they could proscribe, had they the power.  I dropped in at my Lord Hervey’s, the other night, knowing my lady had company:  it was soon after our defeats.  My lord, who has always professed particularly to me, turned his back on me, and retired for an hour into a whisper with young Hammond,(402) at the end of the room.  Not being at all amazed at one whose heart I knew so well, I stayed on, to see more of this behaviour; indeed, to rise myself to it.  At last he came up to me, and begged this music. which I gave him, and would often again, to see how many times I shall be ill and well with him within this month.  Yesterday came news that his brother, Captain William Hervey, has taken a Caracca ship, worth full two hundred thousand pounds.  He was afterwards separated from it by a storm, for two or three days, and was afraid of losing it, having but five-and-twenty men to thirty-six Spaniards; but he has brought it home safe.  I forgot to tell you, that upon losing the first question, Lord Hervey kept away for a week; on our carrying the next great one, he wrote to Sir Robert, how much he desired to see him, “not upon any business, but Lord Hervey longs to see Sir Robert Walpole.”

Lady Sundon(402) is dead, and Lady M- disappointed:  she, who is full as politic as my Lord Hervey, had made herself an absolute servant to Lady Sundon, but I don’t hear that she has left her even her old clothes.  Lord Sundon is in great grief:  I am surprised, for she has had fits of madness ever since her ambition met such a check by the death of the Queen.(404) She had great power with her, though the Queen pretended to despise her; but had unluckily told her, or fallen into her power by some secret.(405) I was saying to Lady Pomfret, to be sure she is dead very rich!” She replied, with some warmth, She never took money.”  When I came home, I mentioned this to Sir R.  “No,” said he, “but she took jewels; Lord Pomfret’s place of master of the horse to the Queen was bought of her for a pair of diamond earrings, of fourteen hundred pounds value.”  One day that she wore them at a visit at old Marlboro’s, as soon as she was gone, the Duchess said to Lady Mary Wortley,(406)

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“How can that woman have the impudence to go about in that bribe?"-,, Madam,” said Lady Mary, “how would you have people know where wine is to be sold, unless there is a sign hung out!” Sir R. told me, that in the enthusiasm of her vanity, Lady Sundon had proposed to him to unite with her, and govern the kingdom together:  he bowed, begged her patronage, but said he thought nobody fit to govern the kingdom, but the King and Queen.-Another day.

Friday morning.  I was forced to leave off last night, as I found it would be impossible to send away this letter finished in any time.  It will be enormously long, but I have prepared you for it.  When I consider the beginning of my letter, it looks as if I were entirely of your opinion about the agreeableness of them.  I believe you will never commend them again, when you see how they increase upon your hands.  I have seen letters of two or three sheets, written from merchants at Bengal and Canton to their wives:  but then they contain the history of a twelvemonth:  I grow voluminous from week to week.  I can plead in excuse nothing but the true reason; you desired it; and I remember how I used to wish for such letters, when I was in Italy.  My Lady Pomfret carries this humanity still farther, and because people were civil to her in Italy, she makes it a rule to visit all strangers in general.  She has been to visit a Spanish Count (407) and his wife, though she cannot open her lips in their language.  They fled from Spain, he and his brother having offended the Queen, (408) by their attachments to the Prince of Asturias; his brother ventured back to bring off this woman, who was engaged to him.  Lord Harrington (409) has procured them a pension of six hundred a-year.  They live chiefly with Lord Carteret and his daughter,(410) who speak Spanish.  But to proceed from where I left off last night, like the Princess Dinarzade in the Arabian Nights, for you will want to know what happened one day.  Sir Robert was at dinner with Lady Sundon, who hated the Bishop of London, as much as she loved the Church.  “Well,” said she to Sir R., “how does your pope do!"-"Madam,” replied he, “he is my pope, and shall be my Pope; every body has some pope or other; don’t you know that you are one!  They call you Pope Joan.”  She flew into a passion, and desired he would not fix any names on her; that they were not so easily got rid of.

We had a little ball the other night at Mrs. Boothby’s, and by dancing, did not perceive an earthquake, which frightened all the undancing part of the town.

We had a civility from his Royal Highness,(411) who sent for Monticelli the night he was engaged here, but, on hearing it, said he would send for him some other night.  If I did not live so near St. James’s, I would find out some politics in this-should not one?

Sir William Stanhope (412) has had a hint from the same Highness, that his company is not quite agreeable:  whenever he met any body at Carlton House whom he did not know, he said, “Your humble servant, Mr. or Mrs. Hamilton.”

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I have this morning sent aboard the St. Quintin a box for you, with your secretary-not in it.

Old Weston of Exeter is dead.  Dr. Clarke, the Dean, Dr. Willes, the decipherer, and Dr. Gilbert of Llandaff, are candidates to succeed him.(413) Sir R. is for Willes, who, he says, knows so many secrets, that he might insist upon being archbishop.

My dear Mr. Chute! how concerned I am that he took all that trouble to no purpose.  I will not write to him this post, for as you show him my letters, this here will sufficiently employ any one’s patience-but I have done.  I long to hear that the Dominichini is safe.  Good night.  Yours, ever.

(391) The name of Lord Chesterfield.

(392) On the subject of Sir Robert’s alleged want of partiality for his son, the following passage occurs in the anecdotes prefixed to Lord Wharncliffe’s edition of the works of Lady Mary Wortley Montagu:-"Those ironical lines, where Pope says that Sir Robert Had never made a friend in private life, And was, besides, a tyrant to his wife,’ are well understood, as conveying a sly allusion to his good-humoured unconcern about some things which more strait-laced husbands do not take so coolly.  In a word, Horace Walpole was generally supposed to be the son of Carr Lord Hervey, and Sir Robert not to be ignorant of it.  One striking circumstance was visible to the naked eye; no beings in human shape could resemble each other less than the two passing for father and son; and while their reverse of personal likeness provoked a malicious whisper, Sir Robert’s marked neglect of Horace in his infancy tended to confirm it.  Sir Robert took scarcely any notice of him till his proficiency in Eton school, when a lad of some standing, drew his attention, and proved that, whether he had or had not a right to the name he went by, he was likely to do it Honour.”  Vol. i. 1). 33.-E.

(393) General Charles Churchill. (Whose character has been so inimitably sketched, at about the same period when this letter was written, by Sir Charles Hanbury Williams, in his poem of’, Isabella, or the Morning:"-

“The General, one of those brave old commanders,
Who served through all our glorious wars in Flanders. 
Frank and good-natur’d, of an honest heart,
Loving to act the steady friendly part;
None led through youth a gayer life than he,
Cheerful in converse, smart in repartee;
But with old age, its Vices Come along,
And in narration he’s extremely long;
Exact in circumstance, and nice in dates,
He each minute particular relates. 
If you name one of marlbro’s ten campaigns,
         He gives you its whole history for your pains,
And Blenheim’s field becomes by his reciting,
As long in telling as it was in fighting. 
His old desire to please is still express’d,
His hat’s well cock’d, his periwig’s well dress’d. 
He rolls his stockings still, white gloves he wears,
And in the boxes with the beaux appears. 
His eyes through wrinkled corners cast their rays,
Still he looks cheerful, still soft things he says,
And still remembering that he once was young,
He strains his crippled knees, and struts along."-D.)

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(394) Vide an account of the erection of Lord Perceval and one Edwin, in that Lord’s History of the House of Ivery.

(395) Philip Yorke, Lord, and afterwards Earl of Hardwicke, for twenty years Lord Chancellor of England.-D.

(396) William mathias Howard, Earl of Stafford.

(397) The Primate of Lorrain, eldest son of Prince Craon, was famous for his wit and vices of all kinds.

(398) Lady Dorothy Boyle, eldest daughter of Lord Burlington; Isabella, wife of Francis Lord Conway, and Caroline, afterwards married to Lord Petersham, were the daughter-in-law and daughters of Charles Fitzroy, Duke of grafton, lord chamberlain.

(399) Lepel, eldest daughter of John Lord Hervey, afterwards married to Mr. Phipps. (Constantine Phipps, in 1767 created Lord Mulgrave.]

(400) The effeminacy of Lord Hervey formed a continual subject for the satire of his opponents.  Pope’s bitter lines on him- are well remembered.  The old Duchess of Marlborough, too, in her “Opinions,” describes him as having “certainly parts and wit; but he is the most wretched profligate man that ever was born, besides ridiculous; a painted face, and not a tooth in his head.” on which the editor of that curious little book, Lord Hailes, remarks, “Lord Hervey, having felt some attacks of the epilepsy, entered upon and persisted in a very strict regimen, and thus stopped the progress and prevented the effects of that dreadful disease.  His daily food was a small quantity of asses’ milk and a flour biscuit.  Once a week he indulged himself with eating an apple; he used emetics daily.  Mr. Pope and he were once friends; but they quarrelled, and persecuted each other with virulent satire.  Pope, knowing the abstemious regimen which Lord Hervey observed, was so ungenerous as to call him “mere cheese-curd of asses’ milk!” Lord Hervey used paint to soften his ghastly appearance.  Mr. Pope must have known this also; and therefore it was unpardonable in him to introduce it into his “celebrated portrait.”  It ought to be remembered, that Lord Hervey is very differently described by Dr. Middleton; who, in his dedication to him of “The History of the Life of Tully,” praises him for his strong good sense, patriotism, temperance, and information.-E.

(401) Jane, only daughter of Francis, the first Lord Conway, by his second wife, Mrs. Bodens. (She died unmarried, May 5, 1749.-D.)

(402) Author of some Love Elegies, and a favourite of Lord Chesterfield.  He died this year. [Hammond was equerry to the Prince of Wales, and member for Truro.  He died in June, 1742, at Stowe, the seat of Lord Cobham, in his thirty.second year.  Miss Dashwood long survived him, and died unmarried in 1779. " The character,” says Johnson, “which her lover gave her was, indeed, not likely to attract courtship.”]

(402) Wife of William Clayton, Lord Sundon, woman of the bedchamber and mistress of the robes to Queen Caroline. [She had been the friend and correspondent of Sarah Duchess of’ Marlborough; who, on the accession of George I , through Baron Bothmar’s influence, procured for her friend the place of lady of the bedchamber to the Princess with whom she grew as great a favourite as her colleague, Mrs. Howard, with the Prince; and eventually, on the Princess becoming Queen, exercised an influence over her, of which even sir Robert Walpole was jealous.]

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(404) Queen Caroline, died November 1737.-D.

(405) This is now known to have been a rupture, with which the Queen was afflicted, and which she had the weakness to wish, and the courage to be able, to conceal.-E.

(406) The celebrated Lady Mary Wortley Montagu, oldest daughter of Evelyn, first Duke of Kingston, and wife of Wortley Montagu, Esq.-D.

(407) Marquis de Sabernego:  he returned to Spain after the death of Philip V.

(408) The Princess of Parma, second wife of Philip V. King of Spain, and consequently stepmother to the Prince of Asturias, son of that King, by his first wife, a princess of Savoy.-D.

(409) William Stanhope, created Lord Harrington in 1729, and Earl of the same in 1741.  He held various high offices, and was, at the time this was written, secretary of state.-D.

(410) Frances, youngest daughter of Lord Carteret, afterwards married to the Marquis of Tweedale. (in 1748.  The marquis was an extraordinary lord of session, and the last person who held a similar appointment.]

(411) Frederick Prince of Wales.-D.

(412) Brother to Lord Chesterfield.  This bon mot was occasioned by the numbers of Hamiltons which Lady Archibald Hamilton, the Prince’s mistress, had placed at that court.

(413) Nicholas Clagget, Bishop of St. David’s, succeeded, on Weston’s death, to the see of Exeter.-Dr. Clagget was, however, succeeded in the see of St. David’s by Dr. Edward Willes, Dean of Lincoln and decipherer to the King; and, in the following year, translated to the bishopric of Bath and Wells.  The art of deciphering, for which Dr. Willes was so celebrated, has been the subject of many learned and curious works by Trithemius, Baptista Porta, the Duke Augustus of Brunswick, and other more recent writers.  The Gentleman’s Magazine for 1742, contains a very ingenious system of deciphering:  but the old modes of secret writing having been, for the most part, superseded by the modern system of cryptography, in which, according to a simple rule which may be communicated verbally, and easily retained in the memory, the signs for the letters can be changed continually; it is the chiffre quarr`e or chiffre ind`echiffrable, used, if not universally, yet by most courts.  None of the old systems of deciphering are any longer available.]

212 Letter 51 To Sir Horace Mann.  Friday, Jan. 22, 1742.

Don’t wonder that I missed writing to you yesterday, my constant day:  you will pity me when you hear that I was shut up in the House of Commons till one in the morning.  I came away more dead than alive, and was forced to leave Sir R. at supper with my brothers:  he was all alive and in spirits.(414) He says he is younger than me, and indeed I think so, in spite of his forty years more.  My head aches to-night, but we rose early; and if I don’t write to-night when shall I find a moment to spare?  Now you want to know what we did last night; stay, I will

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tell you presently in its place:  it was well, and of infinite consequence-so far I tell you now.  Our recess finished last Monday, and never at school did I enjoy holidays so much-but, les voil`a finis jusqu’au printefps!  Tuesday (for you see I write you an absolute journal) we sat on a Scotch election, a double return; their man was Hume Campbell,(415) Lord Marchmont’s brother, lately made solicitor to the Prince, for being as troublesome, as violent, and almost as able as his brother.  They made a great point of it, and gained so many of our votes, that at ten at night we were forced to give it up without dividing.  Sandys, who loves persecution, even unto the death, moved to punish the sheriff; and as we dared not divide, they ordered him into custody, where by this time, I suppose, Sandys has eaten him.

On Wednesday, Sir Robert Godschall, the Lord Mayor, presented the Merchant’s petition, signed by three hundred of them, and drawn up by Leonidas Glover.(416) This is to be heard next Wednesday.  This gold-chain came into parliament, cried up for his parts, but proves so dull, one would think he chewed opium.  Earle says, “I have heard an oyster speak as well twenty times.”

Well, now I come to yesterday:  we met, not expecting much business.  Five of our members were gone to the York election, and the three Lord Beauclercs (417) to their mother’s funeral at Windsor; for that old beauty St. Albans (418) is dead at last.  On this they depended for getting the majority, and towards three o’clock, when we thought of breaking up, poured in their most violent questions:  one was a motion for leave to bring in the Place Bill to limit the number of placemen in the House.  This was not opposed, because, out of decency, it is generally suffered to pass the Commons, and is thrown out by the Lords; only Colonel Cholmondeley (419) desired to know if they designed to limit the number of those that have promises of places, as well as of those that have places now.  I must tell you that we are a very conclave; they buy votes with reversions of places on the change of the ministry.  Lord Gage was giving an account in Tom’s coffeehouse of the intended alterations:  that Mr. Pultney is to be chancellor of the exchequer, and Chesterfield and Carteret secretaries of state.  Somebody asked who was to be paymaster?  Numps Edwin,(420) who stood by, replied, “We have not thought so low as that yet.”  Lord Gage harangues every day at Tom’s, and has read there a very false account of the King’S message to the Prince.(421) The Court, to show their contempt of Gage, have given their copy to be read by Swinny.(422) This is the authentic copy, which they have made the bishop write from the message which he carried, and as he and Lord Cholmondeley agree it was given.

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On this Thursday, of which I was telling you, at three o’clock, Mr. Pultney rose up, and moved for a secret committee of twenty-one.  This inquisition, this council of ten, was to sit and examine whatever persons and papers they should please, and to meet when and where they pleased.  He protested much on its not being intended against any person, but merely to give the King advice, and on this foot they fought it till ten at night, when Lord Perceval blundered out what they had been cloaking with so @much art, and declared that he should vote for it as a committee of accusation.  Sir Robert immediately rose, and protested that he should not have spoken, but for what he had heard last; but that now, he must take it to himself.  He portrayed the malice of the Opposition, who, for twenty years, had not been able to touch him, and were now reduced to this infamous shift.  He defied them to accuse him, and only desired that if they should, might be in an open and fair manner:  desired no favour, but to be acquainted with his accusation.  He spoke of Mr. Doddington, who had called his administration infamous, as of a person of great self-mortification, who, for sixteen years, had condescended to bear part of the odium.  For Mr. Pultney, who had just spoken a second time, Sir R. said, he had begun the debate with great calmness, but give him his due, he had made amends for it in the end.  In short, never was innocence so triumphant.

There were several glorious speeches on both sides:  Mr. Pultney’s two, W. Pitt’s (423) and George Grenville’s,(424) Sir Robert’s, Sir W. Yonge’s, Harry Fox’s, (425) Mr. Chute’s, and the Attorney-General’s.(426) My friend Coke, for the first time, spoke vastly well, and mentioned how great Sir Robert’s character is abroad. ’ Sir Francis Dashwood replied, that he had found quite the reverse from Mr. Coke, and that foreigners always spoke with contempt of the Chevalier de Walpole.  That was going too far, and he was called to order, but got off well enough, by saying, that he knew it was contrary to rule to name any member, but that he only mentioned it as spoken by an impertinent Frenchman.

But of all speeches, none ever was so full of wit as Mr. Pultney’s last.  He said, “I have heard this committee represented as a most dreadful spectre; it has been likened to all terrible things; it has been likened to the King; to the inquisition; it will be a committee of safety; it is a committee of danger; I don’t know what it is to be!  One gentleman, I think, called it a cloud! (this was the Attorney) a cloud!  I remember Hamlet takes Lord Polonius by the hand and shows him a cloud, and then asks him if he does not think it is like a whale.”  Well, in short, at eleven at night we divided, and threw out this famous committee by 253 to 250, the greatest number that ever was in the house, and the greatest number that ever lost a question.

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It was a most shocking sight to see the sick and dead brought in
on both sides!  Men on crutches, and Sir
William Gordon (427) from his bed, with a blister on his head, and flannel hanging out from under
his wig.  I could scarce pity him for his
ingratitude.  The day before the Westminster petition, Sir Charles Wager (428) gave his son a ship, and the next day the father came down and voted against him.  The son has since been east away; but they concealed it from the father, that he might not absent himself.  However, as we have our good-natured men too on our side, one of his own countrymen went and told him of it in the House.  The old man, who looked like Lazarus at his resuscitation, bore it with great resolution, and said, he knew why he was told of it, but when he thought his country in danger, he would not go away.  As he is so near death, that it is indifferent to him whether he died two thousand years ago or to-morrow, it is unlucky for him not to have lived when such insensibility would have been a Roman virtue. (429)

There are no arts, no menaces, which the Opposition do not practise.  They have threatened one gentleman to have a reversion cut off from his son, unless he will vote with them.  To Totness there came a letter to the mayor from the Prince, and signed by two of his lords, to recommend a candidate in opposition to the solicitor-general.  The mayor sent the letter to Sir Robert.  They have turned the Scotch to the best account.  There is a young Oswald (430) who had engaged to Sir R. but has voted against us.  Sir R. sent a friend to reproach him:  the moment the gentleman who had engaged for him came into the room, Oswald said, “You had liked to have led me into a fine error! did you not tell me that Sir R. would have the majority?”

When the debate was over, Mr. Pultney owned that he had never heard so fine a debate on our side; and said to Sir Robert, “Well, nobody can do what you can!” “Yes,” replied Sir R., “Yonge did better.”  Mr. P. answered, “It was fine, but not of that weight with what you said.”  They all allow it- and now their plan is to persuade Sir Robert to retire with honour.  All that evening there was a report about the town, that he and my uncle were to be sent to the Tower, and people hired windows in the city to see them pass by-but for this time I believe we shall not exhibit so historical a parade.

The night of the committee, my brother Walpole (431) had got two or three invalids at his house, designing to carry them into the House by his door, as they were too ill to go round by Westminster hall:  the patriots, who have rather more contrivances than their predecessors of Grecian and Roman memory, had taken the precaution of stopping the keyhole with sand.  How Livy’s eloquence would have been hampered, if there had been back-doors and keyholes to the Temple of Concord!

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A few days ago there were lists of the officers at Port Mahon laid before the House of Lords -. unfortunately, it appeared that two-thirds of the regiment had been absent.  The Duke of Argyll said, “Such a list was a libel on the government;” and of all men, the Duke of Newcastle was the man who rose up and agreed with him:  remember what I have told you once before of his union with Carteret.  We have
                  carried the York election by a majority of 956.

The other night the Bishop of Canterbury(432) was with Sir
’Robert, and on going away, said, “Sir, I have been lately reading Thaunus; he mentions a minister, who having long been persecuted by his enemies, at length vanquished them:  the reason he gives, quia se non

Sir Thomas Robinson is at last named to the government of Barbadoes; he has long prevented its being asked for, by declaring that he had the promise of it.  Luckily for him, Lord Lincoln liked his house, and procured him this government on condition of hiring it.

I have mentioned Lord Perceval’s speeches; he has a set who have a rostrum at his house, and harangue there.  A gentleman who came thither one evening was refused, but insisting that he was engaged to come, “Oh, Sir,” said the porter, “what, are you one of those who play at members of Parliament?”

I must tell you something, though Mr. Chute will see my letter.  Sir Robert brought home yesterday to dinner, a fat comely gentleman, who came up to me, and said he believed I knew his brother abroad.  I asked his name; he replied, He is with Mr. Whithed.”  I thought he said, It is Whithed.”  After I had talked to him of Mr. Whithed, I said, There is a very sensible man with Mr. Whithed,
one Mr. Chute.”  “Sir,” said he, “my name is
Chute.”  “My dear
Mr. Chute, now I know both your brothers.  You
will forgive my mistake.”

With what little conscience I begin a third sheet! but it shall be but half a one.  I have received your vast packet of music by the messenger, for which I thank you a thousand times; and the political
sonnet, which is far from bad.  Who
translated it?  I like the translation.

I am obliged to you about the gladiator, etc.:  the temptation of having them at all is great, but too enormous.  If I could have the gladiator for about an hundred pounds, I would give it.

I enclose one of the bills of lading of the things that I sent you by your secretary:  he sets out tomorrow.  By Oswald’s (433) folly, to whom I entrusted the putting them on board, they are consigned to Goldsworthy, (434) but pray take care that he does not open them.  The captain mortifies me by proposing to stay three weeks at Genoa.  I have sent away to-night a small additional box of steel wares, which I received but to-day from Woodstock.  As they are better than the first, you will choose out some of them for Prince Craon, and give away the rest as you please.

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We have a new opera by Pescetti, but a very bad one; however, all the town runs after it, for it ends with a charming dance.(435) They have flung open the stage to a great length, and made a perfect view of Venice, with the Rialto, and numbers of gondolas that row about full of masks, who land and dance.  You would like it.

Well, I have done.  Excuse me if I don’t take the trouble to read it all over again, for it is immense, as you will find.  Good night!

(414) Sir Robert Wilmot also, in a letter to the Duke of Devonshire, written on the 12th, Sir Robert was today observed to be more naturally gay and full of spirits than he has been for some time past."-E.

(415) HUme Campbell was twin brother of Hugh, third Earl of Marchmont.  They were sons of Alexander, the second earl, who had quarrelled with Sir Robert Walpole at the time of the excise scheme in 1733.  Sir Robert, in consequence, prevented him from being reelected one of the sixteen representative Scotch peers in 1734; in requital for which,
                      the old earl’s two sons became the
bitterest opponents of the Minister.  They were both
               men of considerable talents; extremely similar in
their characters and dispositions, and so much so in their outward appearance that it was very difficult to know them apart.-D.  The estimation in which Lord Marchmont was held by his contemporaries, maybe judged of by the fact, that Lord Cobham gave his bust a place in the Temple of Worthies, at Stowe, and the mention of him in Pope’s inscription in his grotto at Twickenham;-

“Where British siglis from dying Wyndham stole, And the bright flame was shot through Marchmont’s soul.”

We are told by Coxe, that Sir Robert Walpole “used frequently to rally his sons, who were praising the speeches of Pultney, Pitt, Lyttelton, and others, by saying, “You may cry up their speeches if you please, but when I have answered Sir John Barnard and Lord Polwarth, I think I have concluded the debate.”]

(416) Glover, a merchant, author of “Leonidas,” a poem, “Boadicea,” a tragedy, etc. [Glover’s talent for public speaking, and information concerning trade and Commerce, naturally pointed him out to the merchants of London to conduct their application to parliament on the neglect of their trade.]

(417) Lord Vere, Lord Henry, and Lord Sidney Beauclerc, sons of the Duchess Dowager of St. Albans, who is painted among the beauties at Hampton Court.

(418) Lady Diana Vere, daughter, and at length sole heir, of Aubrey de Vere, twentieth and last Earl of Oxford.  She married, in 1694, Charles, first Duke of St. Albans, natural son of Charles ii. by Nell Gwin.  She died Jan. 15, 1742.

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(419) Colonel James Cholmondeley, only brother of the Earl.  Afterwards distinguished himself at the battles of Fontenoy and Falkirk, and died in 1775.-E.

(420) Charles Edwin, Admiral Vernon’s unsuccessful colleague at Westminster.-E.

(421) During the holidays, Sir R. W. had prevailed on the King to send to the Prince of Wales, to offer to pay his debts and double his allowance.  This negotiation was intrusted to Lord Cholmondeley on the King’s, and to Secker, Bishop of Oxford, on the Prince’s side, but came to nothing, [The Prince, in his answer, stated, that “he could not come to court while Sir Robert Walpole presided in His Majesty’s councils; that he looked on him as the sole author of our grievances at home, and of our ill success in the West Indies; and that the disadvantageous figure we at present made in all the courts of Europe was to be attributed alone to him.”]

(422) Owen MacSwinny, a buffoon; formerly director of the playhouse. [He had been a manager of Drury Lane Theatre, and was the author of several dramatic pieces.  He resided in Italy for several years, and, on his return, was appointed keeper of the King’s Mews.  He died in 1754, leaving his fortune to the celebrated Mrs. Woffington.](

423) Afterwards the great Lord Chatham.-D.

(424) First minister in the early part of the reign of George iii.-D.

(425) Afterwards the first Lord Holland.-D.

(426) Sir Dudley Ryder.-D.

(427) Sir Robert Wilmot, in a letter to the Duke of Devonshire, says:-,,Sir William Gordon was brought in like a corpse.  Some thought it had been an old woman in disguise, having a white cloth round his head:  others,, who found him out, expected him to expire every moment.  Other incurables were introduced on their side.  Mr. Hopton, for Hereford, w, is carried in with crutches.  Sir Robert Walpole exceeded himself; Mr. Pelham, with the greatest decency, cut Pultney into a thousand pieces.  Sir Robert actually dissected him, and laid his heart open to the view of the House."-E.

(428) Admiral Sir Charles Wager.  He had been knighted by Queen Anne, for his Gallantry in taking and destroying some rich Spanish galleons.  He was at this time first lord of the Admiralty.  He died in 1743.-D.

(429) Sir William died in the May following.

(430) James Oswald, afterwards one of the commissioners of trade and plantations.

(431) Robert, Lord Walpole, afterwards Earl of Orford.  He was auditor of the Exchequer, and his house joined to the House of commons, to which he had a door:  but it was soon afterwards locked up, by an order of the House.

(432) John Potter, Archbishop of Canterbury, translated, in 1737, from the see of Oxford.  He died in 1747.-D.

)433) George Oswald, steward to Sir R. W.

(434) Mr. Goldsworthy, consul at Leghorn, had married Sir Charles Wager’s niece, and was endeavouring to supplant Mr. Mann at Florence.

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(435) Vestris, the celebrated dancer, would have been delighted with it; for it is related of him, that when Gluck had finished his noble opera, “Iphigenia,” Vestris was sadly disappointed on finding that it did not end with a “chaconne,” and worried the composer to induce him to introduce one.  At length Gluck, losing all patience, exclaimed, “Chaconne! chaconne!  Had, then, the Greeks, whose manners we are to represent, chaconnes?” “Certainly not,” replied Vestris, “certainly not; but so much the worse for the Greeks."-D.

218 Letter 52 To Sir Horace Mann.  London, Feb. 1741-2.

I am miserable that I have not more time to write to you, especially as you will want to know so much of what I have to tell you; but for a week or fortnight I shall be so hurried, that I shall scarce know what I say.  I sit here writing to you, and receiving all the town, who flock to this house; Sir Robert has already had three levees this morning, and the rooms still overflowing-they overflow up to me.  You will think this the prelude to some victory!  On the contrary, when you receive this, there will be no longer a Sir Robert Walpole:  you must know him for the future by the title of Earl of Orford.  That other envied name expires next week with his ministry!  Preparatory to this change.  I should tell you, that last week we heard in the House of Commons the Chippenham election, when Jack Frederick and his brother-in-law, Mr. Hume, on our side, petitioned against Sir Edmund Thomas and Mr. Baynton Holt.  Both sides made it the decisive question-but our people were not all equally true:  and upon the previous question we had but 235 against 236, so lost it by one.  From that time my brothers, my uncle, I, and some of his particular friends, persuaded Sir R. to resign.  He was undetermined till Sunday night.  Tuesday we were to finish the election, when we lost it by 16; upon which Sir Robert declared to some particular persons in the House his resolution to retire,(436) and had that morning sent the Prince of Wales notice of’ it.  It is understood from the heads of the party, that nothing more is to be pursued against him.  Yesterday (Wednesday) the King adjourned both Houses for a fortnight, for time to settle things.  Next week Sir Robert resigns and goes into the House of Lords.  The only change yet fixed, is, that Lord Wilmington (437) is to be at the head of the Treasury-but numberless other alterations and confusions must follow.  The Prince will be reconciled, and the Whig-patriots will come in.  There were a few bonfires last night, but they are very unfashionable, for never was fallen minister so followed.  When he kissed the King’s hand to take his first leave, the King fell on his neck, wept and kissed him, and begged to see him frequently.  He will continue in town, and assist the ministry in the Lords.  Mr. Pelham has declared that he will accept nothing, that was Sir Robert’s; and this moment the Duke of Richmond has been here from court to tell Sir R. that he had resigned the mastership of the horse, having received it from him, unasked, and that he would not keep it beyond his ministry.  This is the greater honour, as it was so unexpected, and as he had no personal friendship with the duke.

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For myself, I am quite happy to be free from all the fatigue, envy, and uncertainty of our late situation.  I go every where; indeed, to have the stare over, and to use myself to neglect, but I meet nothing but civilities.  Here have been Lord Hartington, Coke, and poor Fitzwilliam,(438) and others crying:  here has been Lord Deskford (439) and numbers to wish me joy; in short, it is a most extraordinary and various scene.(440)

There are three people whom I pity much; the King, Lord Wilmington, and my own sister; the first, for the affront, to be forced to part with his minister, and to be forced to forgive his son; the second, as he is too old, and (even when he was young,) unfit for the burthen:  and the poor girl,(441) who must be created an earl’s daughter, as her birth would deprive her of the rank.  She must kiss hands, and bear the flirts of impertinent real quality

I am invited to dinner to-day by Lord Strafford (442) Argyll’s son-in-law.  You see we shall grow the fashion.

My dear child, these are the most material points:  I am sensible how much you must want particulars; but you must be sensible, too, that just yet, I have not time.

Don’t be uneasy; your brother Ned has been here to wish me joy:  your brother Gal. has been here and cried; your tender nature will at first make you like the latter; but afterwards you will rejoice with the elder and me.  Adieu!  Yours, ever, and the same.

(436) “Sir Robert,” says Coxe, “seemed to have anticipated this event, and met it with his usual fortitude and cheerfulness.  While the tellers were performing their office, he beckoned Sir Edward Baynton, the member whose return was supported by the Opposition, to sit near him., spoke to him with great complacency, animadverted on the ingratitude of several individuals who were voting against him, on whom he had conferred great favour, and declared he would never again sit in that House."-E.

(437) Sir Spencer Compton, Earl of Wilmington, knight of the garter, and at this time lord president of the council.

(438) william, Baron, and afterwards Earl Fitzwilliam; a young lord, much attached to Sir R. W.

(439) James Ogilvy, Lord Deskford succeeded his father, in 1764, as sixth Earl of Findlater, and third Earl of Seafield.  He held some inconsiderable offices in Scotland, and died in 1770.-D.

(440) the peculiar antipathy to Lord Hardwicke manifested by Horace Walpole on all occasions is founded, no doubt, upon the opinion which he had taken up, that the resignation of Sir Robert Walpole at this moment had been rendered necessary by the treachery and intrigues of that nobleman and the Duke of Newcastle.  In his “Memoires” he repeatedly charges him with such treachery; and the Edinburgh reviewer of that work (xxxvi. 1). 29) favours this view, observing, “It appears that, unless there was a secret understanding of Newcastle and Hardwicke with Pulteney

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and Carteret, before Sir Robert’s determination to resign, the coalition was effected between the 31st of January and 2d of February; for on the 2d of February it was already settled that Lord Wilmington should be at the head of the Treasury in the new administration.  So speedy an adjustment of a point of such consequence looks somewhat like previous concert.”  However much appearances might favour this opinion, another writer has shown most satisfactorily that no such previous concert existed.  The reviewer of the “Memoires” in the Quarterly Review (xxvii. p. 191) proves, in the first place, that it was Sir Robert himself who determined the course of events, and, as he emphatically said, turned the key of the closet on Mr. Pulteney; so that, if he was betrayed, it must have been by himself; and secondly, that we have the evidence of his family and friends, that he was lost by his own inactivity and timidity; in other words, the great minister was worn out with age and business.”  And these views are confirmed by extracts from the “Walpoliana,” written, be it remembered, by Philip, second Earl -of Hardwicke, son of the chancellor, from the information of the Walpole family, and even of Sir Robert himself; who, after his retirement, admitted his young friend into his conversation and confidence-a fact totally inconsistent with a belief in his father’s treachery;-by Sir Robert’s own authority, who, in a private and confidential letter to the Duke of Devonshire, dated 2d of February, 1742, giving an account of his resignation, and the efforts of his triumphant antagonists to form a new ministry, distinctly states “that he himself prevented the Duke of Newcastle’s dismissal;” and lastly, by Horace Walpole’s own pamphlet, “A Detection of a late Forgery,” etc., in which he speaks of “the breach between the King and the Prince, as open, the known, avowed cause of the resignation, and which Sir Robert never disguised;"-and again, among the errors of the writer he notices, Sir Robert Walpole is made to complain of being abandoned by his friends.  This is for once an undeserved satire on mankind:  no fallen minister ever experienced such attachment from his friends as he did."-E.

(441) Maria, natural daughter of Sir R. W. by Maria Skerret, his mistress, whom he afterwards married.  She had a patent to take place as an earl’s daughter.

(442) William Wentworth, second Earl of Strafford, of the second creation.  He married Anne Campbell, second daughter of John, Duke of Argyle.-D.

220 Letter 53 To Sir Horace Mann.  Feb. 9, 1741-2.

You will have had my letter that told you of the great change.  The scene is not quite so pleasant as it was, nor the tranquility arrived that we expected.  All is in confusion; no overtures from the Prince, who, it must seem, proposes to be King.  His party have persuaded him not to make up, but on much greater conditions than he first demanded:  in short, notwithstanding his professions to the Bishop,(443)-he

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is to insist on the impeachment of Sir R., saying now, that his terms not being accepted at first, he is not bound to stick to them.  He is pushed on to this violence by Argyll, Chesterfield, Cobham,(444) Sir John Hind Cotton,(445) and Lord Marchmont.  The first says, “What impudence it is in Sir R. to be driving about the streets!” and all cry out, that he is still minister behind the curtain.  They will none of them come into the ministry, till several are displaced but have summoned a great meeting of the faction for Friday, at the Fountain Tavern, to consult measures against Sir R., and to-morrow the Common Council meet, to draw up instructions for their members.  They have sent into Scotland and into the counties for the same purpose.  Carteret ind Pulteney@ pretend to be against this violence, but own that if their party insist upon it, they cannot desert them.  The cry against Sir R. has been greater this week than ever; first, against a grant of four thousand pounds a-year, which the King gave him on his resignation, but which, to quiet them, he has given Up.(446) Then, upon making his daughter a lady; their wives and daughters declare against giving her place.  He and she both kissed hands yesterday, and on Friday go to Richmond for a week.  He seems quite secure in his innocence-but what protection is that, against the power and malice of’ party!  Indeed, his friends seem as firm is ever, and frequent him as much; but they are not now the strongest.  As to an impeachment, I think they will not be so mad as to proceed to it:  it is too solemn and too public to be attempted, without proof of crimes, of which he certainly is not guilty.  For a bill of’ pains and penalties, they may, if they will, I believe, pass it through the Commons, but will scarce get the assent of the King and Lords.  In a week more I shall be able to write with less uncertainty.

I hate sending you false news, as that was, of the Duke of Richmond’s resignation.  It arose from his being two hours below with Sir R., and from some very warm discourse of his in the House of Lords, against the present violences; but went no further.  Zeal magnified this, as she came up stairs to me, and I wrote to you before I had seen Sir Robert.

At a time when we ought to be most united, we are in the greatest confusion; such is the virtue of the patriots, though they have obtained what they professed alone to seek.  They will not stir one step in foreign affairs, though Sir R. has offered to unite with them, with all his friends, for the common cause.  It will now be seen whether he or they are most patriot.  You see I call him Sir Robert still! after one has known him by that name for these threescore years, it is difficult to accustom one’s mouth to another title.

In the midst of all this, we are diverting ourselves as cordially as if Righteousness and Peace had just been kissing one another.  Balls, operas, and masquerades!  The Duchess of Norfolk (447) makes a grand masquing next week; and to-morrow there is one at the Opera-house.

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Here is a Saxe-Gothic prince, brother to her Royal Highness:(448) he sent her word from Dover that he was driven in there, in his way to Italy.  The man of the inn, Whom he consulted about lodgings in town, recommended him to one of very ill-fame in Suffolk-street.  He has got a neutrality for himself, and goes to both courts.

Churchill (449) asked Pultney the other day, “Well, Mr. Pultney, will you break me too?"-"No, Charles,” replied he, “you break fast enough of yourself!” Don’t you think it hurt him more than the other breaking would?  Good night!  Yours, ever.

Thursday, Feb. 11, 1741-2.

P. S. I had finished my letter, and unwillingly resolved to send you all that bad news, rather than leave you ignorant of our doings; but I have the pleasure of mending your prospect a little.  Yesterday the Common Council met, and resolved upon instructions to their members, which, except one not very descriptive paragraph, contains nothing personal -,against our new earl; and ends with resolutions “to stand by our present constitution.”  Mind what followed!  One of them proposed to insert “the King and Royal Family” before the words, “our present constitution;” but, on a division, it was rejected by three to one.

But to-day, for good news!  Sir Robert has resigned; Lord Wilmington is first lord of the treasury, and Sandys has accepted the seals as chancellor of the exchequer, with Gibbon (450) and Sir John Rushout,(451) joined to him as other lords of the treasury.  Waller was to have been the other, but has formally refused.  So, Lord Sundon, Earle, Treby,(452) and Clutterbuck (453) are the first discarded, unless the latter saves himself by Waller’s refusal.  Lord Harrington, who is created an earl, is made president of the council, and Lord Carteret has consented to be secretary of state in his room-but mind; not one of them has promised to be against the prosecution of Sir Robert, though I don’t believe now that it will go on.  You see Pultney is not come in, except in his friend Sir John Rushout, but is to hold the balance between liberty and prerogative; at least, in this, he acts with honour.  They say Sir John Hind Cotton and the Jacobites will be left out,,unless they bring in Dr. Lee and Sir John Barnard to the admiralty, as they propose; for I do not think it is decided what are their principles.  Sir Charles Wager has resigned this morning:(454) he says, “We shall not die, but be all changed!” though he says, a parson lately reading this text in an old Bible, where the c was rubbed out, read it, not die, but be all hanged!

To-morrow our earl goes to Richmond Park, en retir`e; comes on Thursday to take his seat in the Lords, and returns thither again.  Sandys is very angry at his taking the title of Orford, which belonged to his wife’s (455) great uncle.  You know a step of that nature cost the great Lord Strafford (456) his head, at the prosecution of a less bloody-minded man than Sandys.

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I remain in town, and have not taken at all to withdrawing, which I hear has given offence,(457) as well as my gay face in public; but as I had so little joy in the grandeur, I am determined to take as little part in the disgrace.  I am looking about for a new house.

I have received two vast packets from you to-day, I believe from the bottom of the sea, for they have been so washed that I could scarce read them.  I could read the terrible history of the earthquakes at Leghorn:  how infinitely good you was to poor Mrs. Goldsworthy!  How could you think I should not approve such vast humanity? but you are all humanity and forgiveness.  I am only concerned that they will be present when you receive all these disagreeable accounts of your friends.  Their support” is removed as well as yours.  I only fear the interest of the Richmonds (458) with the Duke of Newcastle; but I will try to put you well with Lord Lincoln.  We must write circumspectly, for our letters now are no longer safe.

I shall see Amorevoli to-night to give him the letter.  Ah!  Monticelli and the Visconti are to sing to-night at a great assembly at Lady Conway’s.  I have not time to write more:  so, good night, my dearest child! be in good spirits.  Yours, most faithfully.

P. S. We have at last got Cr`ebillon’s “Sofa:”  Lord Chesterfield received three hundred, and gave them to be sold at White’s.  It is admirable! except the beginning of the first volume, and the last story, it is equal to any thing he has written.  How he has painted the most refined nature in Mazulhim! the most retired nature in Mocles! the man of fashion, that sets himself above natural sensations, and the man of sense and devotion, that would skirmish himself from their influence, are equally justly reduced to the standard of their own weakness.(459)

(443) Secker, Bishop of Oxford.

(444) Richard Temple, Viscount Cobham, so created in 1717, with remainder to the issue male of his sister, Hester Grenville.  He had served in Flanders under the Duke of Marlborough, and was upon the overthrow of Sir Robert Walpole’s administration promoted to the military rank of field marshal.  He is now best remembered as the friend of pope and the creator of the gardens at Stowe.-D.

(445) Sir John Hinde Cotton, Bart. of Landwade, in Cambridgeshire; long a member of parliament, and one of the leaders of the Jacobite party.  He died in 1752, and Horace Walpole, in his Memoires, in noticing this event, says, “Died Sir John Cotton, the last Jacobite of any sensible activity."-D.

Lord Carteret and Mr. Pulteney had really betrayed their party, and so injudiciously, that they lost their old friends and gained no new ones.

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(446) Sir Robert, at the persuasion of his brother, Mr. Selwyn, and others, desisted from this grant.  Three years afterwards, when the clamour was at an end, and his affairs extremely involved, he sued for it; which Mr. Pelham, his friend and `el`eve, was brought with the worst grace in the world to ask, and his old obliged master the King prevailed upon, with as ill grace, to grant. ["February 6.  Sir R. Walpole was presented at Court as Earl of Orford.  He was persuaded to refuse a grant of four thousand pounds a-year during the King’s life and his own, but could not be dissuaded from accepting a letter of honour from the King, to grant his natural daughter Maria, precedence as an earl’s daughter; who was also presented this day.  The same thing had been done for Scrope, Earl of Sunderland, who left no lawful issue, and from one of whom Lord Howe is descended."-Secker ms.]

(447) Mary, daughter of Edward Blount, Esq. and wife of Edward, ninth Duke of Norfolk.-D.

(448) The Princess of Wales.-D.

(449)General Charles Churchill.-D.

(450) Philip Gibbons, Esq.-D.

(451) Sir John Rushout, the fourth baronet of the family, had particularly distinguished himself as an opponent of Sir R. Walpole’s excise scheme.  He was made treasurer of the navy in 1743, and died in 1775, at the advanced age of ninety-one.  His son was created Lord Northwick, in 1797.-D.

(452) George Treby, Esq.-D.

(453) Thomas Clutterbuck, Esq.  He left the Treasury in February 1742, and was made treasurer of the navy.-D.

(454) “February ii.  Lord Orford and Sir Charles Wager resigned.  Mr. Sandys kissed hands as chancellor of the exchequer:  Lord Wilmington declared first commissioner of the Treasury:  offers made to the Duke of Argyle, but refused:  none to Lord Chesterfield."-Secker ms.-E.

(455) Lady Sandys was daughter of Lady Tipping, niece of Russel, Earl of Orford.

(456) Sir Thomas Wentworth, the great Earl of Strafford, took the title of Raby from a castle of that name, which belonged to Sir Henry Vane, who, from that time, became his mortal foe.

(457) Sir Charles Wager. [In the following December Sir Charles was appointed treasurer of the navy, which office he held till his death, in May 1743.)

(458) Mrs. Goldsworthy had been a companion of the Duchess of Richmond.

(459) Posterity has not confirmed the eulogium here given to the indecent trash of the younger Cr`ebillon:  but in the age of George ii. coarseness passed for humour, and obscenity was wit."-D

224 Letter 54 To Sir Horace Mann.  Feb. 18, 1741-2.

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I write to you more tired, and with more headache, than any one but you could conceive!  I came home at five this morning from the Duchess of Norfolk’s masquerade, and was forced to rise before eleven, for my father, who came from Richmond to take his seat in the Lords, for the Houses met to-day.  He is gone back to his retirement.  Things wear a better aspect:  at the great meeting (460) on Friday, at the Fountain, Lord Carteret and Lord Winchilsea (461) refused to go, only saying, that they never dined at a tavern.  Pultney and the new chancellor of the exchequer went, and were abused by his Grace of Argyll.  The former said he was content with what was already done, and would not be active in any further proceedings, though he would not desert the party.  Sandys said the King had done him the honour to offer him that place; why should he not accept it? if he had not, another would:  if nobody would, the King would be obliged to employ his old minister again, which he imagined the gentlemen present would not wish to see; and protested against screening, with the same conclusion as Pultney.  The Duke of Bedford was very warm against Sir William Yonge; Lord Talbot (462) was so in general.(463)

During the recess, they have employed Fazakerley to draw up four impeachments; against Sir Robert, my uncle, Mr. Keene, and Colonel Bladen, who was only commissioner for the tariff at Antwerp.  One of the articles against Sir R. is, his having at this conjuncture trusted Lord Waldegrave as ambassador, who is so near a relation (464) of the Pretender-. but these impeachments are likely to grow obsolete manuscripts.  The minds of the people grow more candid:  at first, they made one of the actors at Drury Lane repeat some applicable lines at the end of Harry the Fourth; but last Monday, when his Royal Highness-, had purposely bespoken “The Unhappy Favourite” (465) for Mrs. Porter’s benefit, they never once applied the most glaring passages; as where they read the indictment against Robert Earl of Essex, etc.  The Tories declare against further prosecution-if Tories there are, for now one hears of nothing but the Broad Bottom:  it is the reigning cant word, and means, the taking all parties and people, indifferently into the ministry.  The Whigs are the dupes of this; And those in the Opposition affirm that Tories no longer exist.  Notwithstanding this, they will not come into the new ministry, unless what were always reckoned Tories are admitted.  The Treasury has gone a-begging:  I mean one of the lordships, which is at last filled up with Major Compton, a relation of Lord Wilmington; but now we shall see a new scene.  On Tuesday night Mr. Pultney went to the Prince, and, without the knowledge of Argyll, etc., prevailed on him to write to the King:  he was so long determining, that it was eleven at night before the King received his letter.  Yesterday morning the prince, attended by two of his lords, two grooms of the Bedchamber,

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and Lord Scarborough,(466) his treasurer went to the King’s levee.(467) The King said, “How does the Princess do?  I hope she is well.”  The Prince kissed his hand, and this was all!  The Prince returned to Carlton House, whither crowds went to him.  He spoke to the Duke of Newcastle and Mr. Pelham; but would not to the three dukes, Richmond, Grafton, and Marlborough.(468) At night the Royal Family were all at the Duchess of Norfolk’@’ and the streets were illuminated and bonfired.  To-day, the Duke of Bedford, Lord Halifax, and some others, were at St. James’s:  the King spoke to all the Lords.  In a day or two, I shall go with my uncle and brothers to the Prince’s levee.

Yesterday there was a meeting of all the Scotch of our side, who, to a man, determined to defend Sir Robert

Lyttelton (469) is going to marry Miss Fortescue, Lord Clinton’s sister.

When our earl went to the House of lords to-day, he apprehended some incivilities from his Grace of Argyll, but he was not there.  Bedford, Halifax, Berkshire,(470) and some more, were close by him, but would not bow to him.  Lord Chesterfield wished him joy.  This is all I know for certain; for I will not send you the thousand lies of every new day.

I must tell you how fine the masquerade of last night was.  There were five hundred persons, in the greatest variety of handsome and rich dresses I ever saw, and all the jewels of London-and London has some!  There were dozens of ugly Queens of Scots, of which I will only name to you the eldest Miss Shadwell!  The Princess of Wales was one, covered with diamonds, but did not take off her mask:  none of the Royalties did, but every body else.  Lady Conway (471) was a charming Mary Stuart:  Lord and Lady Euston, man and woman huzzars.  But the two finest and most charming masks were their Graces of Richmond,(472) like Harry the Eighth and Jane Seymour:  excessively rich, and both so handsome @ Here is a nephew of the King of Denmark, who was in armour, and his governor, a most admirable Quixote. there were quantities of Vandykes, and all kinds of old pictures walked out of the frames.  It was an assemblage of all ages and nations, and would look like the day of judgment, if tradition did not persuade us that we are all to meet naked, and if something else did not tell us that we shall not meet with quite so much indifference, nor thinking quite so much of the becoming.  My dress was an Aurungzebe:  but of all extravagant figures commend me to our friend the Countess!(473) She and my lord trudged in like pilgrims with vast staffs in their hands; and she was so heated, that you would have thought her pilgrimage had been, like Pantagruel’s voyage, to the Oracle of the Bottle!  Lady Sophia was in a Spanish dress-so was Lord Lincoln; not, to be sure, by design, but so it happened.  When the King came in, the Faussans (474) were there, and danced an entr`ee.  At the masquerade the King sat by Mrs. Selwyn, and with tears told her, that “the Whigs should find he loved them, as he had the poor man that was gone!” He had sworn that he would not speak to the Prince at their meeting, but was prevailed on.

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I received your letter by Holland, and the paper about the Spaniards.  By this time you will conceive that I can speak of nothing to any purpose, for Sir R. does not meddle in the least with business.

As to the Sibyl, I have not mentioned it to him; I still am for the other.  Except that, he will not care, I believe, to buy more pictures, having now so many more than he has room for at Houghton; and he will have but a small house in town when we leave this.  But you must thank the dear Chutes for their new offers; the obligations are too great, but I am most sensible to their goodness, and, were I not so excessively tired now, would write to them.  I cannot add a word more, but to think of the Princess:(475) “Comment! vous avez donc des enfans!” You see how nature sometimes breaks out in spite of religion and prudery, grandeur and pride, delicacy and `epuisements!  Good night!  Yours ever.

(460) See an account of this meeting in Lord Egmonfs “Faction Detected.” [To this meeting at the Fountain tavern Sir Charles Hanbury Williams alludes in his Ode against the Earl of Bath, called the Statesman-

“Then enlarge on his cunning and wit: 
Say, how he harangued at the Fountain;
Say, how the old patriots were bit,
And a mouse was produced by a mountain.”]

(461) Daniel Finch, seventh Earl of Winchilsea and third Earl of Nottingham.  He was made first lord of the admiralty upon the breaking up of Sir R. Walpole’s government.-D.

(462) William, second Lord Talbot, eldest son of the lord chancellor of that name and title.-D.

(463) The following is from the Secker ms.-"Feb. 12.  Meeting at the Fountain tavern of above two hundred commoners and thirty-five Lords.  Duke of Argyle spoke warmly for prosecuting Lord Orford, with hints of reflection on those who had accepted.  Mr. Pulteney replied warmly.  Lord Talbot drank to cleansing the Augean stable of the dung and grooms.  Mr. Sandys and Mr. Gibbon there.  Lord Carteret and Lord Winchilsea not.  Lord Chancellor, in the evening, in private discourse to me, strong against taking in any Tories:  owning no more than that some of them, perhaps, were not for the Pretender, or, at least, did not know they were for him; though, when I gave him the account first of my discourse with the Prince, he said, the main body of them were of the same principles with the Tories."-E.

(464) His mother was natural daughter of King James ii.  (James, first Earl Waldegrave, appointed ambassador to the court of France in 1730:  died in 1741.-D.)

(465) banks’s tragedy of “The Unhappy Favourite; or, the Earl of Essex,” was first acted in 1682.  The prologue and epilogue were written by Dryden.  Speaking of this play, in the Tatler, Sir Richard Steele says, “there is in it not one good line, and yet it is a play which was never seen without drawing tears from some part of the audience; a remarkable instance, that the soul is not to be moved by words, but things; for the incidents in the drama are laid together so happily that the spectator makes the play for himself, by the force with which the circumstance has upon his imagination."-E.

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(466) Thomas Lumley, third Earl of Scarborough.-D.

(467) “February 17.  Prince of Wales went to St. James’s.  The agreement made at eleven the night before, and principally by Mr. Pultney; as Lord Wilmington told me.  The King received him in the drawing-room:  the Prince kissed his hand:  he asked him how the Princess did:  showed no other mark of regard.  All the courtiers went the same day to Carlton House.  The Bishop of Gloucester (Dr. Benson) and I went thither.  The Prince and princess civil to us both.”  Secker ms.-E.

(468) Charles Spencer, second duke of Marlborough succeeded to that title on the death of his aunt Henrietta, Duchess of Marlborough, in 1733.-D.

(469) Sir George Lyttelton, afterwards created Lord Lyttelton.  Miss Fortescue was his first wife, and mother of Thomas, called the wicked Lord Lyttelton.  She died in childbed and Lord Lyttelton honoured her Memory with the well-known Monody which was so unfeelingly parodied by Smollett.-D. [ Under the title of an “Ode on the Death of My Grandmother.”)

(470 Henry Bowes Howard, fourth Earl of Berkshire.  He succeeded, in 1745, as eleventh Earl of Suffolk, on the death, without issue, of henry, tenth earl.  He died in 1757.-D.

(471) Lady Isabella Fitzroy, Youngest daughter of the Duke of grafton, and wife of Francis Seymour, Lord Conway of Hertford.

(472) Charles Lennox, master of the horse, and Sarah Cadogan, his duchess.  He died in the year following.

(473) The Countess of Pomfret.

(474) Two celebrated comic dancers.

(475) Princess Craon, so often mentioned in these letters.-D.

227 Letter 55
To Sir Horace Mann. 
London, Feb. 25, 1742.

I am impatient to hear that you have received my first account of the change; as to be sure you are now for every post.  This last week has not produced many new events.  The Prince of Wales has got the measles,(476) so there has been but little incense offered up to him:  his brother of Saxe-Gotha has got them too.  When the Princess went to St. James’s, she fell at the King’s feet and struggled to kiss his hand, and burst into tears.  At the Norfolk masquerade she was vastly bejewelled; Frankz had lent her forty thousand pounds worth, and refused to be paid for the hire, only desiring that she would tell whose they were.  All this is nothing, but to introduce one of Madame de Pomfret’s ingenuities, who. being dressed like a pilgrim, told the Princess, that she had taken her for the Lady of Loreto.

But you will wish for politics now, more than for histories of masquerades, though this last has taken up people’s thoughts full as much.  The House met last Thursday and voted the army without a division:  Shippen (477 alone, unchanged, Opposed it.  They have since been busied on elections, turning out our friends and voting in their own.. almost without opposition.  The chief affair

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has been the Denbighshire election, on the petition of Sir Watkyn William .  ’They have voted him into parliament and the high-sheriff into Newgate.  Murray (478) was most eloquent:  Lloyd,(479) the counsel on the other side, and no bad one, (for I go constantly, though I do not stay long, but “leave the dead to bury their dead,” said that it was objected to the sheriff, that he was related to the sitting member; but, indeed, in that country (Wales) it would be difficult not to be related.  Yesterday we had another hearing of the petition of the Merchants, when Sir Robert Godschall shone brighter than even his usual.  There was a copy of a letter produced, the original having been lost:  he asked whether the copy had been taken before the original was lost, or after!

Next week they commence their prosecutions, which they will introduce by voting a committee to inquire into all the offices:  Sir William Yonge is to be added to the impeachments, but the chief whom they wish to punish is my uncle.(480) He is the more to be pitied, because nobody will pity him.  They are not fond of a formal message which the States General have sent to Sir Robert, “to compliment him on his new honour, and to condole with him on being out of the ministry, which will be so detrimental to Europe!

The third augmentation in Holland is confirmed, and that the Prince of Hesse is chosen generallissimo, which makes it believed that his Grace of Argyll will not go over, but that we shall certainly have a war with France in the spring.  Argyll has got the Ordnance restored to him, and they wanted to give him his regiment; to which Lord Hertford (481) was desired to resign it, with the offer of his old troop again.  He said he had received the regiment from the King; if his Majesty pleased to take it back, he might, but he did not know why he should resign it.  Since that, he wrote a letter to the King, and sent it by his son, Lord Beauchamp, resigning his regiment, his government, and his wife’s pension, as lady of the bedchamber to the late Queen.

No more changes are made yet.  They have offered the Admiralty to Sir Charles Wager again, but he refused it:  he said, he heard that he was an old woman, and that he did not know what good old women could do any where.

A comet has appeared here for two nights, which, you know, is lucky enough at this time and a pretty ingredient for making prophecies.

These are all the news.  I receive your letters regularly, and hope you receive mine so:  I never miss one week.  Adieu! my dearest child!  I am perfectly well; tell me always that you are.  Are the good Chutes still at Florence?  My best love to them, and services to all.

Here are some new Lines much in vogue:(482)


Unhappy England, still in forty-one (483)
By Scotland art thou doom’d to be undone! 
But Scotland now, to strike alone afraid,
Calls in her worthy sister Cornwall’s (484) aid;
And these two common Strumpets, hand in hand,
Walk forth, and preach up virtue through the land;
Start at corruption, at a bribe turn pale,
Shudder at pensions, and at placemen rail. 
Peace, peace! ye wretched hypocrites; or rather
With Job, say to Corruption, " Thou’rt our Father.”

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But how will Walpole justify his fate? 
He trusted Islay (485) till it was too late. 
Where were those parts! where was that piercing mind! 
That judgment, and that knowledge of mankind! 
To trust a Traitor that he knew so well! 
(Strange truth!  I)ctray’d, but not deceived, he fell!)
He knew his heart was, like his aspect, vile;
Knew him the tool, and Brother of Argyll! 
Yet to his hands his power and hopes gave up;
And though he saw ’twas poison, drank the cup! 
Trusted to one he never could think true,
And perish’d by a villain that he knew.

(476) “February 21.  Prince taken ill of the measles.  The King sent no message to him in his illnesses Secker ms.-E.

(477) William Shippen, a celebrated Jacobite.  Sir R. Walpole said that he was the Only man whose price he did not know. [See ante, p. 194, Letter 45.]

(478) William Murray, Mr. Pope’s friend, afterwards Solicitor, and then Attorney-general.

(479) Sir Richard Lloyd, who succeeded Mr. Murray, in 1754, as Solicitor-general.

(480) Horace Walpole, brother of Sir Robert.

(481) Algernon Seymour, Earl of Hertford, eldest son of Charles, called the proud Duke of Somerset, whom he succeeded in that Title, and was the last Duke of Somerset of that branch; his son, who is here mentioned, having died before him.-D.

(482) These Lines were written by Sir Charles Hanbury Williams. [And are published in the edition of his works, in three volumes, 12 no.1.

(483) Alluding to the Grand Rebellion against Charles the First.

(484) The Parliament which overthrew Sir R. W. was carried
against him by his losing the majority of the Scotch and Cornish boroughs; the latter managed by Lord Falmouth
                           and Thomas Pitt.

(485) Archibald Campbell, Earl of Islay, brother of John, Duke of Argyll, in conjunction with whom (though then openly at variance) he was supposed to have betrayed Sir R.
W. and to have let the Opposition
succeed in the Scotch elections, which were trusted to
his management.  It must be
observed, that Sir R. W. would never allow that he believed
himself betrayed by Lord Islay.

229 Letter 56 To Sir Horace Mann.  London, March 3d, 1742.

I am Obliged to write to you to-day, for I am sure I shall not have a moment to-morrow; they are to make their motion for a secret committee to examine into the late administration.  We are to oppose it strongly, but to no purpose; for since the change, they have beat us on no division under a majority of forty.  This last week has produced no new novelties; his Royal Highness has been shut up with the measles, of which he was near dying, by eating China oranges.

We are to send sixteen thousand men into Flanders in the spring, under his Grace of Argyll; they talk of the Duke of Marlborough and Lord Albemarle to command under him.  Lord Cadogan (486) is just dead, so there is another regiment vacant:  they design Lord Delawar’s for Westmoreland;(487) so now Sir Francis Dashwood (488) will grow as fond of the King again as he used to be-or as he has hated him since.

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We have at last finished the Merchants’ petition, under the conduct of the Lord Mayor and Mr. Leonidas;(489) the greatest coxcomb and the greatest oaf that ever met in blank verse or prose.  I told you the former’s question about the copy of a letter taken after the original was lost.  They have got a new story of him; that hearing of a gentleman who had had the small-pox twice and died of it, he asked, if he died the first time or the second-if this is made for him, it is at least quite in his style.  After summing up the evidence (in doing which, Mr. Glover literally drank several times to the Lord Mayor in a glass of water that stood by him,) Sir John Barnard moved to vote, that there had been great neglect in the protection of the trade, to the great advantage of’ the enemy, and the dishonour of the nation.  He said he did not mean to charge the Admiralty particularly, for then particular persons must have had particular days assigned to be heard in their own defence, which would take up too much time, as we are now going to make inquiries of a much higher nature.  Mr. Pelham was for leaving out the last words.  Mr. Doddington rose, and in a set speech declared that the motion was levelled at a particular person, who had so usurped all authority, that all inferior offices were obliged to submit to his will, and so either bend and bow, or be broken:  but that he hoped the steps we were now going to take, would make the office of first minister so dangerous a post, that nobody would care to accept it for the future.  Do but think of this fellow, who has so lost all character, and made himself so odious to both King, and Prince, by his alternate flatteries, changes, oppositions, and changes of flatteries and oppositions, that he can never expect what he has so much courted by all methods,-think of his talking of making it dangerous for any one else to accept the first ministership!  Should such a period ever arrive, he would accept it with joy-the only chance he can ever have for it!  But sure, never was impudence more put to shame!  The whole debate turned upon him.  Lord Doneraile (490) (who, by the way, has produced blossoms of Doddington like fruit, and consequently is the fitter scourge for him) stood up and said, he did not know what that gentleman meant; that he himself was as willing to bring all offenders to justice as any man; but that he did not intend to confine punishment to those who had been employed only at the end of the last ministry, but proposed to extend it to all who had been engaged in it, and wished that that gentleman would speak with more lenity of an administration, in which he himself had been concerned for so many years.  Winnington said, he did not know what Mr. Doddington had meant, by either bending or being broken; that he knew some who had been broken, though they had bowed an bended.  Waller defended Doddington, and said, if he was gilty, at least Mr. Winnington was so too; on which Fox rose up, and, laying his

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hand on his breast, said, he never wished to have such a friend, as could only excuse him by bringing in another for equal share of his guilt.  Sir John Cotton replied; he did not wonder that Mr. Fox (who had spoken with great warmth) was angry at hearing his friend in place, compared to one out of place.  Do but figure how Doddington must have looked and felt during such dialogues!  In short, it ended in Mr. Pultney’s rising, and saying, he could not be against the latter words, as he thought the former part of the motion had been proved . and wished both parties would join in carrying on the war vigorously, or in procuring a good peace, rather than in ripping open old sores, and continuing the heats and violences of parties.  We came to no division-for we should have lost it by too many.

Thursday evening.

I had written all the former part of my letter, only reserving room to tell you, that they had carried the secret committee-but it is put off till next Tuesday.  To-day we had nothing but the giving up the Heydon election, when Mr. Ppultney had an opportunity (as Mr. Chute and Mr. Robinson would not take the trouble to defend a cause which they could not carry) to declaim upon corruption:  had it come to a trial, there were eighteen witnesses ready to swear positive bribery against Mr. Pultney.  I would write to Mr. Chute, and thank him for his letter which you sent me, but I am so out of humour at his brother’s losing his seat, that I cannot speak civilly even to him to-day.

It is said, that my Lord’s Grace of Argyll has carried his great point of the Broad Bottom-as I suppose you will hear by rejoicings from Rome.  The new Admiralty is named; at the head is to be Lord Winchilsea, with Lord Granard,(491) Mr. Cockburn, his Grace’s friend, Dr. Lee, the chairman, Lord Vere Beauclerc;(492) one of the old set, by the interest of the Duke of Dorset, and the connexion of Lady Betty Germain, whose niece Lord Vere married; and two Tories, Sir John Hind Cotton and Will.  Chetwynd,(493) an agent of Bolingbroke’s-all this is not declared yet, but is believed.

This great Duke has named his four aid-de-camps-Lord Charles Hay; George Stanhope, brother of Earl Stanhope; Dick Lyttelton, who Was page; and a Campbell.  Lord Cadogan is not dead, but has been given over.

We are rejoicing over the great success of the Queen of Hungary’s arms, and the number of blows and thwarts which the French have received.  It is a prosperous season for our new popular generals to grow glorious!

But, to have done with politics.  Old Marlborough has at last published her Memoirs; they are digested by one Hooke, (494) who wrote a Roman history; but from her materials which are so womanish, that I am sure the man might sooner have made a gown and petticoat with them.  There are some choice letters from Queen Anne, little inferior in the fulsome to those from King James to the Duke of Buckingham.

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Lord Oxford’s (495) famous sale begins next Monday, where there is as much rubbish of another kind as in her grace’s history.  Feather bonnets presented by the Americans to Queen Elizabeth; elks’-horns -cups; true copies converted into candle of original pictures that never existed; presents to himself from the Royal Society, etc. particularly forty volumes of prints of illustrious English personages; which collection is collected from frontispieces to godly books, bibles and head-pieces and tail-pieces to Waller’s works; views of King Charles’s sufferings; tops of ballads; particularly earthly crowns for heavenly ones, and streams of glory.  There are few good pictures. for the miniatures are not to be sold, nor the manuscripts , the books not till next year.  There are a few fine bronzes, and a very fine collection of English coins.

We have got another opera,(496) which is liked.  There was to have been a vast elephant, but the just directors, designing to give the audience the full weight of one for their money, made it so heavy that at the prova it broke through the stage.  It was to have carried twenty soldiers, with Monticelli on a throne in the middle.  There is a new subscription begun for next year, thirty subscribers at two hundred pounds each.  Would you believe that I am one?  You need not believe it quite, for I am but half an one; Mr. Conway and I take a share between us.  We keep Monticelli and Amorevoli, and to please Lord Middlesex, that odious Muscovita; but shall discard Mr. Vaneschi.  We are to have the Barberina and the two Faussans; so, at least, the singers and dancers will be equal to any thing in Europe.

Our earl is still at Richmond:  I have not been there yet; I shall go once or twice; for however little inclination I have to it, I would not be thought to grow cool just now.  You know I am above such dirtiness, and you are sensible that my coolness is of much longer standing.  Your sister is with mine at the Park; they came to town last Tuesday for the opera, and returned next day.  After supper, I prevailed on your sister (497) to sing, and though I had heard her before, I thought I never heard any thing beyond it; there is a sweetness in her voice equal to Cuzzoni’s, with a better manner. ’

I was last week at the masquerade, dressed like an old woman, and passed for a good mask.  I took the English liberty of teasing whomever I pleased, particularly old Churchill.  I told him I was quite ashamed. of being there till I met him, but was quite comforted with finding one person in the room older than myself.  The Duke,(498) who had been told who I was, came up and said, “Je connois cette poitrine.”  I took him for some Templar, and replied, “Vous! vous ne connoissez que des poitrines qui sont bien plus us`ees.”  It was unluckily pat.  The next night, at the drawing-room, he asked me, very good-humouredly, if I knew who was the old woman that had teased every body at the masquerade. 

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We were laughing so much at this, that the King crossed the room to Lady Hervey, who was with us, and said, “What are those boys laughing at set” She told him, and that I had said I was so awkward at undressing myself, that I had stood for an hour in my stays and under-petticoat before my footman.  My thanks to Madame Grifoni.  I cannot write more now, as I must not make my letter too big, when it appears at the secretary’s office nouc.  As to my sister, I am sure Sir Robert would never have accepted Prince Craon’s offer, who now, I suppose, would not be eager to repeat it.

(486) Charles, Lord Cadogan, of Oakley, to which title he succeeded on the death of his elder brother, William, Earl Cadogan, who was one of the most distinguished “of Marlborough’s captains.”  Charles, Lord Cadogan, did not die at the period when this letter was written.  On the contrary, he lived, till the year 1776.-D.

(487) John, seventh Earl of Westmoreland.  He built the Palladian Villa of Mereworth, in Kent, which is a nearly exact copy of the celebrated Villa Capra, near Vicenza.  He died in 1762.  Sir Francis Dashwood succeeded, on his decease, to the barony in fee of Le Despencer.-D.

(488) Sir Francis Dashwood, nephew to the Earl of Westmoreland, had gone violently into Opposition, on that lord’s losing his regiment.

(489) Mr. Glover. (Walpole always depreciates Glover; but his conduct, upon the occasion referred to in the text, displayed considerable ability.-D.) [His speech upon this occasion was afterwards published in a pamphlet, entitled, ,A short Account of the late Application to Parliament, made by the Merchants of London, upon the Neglect of their Trade; with the Substance thereof, as summed up by Mr. Glover.,,]

(490) Arthur Mohun St. Leger, third Viscount Doneraile, in Ireland, of the first creation. 
                 He was at this time member for Winchilsea, was
appointed a lord of the bedchamber to Frederick Prince of Wales in 1747, and died at Lisbon in 1749.-D.

(491) George Forbes, third Earl of Granard in Ireland; an admiral, and a member of the House of Commons.-D.

(492) Third son of the first Duke of St. Albans, created in 1750 Lord Vere of Hanworth in Middlesex.  He was the direct ancestor of the present line of the St. Albans family.  His wife was Mary, daughter and heiress of Thomas Chambers, Esq. of Hanworth, by Lady Mary Berkeley, the sister of lady Betty Germain.-D.

(493) William Richard Chetwynd ’second brother of the first viscount of that name; member of parliament successively for Stafford and Plymouth.  He had been envoy at Genoa, and a lord of the Admiralty; and he finally succeeded his two elder brothers as third Viscount Chetwynd, in 1767.-D. [He was familiarly called “Black Will,” and sometimes “Oroonoka Chetwynd,” from his dark complexion.  He died in 1770.]

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(494) Nathaniel Hooke, a laborious compiler, but a very bad writer.  It is said, that the Duchess of Marlborough gave him 5000 pounds for the services he rendered her, in the composition and publication of her apology.  She, however, afterwards quarrelled with him, because she said he tried to convert her to Popery.  Hooke was himself of that religion, and was also a Quietist, and an enthusiastic follower of Fenelon.  It was Hooke who brought a Catholic priest to attend the deathbed of Pope; a proceeding which excited such bitter inclination in the infidel Bolingbroke.  Hooke died July 19, 1763. [When Hooke asked Pope, “whether he should not send for a priest, the dying poet replied, “I do not suppose that is essential, but it will look right."-Spence, p. 322.)

(495) Edward second Earl of Oxford and Earl Mortimer, only son of the minister, he was a great and liberal patron of literature and learned men, and completed the valuable collection of manuscripts commenced by his father, which is now in the British Museum.  He married the great Cavendish heiress, Lady Henrietta Cavendish Holles, daughter of Holles, Duke of Newcastle, and died June 16, 1741.-D.

(496) By Buranello, and called “Scipione in Cartagine."-E. (497) Mary Mann, afterwards married to Mr. Foote.

(498) Of Cumberland. [William Augustus, third son of George ii.)

234 Letter 57 To Sir Horace Mann.  March 10, 1742.

I will not work you up into a fright only to have the pleasure of putting you out of it, but will tell you at once that we have gained the greatest victory!  I don’t mean in the person of Admiral Vernon, nor of Admiral Haddock; no. nor in that of his Grace of Argyll.  By we, I don’t mean we; England, but we, literally we; not you and I, but we, the House of Orford.  The certainty that the Opposition (or rather the Coalition, for that is the new name they have taken) had of carrying every point they wished, made them, in the pride of their hearts, declare that they would move for the Secret Committee yesterday (Tuesday), and next Friday would name the list, by which day they should have Mr. Sandys from his reelection.  It was, however, expected to be put off, as Mr. Pultney could not attend the House, his only daughter was dying-they say she is dead.(499) But an affair of consequence to them, and indeed to the nation in general, roused all their rage, and drove them to determine on the last violences.  I told you in my last, that the new Admiralty was named, with a mixture of Tories; that is, it was named by my Lord of Argyll; but the King flatly put his negative on Sir John Cotton.  They said he was no Tory now, (and, in truth, he yesterday in the House professed himself a Whig,) and that there were no Tories left in the nation.  The King replied, “that might be; but he was determined to stand by those who had set him and his family upon the throne.”  This refusal enraged them so much, that they declared they would force

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him, not only to turn out all the old ministry, but the new too, if he wished to save Sir R. and others of his friends; and that, as they supposed he designed to get the great bills passed, and then prorogue the Parliament, they were determined to keep back some of the chief bills, and sit all the summer, examining into the late administration.  Accordingly, yesterday, in a most full house, Lord Limerick (500) (who, last year, seconded the famous motion )501)) moved for a committee to examine into the conduct of the last twenty years, and was seconded by Sir John St. Aubin.(502) In short, (for I have not time to tell you the debate at length,) we divided, between eight and nine, when there was not a man of our party that did not expect to lose it by at least fifteen or twenty, but, to our great amazement, and their as great confusion, we threw out the motion, by a majority of 244 against 242.(503) Was there ever a more surprising event! a disgraced minister, by his personal interest, to have a majority to defend him even from inquiry!  What was ridiculous, the very man who seconded the motion happened to be shut out at the division; but there was one on our side shut out too.

I don’t know what violent step they will take next; it must be by surprise, for when they could not carry this, it will be impossible for them to carry any thing more personal.  We trust that the danger is now past, though they had a great meeting to-day at Doddington ’S,(504) and threaten still.  He was to have made the motion, but was deterred by the treatment he met last week.  Sir John Norris was not present; he has resigned all his employments, in a pique for not being named of the new Admiralty.  His old Grace of Somerset (505) is reconciled to his son, Lord Hertford, on his late affair of having the regiment taken from him:  he sent for him, and told him he had behaved like his son.

My dearest child, I have this moment received a most unexpected and most melancholy letter from you, with an account of your fever and new operation.  I did not in the least dream of your having any more trouble from that disorder! are you never to be delivered from it?  Your letter has shocked me extremely; and then I am terrified at the Spaniards passing so near Florence.  If they should, as I fear they will, stay there, how inconvenient and terrible it would be for you, now you are ill!  You tell me, and my good Mr. Chute tells me, that you are out of all danger, and much better; but to what can I trust, when you have these continual relapses?  The vast time that passes between your writing and my receiving your letters, makes me flatter myself, that by now you are out of all pain:  but I am miserable, with finding that you may be still subject to new torture! not all your courage, which is amazing can give me any about you.  But how can you write to me?  I will not suffer it-and now, good Mr. Chute will write for you.  I am so angry at your writing immediately after that dreadful operation, though I see your goodness in it, that I will not say a word more to you.  All the rest is to Mr. Chute.

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What shall I say to you, my dearest Sir, for all your tenderness to poor Mr. Mann and me? as you have so much friendship for him, you may conceive how much I am obliged to you.  How much do I regret not having had more opportunities of showing you my esteem and love, before this new attention, to Mr. Mann.  You do flatter me, and tell me he is recovering—­nay I trust you? and don’t you say it, only to comfort me?-Say a great deal for me to Mr. Whithed; he is excessively good to me; I don’t know how to thank him.  I am happy that you are so well yourself, and so constant to your fasting.  To reward your virtues, I will tell you the news I know; not much, but very extraordinary.  What would be the most extraordinary event that you think could happen?  Would not-next to his becoming a real patriot-the Duke of Argyll’s resigning be the most unexpected? would any thing be more surprising than his immediately resigning power at having felt the want of them?  Be that as it will, he literally, actually, resigned all his new commissions yesterday, because the King refused to employ the Tories.(506) What part he will act next is yet to come.  Mrs. Boothby said, upon the occasion, “that in one month’s time he had contrived to please the whole nation-the Tories, by going to court; the Whigs, by leaving it.”

They talk much of impeaching my father, since they could not committee him; but as they could not, I think they will scarce be able to carry a more violent step.  However, to show how little Tory resentments are feared, the King has named a new Admiralty; Lord Winchilsea, Admiral Cavendish, Mr. Cockburn, Dr. Lee, Lord Baltimore, young Trevor,(507) (which is much disliked, for he is of no consequence for estate, and less for parts, but is a relation of the Pelhams,) and Lord Archibald Hamilton,(508)-to please his Royal Highness.  Some of his people (not the Lytteltons and Pitts) stayed away the other night upon the Secret Committee, and they think he will at last rather take his father’s part, than Argyll’s.

Poor Mr. PUltney has lost his girl:  she was an only daughter, and sensible and handsome.  He has only a son left, and, they say, is afflicted to the greatest degree.

I will say nothing about old Sarah’s Memoirs; for, with some spirit they are nothing but remnants of old women’s frippery.  Good night!  I recommend my poor Mr. Mann to you, and am yours, most faithfully.

P. S. My dearest child, how unhappy I shall be, till I hear you are quite recovered

(499) The young lady died on the preceding evening.  She was in her fourteenth year.-E.

(500) William Hamilton, Lord Viscount Limerick. (According to the peerages, Lord Limerick’s Christian name was James, and not William.-D.)

(501) For removing Sir Robert Walpole.

(502) Sir John St. Aubyn, of Clowance in Cornwall, third baronet of that family.-D. [He died in 1744.

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(503) March 9.  Motion in the House of Commons for a secret committee to inquire into our affairs for twenty or twenty-one years.  The Speaker said Ayes had it:  one that was for it divided the House.  The Noes carried it by 244 against 242.  Mr. Sandys at Worcester, Mr. Pulteny at home-his daughter dying.  The Prince at New.  Several of his servants, and several Scotch members, not at the House; nor Lord Winchelsea’s brothers.  Gibbon, Rushout, Barnard voted for the committee, but did not speak.  It is said that the Prince had before this written to Lord Carteret, to desire that Lord Archibald Hamilton and Lord Baltimore might be lords of the Admiralty, and that this had been promised."-Secker, ms.-E.

(504) “Never was there,” writes Mr. Orlebar to the Rev. Mr. Elough, “a greater disappointment.  Those who proved the minority, were so sure of being the majority, that the great Mr. Dodington harangued in the lobby those who went out at the division to desire them not to go away, because there were several other motions to be made in consequence of that:  and likewise to bespeak their attendance at the Fountain, in order to settle the committee.  Upon which Sir George Oxenden, after they found it was lost, whispered -@t friend thus:  I Suppose we were to desire Mr. D. to print the speeches he has just now made in the lobby.”

(505) Charles, commonly called “the proud Duke of Somerset.”  An absurd, vain, pompous man, who appears to have been also most harsh and unfeeling to those who depended on him.-D.

(506) March 10.  Duke of argyle resigned his places to the King.  He gave for a reason, that a proposal had been made to him for going ambassador to Holland, which he understood to be sending him out of the way.”  Secker ms.-E.

(507) The Hun.  John Trevor, second son of Thomas, first Lord Trevor.  He succeeded his elder brother Thomas, as third Lord Trevor, in 1744.-D.

(508) Lord Archibald Hamilton was the seventh and youngest son of Anne, Duchess of Hamilton, in her own right, and of William, Earl of Selkirk, her husband, created by Charles ii.  Duke of Hamilton, for life b.  Lord Archibald married Lady Jane Hamilton, daughter of James, Earl of Abercorn, and by her had three sons; of whom the youngest was Sir William Hamilton, so long the British envoy at the court of Naples.-D.

237 Letter 58
To Sir Horace Mann. 
Monday, March 22, 1742.
[Great part of this letter is lost.]

*** I have at last received a letter from you in answer to the first I wrote you upon the change in the ministry.  I hope you have received mine regularly since, that you may know all the consequent steps.  I like the Pasquinades you sent me, and think the Emperor’s(509) letter as mean as you do.  I hope his state will grow more abject every day.  It is amazing, the progress and success of the Queen of Hungary’s arms!  It is said to-day, that she has defeated

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a great body of the Prussians in Moravia.  We are going to extend a helping hand to her at last.  Lord Stair (510) has accepted what my Lord Argyll resigned, and sets out ambassador to Holland in two days; and afterwards will have the command of’ the troops that are to be sent into Flanders.  I am sorry I must send away this to-night, without being able to tell you the event of to-morrow; but I will let you know it on Thursday, if I write but two lines.  You have no notion how I laughed at Mrs. Goldsworthy’s “talking from hand to mouth."(511) How happy I am that you have Mr. Chute still with you; you would have been distracted else with that simple woman; for fools prey upon one when one has no companion to laugh Them off.

I shall say every thing that is proper for you to the earl, and shall take care about expressing you to him, as I know you have your gratitude far more at heart, than what I am thinking of for you, I mean your stay at Florence.  I have spoken very warmly to Lord Lincoln about you, who, I am sure, will serve you to his power.  Indeed, as all changes are at a stop, I am convinced there will be no thought of removing you.  However, till I see the situation of next winter, I cannot be easy on your account.

I have made a few purchases at Lord Oxford’s sale; a small Vandyke, in imitation of Teniers; an old picture of the Duchess of Suffolk, mother of Lady Jane Grey, and her young husband; a sweet bronze vase by Flamingo, and two or three other trifles.  The things sold dear; the antiquities and pictures for about five thousand pounds, which yet, no doubt, cost him much more, for he gave the most extravagant prices.  His coins and medals are now selling, and go still dearer.  Good night!  How I wish for every letter to hear how you mend!

(509) Charles vii. the Emperor of the Bavarian family.-D.

(510) John Dalrymple, second Earl of Stair, a man much distinguished both as a general and a diplomatist. [He served with credit at Dettingen; but, after that battle, resigned his military rank, indignant at the King’s unjust partiality to the Hanoverians.  However, on the rebellion of 1745, he was made commander-in-chief, and materially assisted the Duke of Cumberland in the campaign which ended at Culloden.  He died in 1747.]

(511) An expression of Mr. Chute.

238 Letter 59
To sir Horace Mann. 
March 24, 1742.

I promised you in my last letter to send you the event of yesterday.(512) It was not such as you would wish, for on the division, at nine o’clock at night, we lost it by 242 against 245.  We had three people shut out, so that a majority of three (513) is so small that it is scarce doubted, but that, on Friday, when we ballot for the twenty-one to form the committee, we shall carry a list composed of our people, so that then it will be better that we lost it yesterday, as they never can trouble my Lord Orford more, when the Secret Committee consists of his own friends. 

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The motion was made and seconded by the same people as before:  Mr. Pultney had been desired, but refused, yet spoke very warmly for it.  He declared, “that if they found any proofs against the earl, he would not engage in the prosecution;” and especially protested against resumptions of grants to his family, of which. he said, “there had been much talk, but they were what he would never come into, as being very illegal and unjust.”  The motion was quite personal against lord Orford, singly and by name, for his last ten years-the former question had been for twenty years, but as the rules of Parliament do not allow of repeating any individual motion in the same session of its rejection, and as ‘every’ evasion is allowed in this country, half the term was voted by the same House of Commons that had refused an inquiry into the whole; a sort of proof that every omne majus does not continere in se minus-but Houses of Commons can find out evasions to logical axioms, as well as to their own orders.  If they carry their list, my lord will be obliged to return from Houghton.

After the division.  Mr. Pultney(514) moved for an address to the King; to declare their resolution of standing by him, especially in assisting the Queen of Hungary-but I believe, after the loss of the question, he will not be in very good humour with this address.

I am now going to tell you what you, will not have expected-that a particular friend of yours opposed the motion, and it was the first time he ever spoke.  To keep you not in suspense, though you must have guessed, it was 220.(515) As the speech was very favourably heard, and has done him service, I prevailed with him to give me a copy-here it is:-

Mr. Speaker,(516)-I have always thought, Sir, that incapacity and inexperience must prejudice the cause they undertake to defend; and it has been diffidence of myself, not distrust of the cause, that has hitherto made me so silent upon a point on which I ought to have appeared so zealous.

“While the attempts for this inquiry were made in general terms, I should have thought it presumption in me to stand up and defend measures in which so many abler men have been engaged, and which, consequently, they could so much better support; but when the attack grows more personal, it grows my duty to oppose it more particularly, lest I be suspected of an ingratitude which my heart disdains.  But I think, Sir, I cannot be suspected of that, unless my not having abilities to defend my father can be construed into a desire not to defend him.

“My experience, Sir, is very small; I have never been conversant in business and politics, and have sat a very short time in this house -with so slight a fund, I must much mistrust my power to serve him-especially as in the short time I have sat here, I have seen that not his own knowledge, innocence, and eloquence, have been able to protect him against a powerful and determined party.  I have seen, since his retirement,

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that he has many great and noble friends, who have been able to protect him from farther violence.  But, Sir, when no repulses can calm the clamour against him, no motives should sway his friends from openly undertaking his defence.  When the King has conferred rewards on his services; when the Parliament has refused its assent to any inquiries of complaint against him; it is but maintaining the King’s and our own honour, to reject this motion-for the repeating which, however, I cannot think the authors to blame, as I suppose now they have turned him out, they are willing to inquire whether they had any reason to do so.

“I shall say no more, Sir, but leave the material part of this defence to the impartiality, candour, and credit of men who are no ways dependent on him.  He has already found that defence, Sir, and I hope he always will!  It is to their authority I trust-and to me, it is the strongest proof of innocence, that for twenty years together, no crime could be solemnly alleged against him; and since his dismission, he has seen a majority rise up to defend his character in that very House of Commons in which a majority had overturned his power.  As, therefore, Sir, I must think him innocent, I stand up to protect him from injustice-had he been accused, I should not have given the House this trouble:  but I think, Sir, that the precedent of what was done upon this question a few days ago, is a sufficient reason, if I had no other, for me to give my negative now.”

William Pitt, some time after, in the debate, said, how very commendable it was in him to have made the above speech, which must have made an impression upon the House; but if It was becoming in him to remember that he was the child of the accused, that the House ought to remember too that they are the children of their country.  It was a great compliment from him, and very artful too.

I forgot to tell you in my last, that one of our men-of-war, commanded by Lord Bamffe,(518) a Scotchman, has taken another register ship, of immense value.

You will laugh at a comical thing that happened the other day to Lord Lincoln.  He sent the Duke of Richmond word that he would dine with him in the country, and if he would give him leave, would bring lord Bury with him.  It happens that Lord Bury is nothing less than the Duke of Richmond’s nephew.(519) The Duke, very properly, sent him word back, that Lord Bury might bring him, if he pleased.

I have been plagued all this morning with that oaf of unlicked antiquity, Prideaux,(520) and his deaf boy.  He talked through all Italy, and every thing in all Italy.  Upon mentioning Stosch, I asked if he had seen his collection.  He replied, very few of his things, for he did not like his company; that he never heard so much heathenish talk in his days.  I inquired what it was, and found that Stosch had one day said before him, “that the soul was only a little glue.”  I laughed so much that he walked off; I suppose, thinking, that I believed so too.  By the way, tell Stosch that a gold Alectus sold at Lord Oxford’s sale for above threescore pounds.  Good night, my dear child!  I am just going to the ridotto; one hates those places, comes away out of humour, and yet one goes again!  How are you!  I long for your next letter to answer me.

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(512) The debate in the House of Commons on Lord Limerick’s motion for a Secret Committee to inquire into the conduct of the Earl of Orford during the last ten years of his administration.-E.

(513) The motion was carried by a majority of seven, the numbers being 252 against 245.-E.

(514) This was much mentioned in the pamphlets written against the war, which was said to have been determined “by a gentleman’s fumbling in his pocket for a piece of paper at ten o’clock at night,” and the House’s agreeing to the motion without any consideration.

(515) The author of these letters.

(516) There is a fictitious speech printed for this in several Magazines of that time, but which does not contain one sentence of the true one.

(517) The following note of this debate is from the Bishop of Oxford’s diary.-,, March 23.  Motion by Lord Limerick, and seconded by Sir J. St. Aubin, on the 9th instant, for a Secret Committee of twenty-one, to examine into the Earl of Orford’s conduct for the last ten years of his being chancellor of the exchequer and lord of the treasury.  Mr. Pultney said, ministers should always remember the account they must make; that he was against rancour in the inquiry, desired not to be named for the committee, particularly because of a rash word he had used, that he would pursue Sir Robert Walpole to his destruction; that now the minister was destroyed, he had no ill-will to the man; that from his own knowledge and experience of many of the Tories, he believed them to be as sincerely for the King and this family as himself; that he was sensible of the disagreeable situation he was in, and would get out of it as soon as he could.  Mr. Sandys spoke for the motion, and said, he desired his own conduct might always be strictly inquired into.  Lord Orford’s son, and Mr. Ellis spoke well against the motion.  It was carried by 252 against 245.  Three or four were shut out, who would have been against it.  Mr. William -Finch against it.  The Prince’s servants for it.  Then Mr. Pultney moved for an address of duty to the King &e. which he begged might pass without opposition; and accordingly it did so.  But Mr. W. W. wynne and several others, went out of the House; which was by some understood to be disapprobation, by others accident or weariness,” Secker ms.-E.

(518) alexander Ogilvy, sixth Lord Banff, commanded the Hastings man-of war in 1742 and 1743, and captured, during that time, a valuable outward-bound Spanish register-ship, a Spanish privateer of twenty guns, a French polacca with a rich cargo, and other vessels.  He died at Lisbon in November 1746, at the early age of twenty-eight.-D.

(519) George Lord Bury, afterwards third Earl of Albemarle.  His mother was Lady Anne Lennox, sister of the Duke of Richmond.-D.  His lordship served as aide-de-camp) to the Duke of Cumberland at the battle of Fontenoy and at Culloden, and commanded in chief at the reduction of the Havannah.  He died in 1772.)

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(520 Grandson of Dean Prideaux; he was just returned out of Italy, with his son.

241 Letter 60 To Sir Horace Mann.  Downing Street, April 1, 1742.

I received your letter of March 18th, and would be as particular in the other dates which you have sent me in the end of your letter, but our affairs having been in such confusion, I have removed all my papers In general from hence, and cannot now examine them.  I have, I think, received all yours:  but lately I received them two days at least after their arrival, and evidently opened; so we must be cautious now what we write.  Remember this, for of your last the seal had been quite taken off and set on again.

Last Friday we balloted for the Secret Committee.  Except the vacancies, there were but thirty-one members absent:  five hundred and eighteen gave in lists.  At six that evening they named a committee of which Lord Hartington was chairman, (as having moved for it,) to examine the lists.  This lasted from that time, all that night, till four in the afternoon of the next day; twenty-two hours without remission.  There were sixteen people, of which were Lord Hartington and Coke, who sat up the whole time, and one of theirs, Velters Cornwall,(521) fainted with the fatigue and heat, for people of all sorts were admitted into the room, to see the lists drawn; it was in the Speaker’s chambers.  On the conclusion, they found the majority was for a mixed list, but of which the Opposition had the greater number.  Here are the two lists, which were given out by each side, but of which people altered several in their private lists.

The court list.

William Bowles.
Lord Cornbury.(522)
William Finch.(523)
Lord Fitzwilliam. 
Sir Charles Gilmour.
Charles Gore. 
H. Arthur Herbert.(524)
Sir Henry Liddel.(525)
John Plumptree (526)
Sir John Ramsden. 
Strange, Solicitor-General. 
Cholmley Turnor. 
John Talbot.(527)
General Wade.(528)
James West.(529)

The opposition list.

Sir John Barnard. 
Alexander Hume Campbell.(530)
Sir John Cotton. 
George Bubb Doddington.(531)
Nicholas Fazakerley. 
Henry Furnese. 
 Earl of Granird. 
Mr. Hooper.(532)
Lord Limerick.(533)
George Lyttelton.(534)
John Philips-(535)
William Pitt.(536)
Mr. Prouse. 
Edmund Waller.(537)
Sir Watkyn Williams Wynn.

Besides the following six which were in both lists-

These Six, On casting up the numbers, had those marked against their names, and were consequently chosen.  Those with this mark (*) were reckoned of the Opposition.

George Compton 515 William Noell 512 (538) Lord Quarendon 512 (539) Sir John Rushout 516 (540) Samuel Sandys 516 (541) Sir John St. Aubin 518

On casting up the numbers, the lists proved thus:-

Sir John Barnard 268 Nicholas Fazakerley 262 (542) Henry Furnese 282 Earl of Granard 258 Mr. Hooper 265 William Pitt 259 Mr. Prouse 259 Edmund Waller 259 William Bowles 259 Lord Cornbury 262 Solicitor-General 259 Cholmley Turnor 259

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This made eighteen:  Mr. Finch, Sir Harry Liddel, and Mr. Talbot, had 258 each, and Hume Campbell 257, besides one in which his name was mis-written, but allowed; out of these four, two were to be chosen:  it was agreed that the Speaker was to choose them; he, with a resolution not supposed to be in him, as he has been the most notorious affecter of popularity, named Sir Harry Liddel and Mr. ’albot; so that, on the whole, we have just five that we can call our own.(543) These will not be sufficient to stop their proceedings, but by being privy, may stop any iniquitous proceedings.  They have chosen Lord Limerick chairman.  Lord Orford returns tomorrow from Houghton to Chelsea, from whence my uncle went in great fright to fetch him.

I was yesterday presented to the Prince and Princess; but had not the honour of a word from either:  he did vouchsafe to talk to Lord Walpole the day before.

Yesterday the Lord Mayor brought in their favourite bill for repealing the Septennial Act, but we rejected it by 284 to 204.(544)

You shall have particular accounts of the Secret Committee and their proceedings:  but It will be at least a month before they can make any progress.  You did not say any thing about yourself in your last; never omit it, my dear child.

(521) Velters Cornwall, Esq., of Meccas Court, in Herefordshire, and member for that county.-D.

(522) Son of the Earl of Clarendon.

(523) Afterwards vice-chamberlain.

(524) Afterwards Earl of Powis.

(525) Afterwards Lord Ravensworth.

(526) He had a place in the Ordnance.

(527) Son of the late lord chancellor, and afterwards a judge.

(528) Afterwards field.marshal.

(529) Afterwards secretary of the treasury.

(530) Afterwards solicitor to the Prince.

(531) Had been a lord of the treasury.

(532) Had a place on a change of the ministry. (He was a Hampshire gentleman, and member for Christchurch.-D.)

(533) Afterwards King’s remembrancer.

(534) Afterwards cofferer.

(535) Afterwards a lord of trade and baronet.

(536) Afterwards paymaster.

(537) Afterwards cofferer.

(538) Afterwards a judge.

(539) Afterwards Earl of Lichfield.

(540) Afterwards treasurer of the navy.

(541) Afterwards chancellor of the exchequer, then cofferer, and then a baron.

(542) Nicholas Fazakerley, Esq.  Walpole calls him “a tiresome Jacobite lawyer.”  He, however, appears to have been a speaker of some weight in the House of Commons, and distinguished himself by his opposition to Lord Hardwicke’s mischievous marriage bill in the year 1753.-D. (He died in 1767.)

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(543) “March 26, 27.  The House of commons balloted for their committee, being called over, and each opening his list at the table, and putting it into a vessel which stood there.  This was ended by five.  Then a committee began to examine the lists, and sat from that time till four the next afternoon:  for, though two lists were given out, many delivered in consisted partly of one, and partly of the other; and many were put in different order.  Sir Thomas Drury, a friend of Lord Orford’s, put down four of the opposite side in his list.  Lord Orford’s friends hoped it would bring moderate persons over to them, if they put some on their list who were not partial to him."-” March 29.  The decision between Sir H. Lyddel, Mr. J. Talbot. and Mr. W. Finch, was left to the Speaker, who chose the two former.”  Secker MS.-E.

(544) This is not correct.  It appears, by the Journals, that the motion passed in the negative by 204 against 184.  The debate is thus noticed by the Bishop of Oxford:-"March 31.  Sir Robert Cotschall, Lord Mayor, moved for the repeal of the Septennial Bill.  Mr. Pultney said, he thought annual parliaments would be best, but preferred septennial to triennial and voted against the motion.  In all, 204 against it, and 184 for it.”  Secker MS.-E.

243 Letter 61 To Sir Horace Mann.  London, April 8, 1742.

You have no notion how astonished I was, at reading your account of Sir Francis Dashwood!-that it should be possible for private and personal pique so to sour any man’s temper and honour, and so utterly to change their principles!  I own I am for your mentioning him in your next despatch:  they may at least intercept his letters, and prevent his dirty intelligence.  As to Lady Walpole,(545) her schemes are so wild and so ill-founded, that I don’t think it worth while to take notice of them.  I possibly may mention this new one of changing her name, to her husband, and of her coming-over design, but I am sure he will only laugh at it.

The ill-situation of the King, which you say is so much talked of at the Petraia,(546) Is not true; indeed he and the Prince are not at all more reconciled for being reconciled; but I think his resolution has borne him out.  All the public questions are easily carried, even with the concurrence of the Tories.  Mr. Pultney proposed to grant a large sum for assisting the Queen of Hungary, and got Sir John Barnard to move it.  They have given the King five hundred thousand pounds for that purpose.(547) The land-tax of four shillings in the pound is continued.  Lord Stair is gone to Holland, and orders are given to the regiments and guards to have their camp equipages ready.  As to the Spanish war and Vernon, there is no more talk of them; one would think they had both been taken by a privateer.

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We talk of adjourning, soon for a month or six weeks, to give the Secret Committee time to proceed, which yet they have not done.  Their object is returned from Houghton in great health and greater spirits.  They are extremely angry with him for laughing at their power.  The concourse to him is as great as ever; so is the rage against him.  All this week the mob has been carrying about his effigies in procession, and to the Tower.  The chiefs of the Opposition have been so mean as to give these mobs money for bonfires, particularly the Earls of Lichfield, Westmoreland, Denbigh, (548) and Stanhope:(549) the servants of these last got one of these figures, chalked out a place for the heart and shot at it.  You will laugh at me, who, the other day, meeting one of these mobs, drove up to it to see what was the matter:  the first thing I beheld was a maulkin, in a chair, with three footmen, and a label on the breast, inscribed “Lady mary.” (550)

The Speaker, who has been much abused for naming two of our friends to the Secret Committee, to show his disinterestedness, has resigned his place of treasurer of the navy.  Mr. Clutterbuck,(551) one of the late treasury is to have it; so there seems a stop put to any new persons from the Opposition.

His Royal Highness is gone to Kew his drawing-rooms Will not be so crowded at his return, as he has disobliged so many considerable people, particularly the Dukes of Montagu (552) and Richmond, Lord Albemarle,(553) etc.  The Richmond went twice, and yet was not spoken to; nor the others; nay, he has vented his princely resentment even upon the women, for to Lady Hervey, not a word.

This is all the news except that little Brook (554) is on the point of matrimony with Miss Hamilton, Lady Archibald’s daughter.  She is excessively pretty and sensible, but as diminutive as he.

I forgot to tell you that the Place Bill has met with the same fate from the Lords as the Pension Bill (555) and the Triennial Act; so that, after all their clamour and changing of measures, they have not been able to get one of their popular bills passed, though the newspapers, for these three months, have swarmed with instructions for these purposes, from the constituents of all parts of Great Britain to their representatives.

We go into mourning on Sunday for the old Empress Amelia.(556) Lord Chedworth, (557) one of three new Peers, is dead.  We hear the King of Sardinia is at Piacenza, to open the campaign.  I shall be in continual fears lest they disturb you at Florence.  All love to the Chutes, and my compliments to all my old acquaintance.  I don’t think I have forgot one of Them.  Pataman is entirely yours, and entirely handsome.  Good night!

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(545) Margaret Rolle, a great Devonshire heiress, the wife of Robert, Lord Walpole, afterwards second Earl of Orford, the eldest son of the minister.  She was separated from her husband, and had quarrelled violently with his whole family.  She resided principally at Florence, where she died in 1781; having married secondly, after the death of Lord Orford, the Hon. Sewallis Shirley.  She was a woman of bad character, as well as Half mad:  which last quality she to communicated to her unfortunate son George, third Earl of Orford.  She succeeded, in her own right, to the baronies of Clinton and Say, upon the death, in 1751, of Hugh, Earl and Baron Clinton.-D. (This lady was married to Lord Walpole in 1724.  In a letter to the Countess of mar, written in that year, Lady Mary Wortley Montagu says:- “I have so good an opinion of your taste, to believe harlequin in person will not make you laugh so much as the Earl of Stair’s furious passion for Lady Walpole, aged fourteen and some months.  Mrs. Murray undertook to bring the business to bear, and provided the opportunity, a great ingredient You’ll Say but the young lady proved skittish.  She did not only turn his heroic flame into present ridicule, but exposed all his generous sentiments, to divert her Husband and father-in-law.”  Works, vol. ii. p. 188.]

(546) A villa belonging to the Great Duke, where Prince Craon resided in summer.

(547) “April 2.  In the Commons, 500,000 pounds voted for the Queen of Hungary; I believe nem. con.  Sir John Barnard moved it; which, Mr. Sandys told me, was that day making himself the chancellor of the exchequer.  He told me, also, the King was unwilling to grant the Prince 50,000 pounds a-year; and I am told from other hands, that he saith he never promised it.  The Bishop of Sarum (Sherlock) says, Sir Robert Walpole told him, the King would give 30,000 pounds, but no more.  Mr. Sandys appeared determined against admitting Tories, and said it was wonderful their union had held so long, and could not be expected to hold longer; that he could not imagine why every body spoke against Lord Carteret, but that he had better abilities than any body; that as soon as foreign affairs could be settled, they would endeavour to reduce the expenses of the crown and interest of the debts.”  Secker MS.

(548) William Fielding, fifth Earl of Denbigh, died 1755.-D.

(549) Philip, second Earl Stanhope, eldest son of the general and statesman, who founded this branch of the Stanhope family.  Earl Philip was a man of retired habits, and much devoted to scientific pursuits.  He died in 1786.-D.

(550) Lady Mary Walpole, daughter of Sir R. W.

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(551) This Mr. Clutterbuck had been raised by Lord Carteret, when Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, whom he betrayed to Sir R. Walpole; the latter employed him, but never would trust him.  He then ingratiated himself with Mr. Pelham, under a pretence of candour and integrity, and was continually infusing scruples into him on political questions, to distress Sir R. On the latter’s quitting the ministry, he appointed a board of treasury at his own house, in order to sign some grants; Mr. Clutterbuck made a pretence to slip away, and never returned.  He was a friend, too, of the Speaker’s:  when Sir R. W. was told that Mr. Onslow had resigned his place, and that Mr. Clutterbuck was to succeed him, said, “I remember that the Duke of Roxburgh, who was a great pretender to conscience, persuaded the Duke of Montrose to resign the seals of’ Secretary of state, on some scruple, and begged them himself the next day.”  Mr. Clutterbuck died very soon after this transaction. [Mr. Clutterbuck was appointed treasurer of the navy in May, and died in November following.]

(552) John, second and last Duke of Montagu, of the first creation.  He was a man of Some talent, and great eccentricity.  Sarah, Duchess of Marlborough, his mother-in-law, Used to say of him, “My son-in-law Montagu is fifty, and he is still as mere a boy as if he was only fifteen.".-D.  On his death, in 1749),the title became extinct.)

(553) William-Anne Keppel, second Earl of Albemarle.  An amiable prodigal who filled various great offices, through the favour of Lady Yarmouth, who died insolvent.-D. [He married. in 1723, Lady Anne Lennox, daughter of Charles, first Duke of Richmond, and, whilst ambassador to the French court, died suddenly at Paris, in 1755.]

(554) Francis Greville, Lord Brooke, created an earl in 1746. [And, in 1759, raised to the dignity of Earl of Warwick.  He died in 1773.]

(555) “March 26.  The Pension Bill read a second time in the Lords.  Duke of Devonshire said a few words against it.  Lord Sandwich pleaded for it, that some persons now in the ministry had patronized it, and for their sakes it should be committed; Lord Romney, that some objections against it had been obviated by alterations.  These three speeches lasted scarce half a quarter of an hour.  The question being put for committing, not-content, 76; content, 46.  I was one of five bishops for it; Lord Carteret and Lord Berkeley against it.”  Secker 318.-E.

(556) Widow of the Emperor Joseph.  She was of the house of Wolfenbuttle.

(557) John Bowe, Esq. of Stowell, created a baron in May 1741.

246 Letter 62 To Sir Horace Mann.  April 15, 1742.

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The great pleasure I receive from your letters is a little abated by my continually finding that they have been opened.  It is a mortification as it must restrain the freedom of our correspondence, and at a time when more than ever I must want to talk to you.  Your brother showed me a letter, which I approve extremely, yet do not think this a proper time for it; for there IS not only no present prospect of any further alterations, but, if there were, none that will give that person any interest.  He really has lost himself so much, that it will be long before he can recover credit enough to do any body any service.  His childish and troublesome behaviour, particularly lately (,but I Will not mention instances, because I would not have it known whom I mean), has set him in the lowest light imaginable.  I have desired your brother to keep your letter, and when we see a necessary or convenient opportunity, which I hope will not arrive, it shall be delivered.  However, if you are still of that opinion, say so, and your brother shall carry it.  At present, my dear child, I am much more at repose about you, as I trust no more will happen to endanger your situation.  I shall not only give you the first notice, but employ all the means in my power to prevent your removal.

The Secret Committee, it seems, are almost aground, and, it is thought, will soon finish.  They are now reduced, as I hear, to inquire into the last month, not having met with any foundation for proceeding in the rest of the time.  However, they have this week given a strong instance of’ their arbitrariness and private resentments.  They sent for Paxton,(558) the solicitor of the treasury, and examined him about five hundred pounds which he had given seven years ago at Lord Limerick’s election.  The man, as it directly tended to accuse himself, refused to answer.  They complained to the House, and after a long debate he was committed to the sergeant-at-arms -, and to-day, I hear, for still refusing, will be sent to Newgate.(559) We adjourn to-day for ten days, but the committee has leave to continue sitting. .  But, my dear child, you may be quite at ease, for they themselves seem to despair of being able to effect any thing.

The Duke (560) is of age to-day, and I hear by the guns, is just gone with the King, to take his seat in the Lords.

I have this morning received the jar of cedrati safe, for which I give you a million of thanks.  I am impatient to hear of the arrival of your secretary and the things at Florence; it is time for you to have received them.

Here!  Amorevoli has sent me another letter.  Would you believe that our wise directors for next year will not keep the Visconti, and have sent for the Fumagalli?  She will not be heard to the first row of the pit.

I am growing miserable, for it is growing fine weather-that is, every body is going out of town.  I have but just begun to like London, and to be settled in an agreeable set of’ people, and now they are going to wander all over the kingdom.  Because they have some chance of having a month of good weather they will bury themselves three more in bad.

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The Duchess of Cleveland (561) died last night of what they call a miliary fever, which is much about:  she had not been ill two days.  So the poor creature, her duke, is again to be let; she paid dear for the hopes of being duchess dowager.  Lady Catherine Pelham,(562) has miscarried of twins; but they are so miserable with the loss of their former two boys, that they seem glad now of not having any more to tremble for.

There is a man who has by degrees bred himself up to walk upon stilts so high, that he now stalks about and peeps into one pair of stairs windows.  If this practice should spread, dining-rooms will be as innocent as chapels.  Good night!  I never forget my best loves to the Chutes.

P. S. I this moment hear that Edgecombe (563) and Lord Fitzwilliam are created English peers:  I am sure the first is, and I believe the second.

(558) Commemorated in a line of Pope-"’Tis all a libel, Paxton, Sir, will say."-D.

(559) On a division of 180 against 128, Paxton was this day committed to Newgate where he remained till the end of the session, July 15.  He died in April 1744.-E.

(560) The Duke of Cumberland, third Son of George the Second.-E.

(561) Lady Henrietta Finch, sister of the Earl of Winchilsea, wife of William, Duke of Cleveland. [On whose death, in 1774, the title became extinct.]

(562) Catherine, sister of John Manners, Duke of Rutland, and wife of Henry Pelham.  They lost their two sons by an epidemic sore-throat, after which she would never go to Esher, or any house where she had seen them.

(563) Richard Edgecombe, a great friend of Sir R. Walpole, was Created a baron to prevent his being examined by the Secret Committee concerning the management of the Cornish boroughs. (He was created Lord Edgecumbe on the 20th of April, and in December appointed chancellor of the duchy of Lancaster.  He died in 1758.]

247 Letter 63 To Sir Horace Mann.  London, April 22, 1742.

You perceive, by the size of my paper, how little I have to say.  The whole town is out of town for Easter, and nothing left but dust, old women, and the Secret Committee.  They go on warmly, and have turned their whole thoughts to the secret-service money, after which they are inquiring by all methods.  Sir John Rawdon (564) (you remember that genius in Italy) voluntarily swore before them that, at the late election at Wallingforrd, he spent two thousand pounds, and that one Morley promised him fifteen hundred more, if he would lay it out.  “Whence was Morley to have it?"-"I don’t know; I believe from the first minister.”  This makes an evidence.  It is thought that they will ask leave to examine members, which was the reason of Edgecumbe’s going into the peerage, as they supposed he had been the principal agent for the Cornish boroughs.  Sir John Cotton said, upon the occasion, “Between Newgate (565 and the House of Lords the committee will not get information.”

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The troops for Flanders go on board Saturday se’nnight, the first embarkation of five thousand men:  the whole number is to be sixteen thousand.  It is not yet known what success Earl Stair has had at the Hague.  We are in great joy upon the news of the King of Prussia’s running away from the Austrians:  (566) though his cowardice is well established, it is yet believed that the flight in question was determined by his head, not his heart; in short, that it was treachery to his allies.

I forgot to tell you, that of the Secret Committee Sir John Rushout and Cholmley TurnOr never go to it, nor, which is more extraordinary, Sir John Barnard.  He says he thought their views were more general, but finding them so particular against one man, he Will not engage with them.

I have been breakfasting this morning at Ranelagh-garden:  (567) they have built an immense amphitheatre, with balconies full of little ale-houses; it is in rivalry to Vauxhall, and costs above twelve thousand pounds.  The building is not finished, but, they get great sums by people going to see it and breakfasting in the house:  there were yesterday no less than three hundred and eighty persons, at eighteen pence a-piece.  You see how poor we are, when, with a tax of four shillings in the pound, we are laying out such sums for cakes and ale.

We have a new opera, with your favourite song, se cerca, se dice:  (568) Monticelli sings it beyond what you can conceive.  Your last was of April 8th.  I like the medal of the Caesars and Nihils (569) extremely; but don’t at all like the cracking of your house, (570) except that it drives away your Pettegola. (571) What I like much worse is your recovering your strength so slowly; but I trust to the warm weather.

Miss Granville, daughter of the late Lord Lansdown, (572) is named maid of honour, in the room of Miss Hamilton, who I told you is to be Lady Brook-they are both so small! what little eggs they will lay!

How does my Princess?(573) does not she deign to visit you too?  Is Sade (574) there still?  Is Madame Suares quite gone into devotion yet?  Tell me any thing-I love any thing that you write to me.  Good night!

(564) He was afterwards made an Irish lord. (Lord Rawdon in 1750, and Earl of Moira in 1761.  His first two wives were the daughters of the Earl of Egmont and Viscount Hillsborough.  His third wife, by whom he was the father of the late Lord Hastings, was the daughter, and eventually the heiress, of Theophilus, ninth Earl of Huntingdon.-D.)

(565) Alluding to Paxton, who was sent thither for refusing to give evidence.

(566) this must allude to the King of Prussia’s abandonment of his design to penetrate through Austria to Vienna, which he gave of) in consequence of the lukewarmness of his Saxon and the absence of his French allies.  It is curious now, when the mist of contemporary prejudices has passed away, to hear Frederick the Great accused of cowardice.-D.

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(567) the once celebrated place of amusement was so called from its site being that of a villa of’ Viscount Ranelagh, near Chelsea.  The last entertainment given in it was the installation ball of the Knights of the Bath, in 1802.  It has since been razed to the ground.-E.

(568) In the Olimpiade.

(569) A satirical medal:  on one side was the head of Francis, Duke of Lorrain (afterwards emperor) with this motto, aut Caesar aut nihil:  on the reverse, that of the Emperor Charles Vii.  Elector of Bavaria, who had been driven out of his dominions, et Caesar et nihil.

(570) Sir H. Mann had mentioned, in one of his letters, the appearance of several cracks in the walls of his house at Florence.  Mrs. Goldsworthy, the wife of the English consul,
               had taken refuge in it when driven from Leghorn by
an earthquake.-D.

(571) Mrs. (’Goldsworthy.

(572) George Granville, Lord Lansdown, Pope’s “Granville the polite,” one of Queen
Anne’s twelve peers, and one of the minor
poets of that time.  He died in 1734, without
male issue, and his honours

(573) Princess Craon.

(574) The Chevalier de Sade.

249 Letter 64
To Sir Horace Mann. 
London, April 29, 1742.

By yours of April 17, N. S. and some of your last letters, I find my Lady Walpole is more mad than ever-why, there never was so wild a scheme as this, of setting up an interest through Lord Chesterfield! one who has no power; and, if he had, would think of, or serve her, one of the last persons upon earth.  What connexion has he with what interest could he have in obliging her? and, but from views, what has he ever done, or will he ever do?  But is Richcourt (575) so shallow, and so ambitious, as to put any trust in there projects?  My dear child, believe me, if I was to mention them here, they would sound so chimerical, so womanish, that I should be laughed at for repeating them.  For yourself, be quite at rest, and laugh, as I do, at feeble, visionary malice, and assure yourself, whoever mentions such politics to you, that my Lady Walpole must have very frippery intelligence from hence, if she can raise no better views and on no better foundations.  For the poem you mention, I never read it:  upon inquiry, I find there was such a thing though now quite obsolete:  undoubtedly not Pope’s, and only proves what I said before, how low, how paltry, how uninformed her ladyship’s correspondents must be.

We are now all military! all preparations for Flanders! no parties but reviews; no officers, but “hope” they are to go abroad-at least, it is the fashion to say so.  I am studying lists of regiments and Dames of colonels-not that “I hope I am to go abroad,” but to talk of those who do.  Three thousand men embarked yesterday and the day before, and the thirteen thousand others sail as soon as the transports can return.  Messieurs d’Allemagne (576) roll their red eyes, stroke up their great beards, and look fierce-you know one loves a review and a tattoo.

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We had a debate yesterday in the House on a proposal for replacing four thousand men of some that are to be sent abroad, that, in short, we might have fifteen thousand men to guard the kingdom.  This was strongly opposed by the Tories, but we carried it in the committee, 214 against 123, and to-day, in the House, 280 against 169.  Sir John Barnard, Pultney, the new ministry, all the Prince’s people, except the Cobham cousins,(577) the Lord Mayor, several of the Opposition, voted with us; so you must interpret Tories in the strongest sense of the word.

The Secret Committee has desired leave to-day to examine three members, Burrel, Bristow, and Hanbury Williams:  (578) the two first are directors of the bank; and it is upon an agreement made with them, and at which Williams was present, about remitting some money to Jamaica, and in which they pretend Sir Robert made a bad bargain, to oblige them as members of Parliament. they all three stood up, and voluntarily offered to be examined; so no vote passed upon it.

These are all the political news:  there is little of any other sort; so little gallantry is stirring, that I do not hear of so much as one maid of honour who has declared herself with child by any officer, to engage him not to go abroad.  I told you once or twice that Miss Hamilton is going to be married to Lord Brook:  somebody wished Lord Archibald joy.  He replied, “Providence has been very good to my family.”

We had a great scuffle the other night at the Opera, which interrupted it.  Lord Lincoln was abused in the most shocking manner by a drunken officer, upon which he kicked him, and was drawing his sword, but was prevented. were they were put under arrest, and the next morning, the man begged his pardon before the Duke of Marlborough, Lord Albemarle, and other officers, in the most submissive terms.  I saw the quarrel from the other side of the house, and rushing to get to Lord Lincoln, could not for the crowd.  I climbed into the front boxes, and stepping over the shoulders of three ladies, before I knew where I was, found I had lighted in Lord Rockingham’s (579) lap.  It was ridiculous!  Good night!

(575) Count Richcourt was a Lorrainer, and chief minister of Florence; there was a great connexion between him and Lady Walpole.

(576)The royal family.

(577) Pitts, Grenvilles, Lytteltons, all related by marriage, or female descent, to Lord Cobham.-D.

(578) Sir Charles Hanbury Williams, a devoted follower of Sir Robert Walpole.  His various satirical poems against the enemies and successors of that minister are well known, and must ever be admired for their ease, their spirit, and the wit and humour of their sarcasm.  It was said at the time that Sir Charles’s poetry had done more in three months to lower and discredit those it was written against, than the Craftsman and other abusive papers had been able to effect against Sir Robert in a long series of years.-D.

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(579) Lewis Watson, second Earl of Rockingham.  He married Catharine, second daughter and coheir of George Sondes, Earl of Feversham, and died in 1745.-D.

251 Letter 65 To Richard West, Esq.  London, May 4, 1742.

Dear West, Your letter made me quite melancholy, till I came to the postscript of fine weather.  Your so suddenly finding the benefit of it makes me trust you will entirely recover your health and spirits with the warm season:  nobody wishes it more than I:  nobody has more reason, as few have known you so long.  Don’t be afraid of your letters being dull.  I don’t deserve to be called your friend, if I were impatient at hearing your complaints.  I do not desire you to suppress them till the causes cease; nor should I expect you to write cheerfully while you are Ill.  I never desire to write any man’s life as a stoic, and consequently should not desire him to furnish me with opportunities of assuring posterity what pains he took not to show any pain.

If you did amuse yourself with writing any thing in poetry, you know how pleased I should be to see it; but for encouraging you to it, d’ye see, ’tis an age most unpoetical!  ’Tis even a test of wit to dislike poetry; and though Pope has half a dozen old friends that he has preserved from the taste of last century, yet, I assure you, the generality of readers are more diverted with any paltry prose answer to old Marlborough’s secret history of Queen Mary’s robes.  I do not think an author would be universally commended for any production in verse, unless it were an ode to the Secret Committee, with rhymes of liberty and property, nation and administration.

Wit itself is monopolized by politics; no laugh would be ridiculous if it were not on one side or t’other.  Thus, Sandys thinks he has spoken an epigram, when he crincles up his nose and lays a smart accent on ways and means.

We may, indeed. hope a little better now to the declining arts.  The reconciliation between the royalties is finished, and fifty thousand pounds a-year more added to the heir apparent’s revenue.  He will have money now to tune up Glover, and Thomson, and Dodsley again:  Et spes et ratio studiorum in Caesare tantUM.

Asheton is much yours.  He has preached twice at Somerset Chapel with the greatest applause.  I do not mind his pleasing the generality, for you know they ran as much after Whitfield as they could after Tillotson; and I do not doubt but St. Jude converted as many Honourable women as St. Paul.  But I am sure you would approve his compositions, and admire them still more when you heard him deliver them.  He will write to you himself next post, but is not mad enough with his fame to write you a sermon.  Adieu, dear child!  Write me the progress of your recovery,(580) and believe it will give me a sincere pleasure; for I am, yours ever.

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(580) Mr. West died in less than a month from the date of this letter, in the twenty-sixth year of his age. (see ant`e, p. 121, Letter 1.) In his last letter to Grey, written a few days before his death, he says, “I will take my leave of you for the present, with a vale et vive paulisper cum vivis:”  so little was he aware of the short time that he himself would be numbered among the living.  But this is almost constantly the case with those who die of that most flattering of all diseases, a consumption.  “Shall humanity,” says Mason, “be thankful or sorry that it is so?  Thankful, surely! for as this malady generally attacks the young and the innocent, it seems the merciful intention of Heaven, that to these death should come unperceived, and, as it were, by stealth; divested of one of its sharpest stings, the lingering expectation of their dissolution."-E.

252 Letter 66 To Sir Horace Mann.  Downing Street, May 6, 1742.

I have received a long letter from you of the 22d of April.  It amazes me! that our friends of Florence should not prove our friends.(581) Is it possible?  I have always talked of their cordiality, because I was convinced they could have no shadow of interest in their professions:—­of that, indeed, I am convinced still-but how could they fancy they had?  There is the wonder!  If they wanted common honesty, they seem to have wanted common sense more.  What hope of connexion could there ever be between the British ministry and the Florentine nobility!  The latter have no views for being, or knowledge for being envoys, etc.  They are too poor and proud to think of trading with us; too abject to hope for the restoration of their liberty from us-and, indeed, however we may affection our own, we have showed no regard for their liberty-they have had no reason ever to expect that from us!  In short, to me it is mystery!  But how could you not tell me some particulars?  Have I so little interested myself with Florence, that you should think I can be satisfied without knowing the least particulars?  I must know names.  Who are these wretches that I am to scratch out of my list?  I shall give them a black blot the moment I know who have behaved ill to you.  Is Casa Ferroni of the number?  I suspect it:-that was of your first attachments.  Are the prince and princess dirty?-the Suares?-tell me, tell me!  Indeed, my dear Mr. Chute, I am not of your opinion, that he should shut himself up and despise them; let him go abroad and despise them.  Must he mope because the Florentines are like the rest of the world?  But that is not true, for the world in England have not declared themselves so suddenly.  It has not been the fashion to desert the earl and his friends:  he has had more concourse, more professions, and has still, than in the height of his power.  So your neighbours have been too hasty:  they are new style, at least, eleven days before us.  Tell them, tell Richcourt, tell his Cleopatra,(582) that all their hopes are vanished, all their faith in Secret Committees-the reconciliation is made, and whatever reports their secretships may produce, there will be at least above a hundred votes added to our party.  Their triumph has been but in hope, and their hope has failed in two months.

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As to your embroil with Richcourt, I condemn you excessively:  not that you was originally in fault, but by seeming to own yourself so.  He is an impertinent fellow, and will be so if you’ll let him.  My dear child, act with the spirit of your friends here; show we have lost no credit by losing power, and that a little Italian minister must not dare to insult you.  Publish the accounts I send you; which I give you my honour are authentic.  If they are not, let Cytheris, your Antony’s travelling concubine, contradict them.

You tell me the St. Quintin is arrived at Genoa:  I see by the prints of to-day that it is got to leghorn:  I am extremely glad, for I feared for it, for the poor boy, and for the things.  Tell me how you like your secretary.  I shall be quite happy, if I have placed one with you that you like.

I laughed much at the family of cats I am to receive.  I believe they will be extremely welcome to Lord Islay now:  for he appears little, lives more darkly and more like a wizard than ever.  These huge cats will figure prodigiously in his cell:  he is of’ the mysterious, dingy nature of Stosch.

As words is what I have not rhetoric to find out to thank you, for sending me this paragraph of Madame Goldsworthy, I can only tell you that I have laughed for an hour at it.  This was one of my Lady Pomfret’s correspondents.

There seems to be a little stop in our embarkations:  since the first, they have discovered that the horse must not go till all the hay is provided.  Three thousand men will make a fine figure towards supporting the balance of power!  Our whole number was to be but sixteen; and if all these cannot be assembled before the end of July, what will be said of it?

The Secret Committee go on very pitifully:  they are now inquiring about some customhouse officers that were turned out at Weymouth for voting wrong at elections.  Don’t you think these articles will prove to the world what they have been saying of Sir Robert for these twenty years?  The House still sits in observance to them; which is pleasant to me, for it keeps people in town.  We have operas too; but they are almost over, and if it were not for a daily east wind, they would give way to Vauxhall and Chelsea.  The new directors have agreed with the Fumagalli for next year, but she is to be second woman:  they keep the Visconti.  Did I never mention the Bettina, the first dancer.  It seems she was kept by a Neapolitan prince, who is extremely jealous of her thither.  About a fortnight ago, she fell ill, upon which her Neapolitan footman made off immediately.  She dances again, but is very weak, and thinks herself poisoned.

Adieu! my dear child; tell me you are well, easy, and in spirits:  kiss the Chutes for me, and believe me, etc

(581) This alludes to an account given by Sir Horace Mann, in one of his letters, of the change he had observed in the manner of many of the Florentines towards himself since Sir Robert Walpole’s retirement from office, upon the supposition entertained by them that he was intimately connected with the fallen minister@D.

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(582) Lady Walpole.

254 Letter 67
To Sir Horace Mann. 
London, May 13, 1742.

As I am obliged to put my letter into the secretary’s office by nine o’clock, and it now don’t want a quarter of it, I can say but three words, and must defer till next post answering Your long letter by the courier.  I am this moment come from the House, where we have had the first part of the Report from the Secret Committee.  It is pretty long; but, unfortunately for them, there is not once to be found in it the name of the Earl of Orford:  there is a good deal about Mr. Paxton and the borough of Wendover; and it appears that in eleven years Mr. Paxton has received ninety-four thousand pounds unaccounted for:  now, if Lady Richcourt can make any thing of all this, you have freely my leave to communicate it to her.  Pursuant to this report, and Mr. Paxton’s contumacy, they moved for leave to bring in a bill to indemnify all persons who should accuse themselves of any crime, provided they do but accuse Lord Orford, and they have carried it by 251 to 228! but it is so absurd a bill, that there is not the least likelihood of its passing the Lords.  By this bill, whoever are guilty of murder, treason, forgery, etc. have nothing to do but to add perjury, and swear Lord Orford knew of it, and they may plead their pardon.  Tell Lady Richcourt this.  Lord Orford knew of her gallantries:  she may plead her pardon.  Good night!  I have not a moment to lose.

254 Letter 68
To Sir Horace Mann. 
May 20, 1742.

I sent you a sketch last post of the division on the Indemnity Bill.  As they carried the question for its being brought in, they brought it in on Saturday; but were prevailed on to defer the second reading till Tuesday.  Then we had a long debate till eight at night, when they carried it, 228 against 217, only eleven majority:  before, they had had twenty-three.  They immediately went into the committee on it,-and reported it that night.  Yesterday it came to the last reading; but the House, having sat so late the night before, was not so full, and they carried it, 216 to 184.  But to-day it comes into the Lords,-where they do not in the least expect to succeed; yet, to show their spirit, they have appointed a great dinner at the Fountain to-morrow to consider on methods for supporting the honour of the Commons, as they call it, against the Lords, So now all prospect of quiet seems to vanish!  The noise this bill makes is incredible; it is so unprecedented, so violent a step!  Every thing is inflamed by Pultney, who governs both parties only, I think, to exasperate both more.  Three of our own people of the committee, the Solicitor,(582) Talbot, and Bowles, vote against us in the Indemnity Bill, the two latter have even spoke against us.  Sir Robert said, at the beginning, when he was congratulated on having some of his own friends in the committee, “The moment they are appointed, they will grow so jealous of the honour of their committee, that they will prefer that to every other consideration."(583)

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Our foreign news are as bad as our domestic:  there seem little hopes of the Dutch coming into our measures; there are even letters, that mention strongly their resolution of not stirring-so we have Quixoted away sixteen thousand men!  On Saturday we had accounts of the Austrians having cut off two thousand Prussians, in a retreat; but on Sunday came news of the great victory,(584) which the latter have gained, killing six, and taking two thousand Austrians prisoners, and that Prince Charles is retired to Vienna wounded.  This will but too much confirm the Dutch in their apprehensions of Prussia.  As to the long letter you wrote me, in answer to a very particular one of mine, I cannot explain myself, till I find a safer conveyance than the post, by which, I perceive all our letters are opened.  I can only tell you, that in most things you guessed right; and that as to myself (585) all is quiet.  I am in great concern, for you seem not satisfied with the boy we sent you.  Your brother entirely agreed with me that he was what you seem to describe; and as to his being on the foot of a servant, I give you my honour I repeated it over and over to his mother.  I suppose her folly was afraid of shocking him.  As to Italian, she assured me he had been learning it some time.  If he does not answer your purpose, let me know if you can dispose of him any other way, and I will try to accommodate you better.  Your brother has this moment been here, but there was no letter for me; at least, none that they will deliver yet.

I know not in the least how to advise Mr. Jackson.(586) I do not think Mr. Pelham the proper person to apply to; for the Duke of Newcastle is as jealous of him as of any body.(587) Don’t say this to him.  For Lord Hervey, though Mr. Jackson has interest there, I would not advise him to try it, for both hate him.  The application to the Duke of Newcastle by the Most direct means, I should think the best, or by any one that can be serviceable to the government.

You will laugh at an odd accident that happened the other day to my uncle:(588) they put him into the papers for Earl of Sheffield.  There have been little disputes between the two Houses about coming into each other’s House; when a lord comes into the Commons, they call out, withdraw:  that day, the moment my uncle came in, they all roared out, Withdraw! withdraw!

The great Mr. Nugent has been unfortunate, too, in parliament; besides being very ill heard, from being a very indifferent speaker, the other day on the Place Bill, (which, by the way, we have new modelled and softened, and to which the Lords have submitted to agree to humour Pultney,) he rose, and said, “He would not vote, as he was not determined in his opinion; but he would offer his sentiments; which were, particularly, that the bishops had been the cause of this bill being thrown out before.”  Winnington called him to order, desiring he would be tender of the Church of England.  You know he was a papist.  In answer to the beginning of his speech, Velters Cornwall, who is of the same side, said, “He wondered that when that gentleman could not convince himself by his eloquence, he should expect to convince the majority.”

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Did I tell you that Lord Rochford,(589) has at last married Miss Young?(590) I say, at last, for they don’t pretend to have been married this twelvemonth; but they were publicly married last week.  Adieu!

(582) John Strange, Esq. made Solicitor-general in 1736, and Master of the Rolls in 1750, he died in 1754.-E.

(583) Voltaire has since made the same kind of observation in his “Life of Louis XlV.”  Art of Calvinism;-"Les hommes se piquent toujours de remplir un devoir qui les distingue.”

(584) The battle of Chotusitz, or Czaslau, gained by the King of Prussia over the very superior forces of the Austrians.  This victory occasioned the peace between the contending powers, and the cession of Silesia to the Prussian monarchy.- D.

(585) This relates to some differences between Mr. Walpole and his father, to which the former had alluded in one of his letters.  They never suited one another either in habits, tastes, or opinions; in addition to which, Sir Robert appears to have been rather a harsh father to his youngest son.  If such was the case, the latter nobly revenged himself, by his earnest solicitude through life for the Honour of his parent’s memory.-D. [See ant`e, p. 207, Letter 50.)

(586) He had been consul at Genoa.

(587) Sir Robert Walpole used to say of the Duke of Newcastle, “He has a foolish head and a perfidious heart.  His name is perfidy."-E.

(588) Horace Walpole the elder@D.

(589) William Henry Zulestein Nassau, fourth Earl of Rochford.  He filled many diplomatic situations, and was also at different times, groom of the stole and secretary of state.  He died in 1781.-D.

(590) Daughter of Edward Young, Esq.  She had been maid of honour to the Princess of Wales.

256 Letter 69 To Sir Horace Mann Downing Street, May 26, 1742.

To-day calls itself May the 26th, as you perceive by the date; but I am writing to you by the fireside, instead of going to Vauxhall. if we have one warm day in seven, “we bless our stars, and think it luxury.”  And yet we have as much waterworks and fresco diversions, as if we lay ten degrees nearer warmth.  Two nights ago Ranelagh-gardens were opened at Chelsea; the Prince, Princess, Duke, much nobility, and much mob besides, were there.  There is a vast amphitheatre, finely gilt, painted, and illuminated, into which every body that loves eating, drinking, staring, or crowding, is admitted for twelvepence.  The building and disposition of the gardens cost sixteen thousand pounds.  Twice a-week there are to be ridottos, at guinea tickets, for which you are to have a supper and music.  I was there last night, but did not find the joy of it.  Vauxhall is a little better; for the garden is pleasanter, and one goes by water.  Our operas are almost over; there were but three-and-forty people last night in the pit and boxes.  There is a little simple farce at Drury Lane, called “Miss Lucy in Town,"(591)

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in which Mrs. Clive (592) mimes the Muscovita admirably, and Beard, Amorevoli tolerably.  But all the run is now after Garrick, a wine-merchant, who is turned player, at Goodman’s-fields.  He plays all parts, and is a very good mimic.  His acting I have seen, and may say to you, who will not tell it again here, I see nothing wonderful in it.(593) but it is heresy to say so:  the Duke of Argyll says, he is superior to Betterton.  Now I talk of players, tell Mr. Chute that his friend Bracegirdle breakfasted with me this morning.  As she went out, and wanted her clogs, she turned to me, and said, “I remember at the playhouse, they used to call Mrs. Oldfield’s chair!  Mrs. Barry’s clogs! and Mrs. Bracegirdle’s pattens!”

I did, indeed, design the letter of this post for Mr. Chute; but I have received two such charming long ones from you of the 15th and 20th of May (N.  S.), that I must answer them, and beg him to excuse me till another post; so must the Prince,(594) Princess, the Grifona, and Countess Galli.  For the Princess’s letter, I am not sure I shall answer it so soon, for hitherto I have not been able to read above every third word; however, you may thank her as much as if I understood it all.  I am very happy that mes bagatelles (for I still insist they were so) pleased.  You, my dear child, are very good to be pleased with the snuff-box..  I am much obliged to the superior lumi`eres of old Sarasin (595) about the Indian ink:  if’ she meant the black, I am sorry to say I had it into the bargain with the rest of the Japan:  for the coloured, it is only a curiosity, because it has seldom been brought over.  I remember Sir Hans Sloane was the first who ever had any of it, and would on no account give my mother the least morsel of it. since that, She afterwards got a good deal of it from China; and more has come over; but it is even less valuable than the other, for we never could tell how to use it; however, let it make its figure.

I am sure you blame me all this time, for chatting about so many trifles, and telling you no politics.  I own to you, I am so wearied, so worn with them, that I scarce know how to turn my hand to them; but you shall know all I know.  I told you of the meeting at the Fountain tavern:  Pultney had promised to be there, but was-not; nor Carteret.  As the Lords had put off the debate on the Indemnity Bill, nothing material passed; but the meeting was very Jacobite.  Yesterday the bill came on, and Lord Carteret took the lead against it, and about seven in the evening it was flung out by almost two to one, 92 to 47, and 17 proxies to 10.  To-day we had a motion by the new Lord Hillsborough,(596) (for the father is Just dead,) and seconded by Lord Barrington,(597) to examine the Lords’ votes, to see what has become of the bill:  this is the form.  The chancellor of the exchequer, and all the new ministry, were with us against it; but they carried it, 164 to 159.  It is to be reported to-morrow, and

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as we have notice, we may possibly throw it out; else they will hurry on to a breach with the Lords.  Pultney was not in the House:  he was riding the other day, and met the King’s coach; endeavouring to turn out of the way, his horse started, flung him, and fell upon him:  he is much bruised but not at all dangerously.  On this occasion, there was an epigram fixed to a list, which I will explain to you afterwards it is not known who wrote it, but it was addressed to him: 

“Thy horse does things by halves, like thee: 
Thou, with irresolution,
Hurt’st friend and foe, thyself and me,
The King and Constitution.”

The list I meant:  you must know, some time ago, before the change, they had moved for a committee to examine, and state the public accounts:  It was passed.  Finding how little success they had with their Secret Committee, they have set this on foot, and we were to ballot for seven commissioners, who are to have a thousand a-year; We balloted yesterday:  on our lists were Sir Richard Corbet,(598) Charles Hamilton (599) Lady Archibald’s brother,) Sir William Middleton,(600) Mr. West, Mr. Fonnereau, Mr. Thompson, and Mr. Ellis.(601) On theirs Mr. Bance, George Grenville, Mr. Hooper, Sir Charles Mordaunt,(602) Mr, Phillips, Mr. Pitt, and Mr. Stuart.  On casting up the numbers, the four first on ours, and the three first on their list, appeared to have the majority,:  so no great harm will come from this, should it pass the Lords; which it is not likely to do.  I have now told you, I think, all the political news, except that the troops continue going to Flanders, though we hear no good news yet from Holland.  If we can prevent any dispute between the two Houses, it is believed and much hoped by the Court, that the Secret Committee will desire to be dissolved:  if it does, there is an end of all this tempest!

I must tell you an ingenuity of Lord Raymond,(603) an epitaph on the Indemnifying Bill-I believe you would guess the author:-

“Interr’d beneath this marble stone doth lie
The Bill of Indemnity;
To show the good for which it was designed,
It died itself to save mankind.”

My Lady Townshend made me laugh the other night about your old acquaintance, Miss Edwin; who, by the way, is grown almost a Methodist.  My lady says she was forced to have an issue made on one side of her head, for her eyes, and that Kent(604) advised her to have another on the other side for symmetry.  There has lately been published one of the most impudent things that ever was printed; it is called “The Irish Recister,” and is a list of all the unmarried women of any fashion in England, ranked in order, duchesses-dowager, ladies, widows, misses, etc. with their names at length, for the benefit of Irish fortune-hunters, or as it is said, for the incorporating and manufacturing of British commodities.  Miss Edwards(605) is the only one printed with a dash, because they have placed her among the widows.  I will send you this, “Miss Lucy in Town,” and the magazines, by the first opportunity, as I should the other things, but your brother tells me you have had then) by another hand.  I received the cedarati, for which I have already thanked you:  but I have been so much thanked by several people to whom I gave some, that I can very well afford to thank you again.

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As to Stosch expecting any present from me, he was so extremely well paid for all I had of’ him, that I do not think myself at all in his debt:  however, you was very good to offer to pay him.

As to my Lady Walpole, I shall say nothing now, as I have not seen either of the two persons since I received your letter to whom I design to mention her; only that I am extremely sorry to find you still disturbed at any of the little nonsense of’ that cibal.  I hoped that the accounts which I have sent you, and which, except in my last letter, must have been very satisfactory, would have served you as an antidote to their legends; and I think the great victory in the House of Lords, and which, I assure you, is here reckoned prodigious, Will raise your spirits against them.  I am happy you have taken that step about Sir Francis Dashwood; the credit it must have given you with the King will more than counterbalance any little hurt you might apprehend from the cabal.

I am in no hurry for any of my things; as we shall be moving from hence as soon as Sir Robert has taken another house, I shall not want them till I am more settled.

Adieu!  I hope to tell you soon that we are all at peace, and then I trust you will be so.  A thousand loves to the Chutes.  How I long to see you all!

P. S. I unseal my letter to tell you what a vast and, probably, final victory we have gained to-day.  They moved, that the lords flinging out the Bill of Indemnity was an obstruction of justice, and might prove fatal to the liberties of’ this country.  We have sat till this moment, seven o’clock, and have rejected this motion by 245 to 193.  The call of the House, which they have kept off from fortnight to fortnight, to keep people in town, was appointed for to-day.  The moment the division was over, Sir John Cotton rose and said, “As I think the inquiry is at an end, you may do what you will with the call.”  We have put it off for two months.  There’s a noble postscript!

(591) This farce, the production of Fielding, was acted several nights with success; but it being hinted, that one of the characters was written in ridicule of a man of quality, the Lord Chamberlain sent an order to forbid its being performed any more.-E.

(592) catherine Clive, an excellent actress in low comedy.  Churchill says of her, in the Rosciad,

In spite of outward blemishes she shone,
For humour famed, and humour all her own. 
Easy, as if at home, the stage she trod,
Nor sought the critic’s praise, nor fear’d his rod
Original in spirit and in ease,
She pleased by hiding all attempts to please. 
No comic actress ever yet could raise
On humour’s base, more merit or more praise.”

In after life she lived at Twickenham, in the house now called
Little Strawberry Hill, and
became an intimate friend of Horace Walpole@D.

(593) Garrick made his first appearance, October 19, 1741, in the character of Richard the Third.  Walpole does not appear to have been singular in the opinion here given.  Gray in a letter to Chute, says, “Did I tell you about Mr. Garrick, that the town are horn-mad after:  there are a dozen dukes of a night at Goodman-fields sometimes; and vet I am stiff in the opposition."-E.

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(594) prince Craon.

(595) Madame Sarasin, a Lorrain lady, companion to Princess Craon.

(596) Wills Hill, the second Lord Hillsborough, afterwards created an Irish earl and made cofferer of the household. (In the reign of George III. he was created Earl of Hillsborough, in England, and finally Marquis of Downshire, in Ireland; and held the office of secretary of state for the colonies.-D.)

(597) William Wildman, Viscount Barrington, made a lord of the admiralty on the coalition, and master of the great wardrobe, in 1754.  He afterwards held the offices of chancellor of the exchequer, secretary at war, and treasurer of the navy, and died February 1st, 1793.-D.)

(598) Sir Richard Corbett, of Leighton, in Montgomeryshire, the fourth baronet of that family.  He was member for Shrewsbury, and died in 1774.-D.

(599) The Hon. Charles Hamilton, sixth son of James, sixth Earl of Abercorn.  Member for Truro, comptroller of the green cloth to the Prince of Wales, and subsequently receiver-general of the Island of Minorca.  He died in 1787.-D.

(600) Sir William Middleton, Bart. of Belsay Castle, Northumberland, the third baronet of the family.  He was member for Northumberland, and died in 1767.-D.’’

(601) Welbore Ellis, member of parliament for above half a century; during which period he held the different offices of a lord of the admiralty, secretary at war, treasurer of the navy, vice-treasurer of Ireland, and secretary of state.  He was created Lord Mendip in 1794, with remainder to his nephew, Viscount Clifden, and died February 2, 1802, at the age of eighty-eight.-D.

(602) Sir Charles Mordaunt, of Massingham, in Norfolk, the sixth baronet of the family.  He was member for the county of Warwick, and died in 1778.-D.

(603) Robert, the second Lord Raymond, son of the lord chief justice. [On whose death, in 1753, without issue, the title expired.]

(604) William Kent, of whom Walpole himself drew the following just character:-"He was a painter, an architect, and the father of modern gardening.  In the first character he was below mediocrity; in the second, he was a restorer of the science; in the last, an original, and the inventor of an art that realizes painting and improves nature.  Mahomet imagined an elysium, Kent created many."-The misfortune of Kent was, that his fame and popularity in his own age were so great, that he was employed to give designs for all things, even for those which he could know nothing about-such as ladies’ birthday dresses, which he decorated with the five orders of architecture.  These absurdities drew upon him the satire of Hogarth.-D. [Walpole further states of Kent, that Pope undoubtedly contributed to form his taste.]

(605) Miss Edwards, an unmarried lady of great fortune, who openly kept Lord Anne Hamilton.

260 Letter 70 To Sir Horace Mann.  London, June 3, 1742.

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I have sent Mr. Chute all the news; I shall only say to you that I have read your last letter about Lady W. to Sir R. He was not at all surprised at her thoughts of England, but told me that last week my Lord Carteret had sent him a letter which she had written to him, to demand his protection.  This you may tell publicly; it will show her ladyship’s credit.

Here is an epigram, which I believe will divert you:  it is on Lord Islay’s garden upon Hounslow Heath.

“Old Islay, to show his fine delicate taste,(606)
In improving his gardens purloined from the waste,
Bade his gard’ner one day to open his views,
By cutting a couple of grand avenues: 
No particular prospect his lordship intended,
But left it to chance how his walks should be ended.

With transport and joy he beheld his first view end
In a favourite prospects church that was ruin’d-
But alas! what a sight did the next cut exhibit! 
At the end of the walk hung a rogue on a gibbet! 
He beheld it and wept, for it caused him to muse on
Full many a Campbell that died with his shoes on. 
All amazed and aghast at the ominous scene,
He order’d it quick to be closed up again
With a clump of Scotch firs that served for a Screen.”

Sir Robert asked me yesterday about the Dominichini, but I did not know what to answer:  I said I would write to you about it.  Have you bought it? or did you quite put it off?  I had forgot to mention it again to you.  If you have not, I am still of opinion that you should buy it for him.  Adieu!

(606) These lines were written by Bramston, author of “The Art of Politics,” and “The Man of Taste.” [The Reverend James Bramston, vicar of Starling, Sussex.  Pope took the line in the Dunciad, “Shine in the dignity of F. R. S.” from his Man of Taste;-"A satire,” says Warton, “in which the author has been guilty of the absurdity of making his hero laugh at himself and his own follies.”  He died in 1744.]

261 Letter 71 To Sir Horace Mann.  June 10, the Pretender’s birthday, which, by the way, I believe he did not expect to keep at Rome this year, 1742.

Since I wrote you my last letter, I have received two from you of the 27th May and 3d of June, N. S. I hope you will get my two packets; that is, one of them was addressed to Mr. Chute, and in them was all my fagot of compliments.

Is not poor SCUlly (607) vastly disappointed that we are not arrived?  But really, will that mad woman never have done! does she still find credit for her extravagant histories.  I carried her son with me to Vauxhall last night:  he is a most charming boy,(608) but grows excessively like her in the face.  I don’t at all foresee how I shall make out this letter:  every body is gone out of town during the Whitsuntide, and many will not return, at least not these six weeks; for so long they say it will be before the Secret Committee make their Report, with which they intend to finish.  We are, however, entertained with pageants every day-reviews to gladden the heart of David,(609) (609) and triumphs to Absalom!  He,(610) and his wife went in great parade yesterday through the city and the dust to dine at Greenwich; they took water at the Tower, and trumpeting away to Grace Tosier’s,

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“Like Cimon, triumph’d over land and wave”

I don’t know whether it was my Lord of Bristol (611) or some of the SaddlerS,((612) Company who had told him that this was the way “to steal the hearts of the people.”  He is in a quarrel with Lord Falmouth.(613) There is just dead one Hammond,(614) a disciple of Lord Chesterfield, and equerry to his royal highness:  he had parts, and was Just come into parliament, strong of the Cobham faction, or nepotism, as Sir Robert calls it.  The White Prince desired Lord Falmouth to choose Dr. Lee, who, you know, has disobliged the party by accepting a lordship of the admiralty.  Lord Falmouth has absolutely refused, and insists upon choosing one of his own brothers:  his highness talks loudly of opposing him.  The borough is a Cornish one.

There is arrived a courier from Lord Stair, with news of Prince Lobkowitz having cut off five thousand French.  We are hurrying away the rest of our troops to Flanders, and say that we are in great spirits, and intend to be in greater when we have defeated the French too.

For my own particular, I cannot say I am well; I am afraid I have a little fever upon my spirits, or at least have nerves, which, you know, every body has in England.  I begin the cold-bath to-morrow, and talk of going to Tunbridge, if the parliament rises soon.

Sir R. who begins to talk seriously of Houghton, has desired me to go -with him thither;’ but that is not all settled.  Now I mention Houghton, you was in the right to miss a gallery there; but there is one actually fitting up, where the green-house was, and to be furnished with the spoils of Downing-street.

I am quite sorry you have [)ad so much trouble with those odious cats of Malta:  dear child, fling them into the Arno, if there is water enough at this season to drown them; or, I’ll tell you, give them to Stosch, to pay the postage he talked of.  I have no ambition to make my court with them to the old wizard.

I think I have not said any thing lately to you from Patapan; he is handsomer than ever, and crows fat:  his eyes are charming; they have that agreeable lustre which the vulgar moderns call sore eyes, but the judicious ancients golden eyes, ocellos Patapanicos.

The process is begun against her Grace of Beaufort,(615) and articles exhibited in Doctors’ Commons.  Lady Townshend has had them copied, and lent them to me.  There is every thing proved to your heart’s content, to the birth of the child, and much delectable reading.

Adieu! my dear child; you see I have eked out a letter:  I hate missing a post, and yet at this dead time I have almost been tempted to invent a murder or a robbery.  But you are good, and will be persuaded that I have used my eyes and ears for your service; when, if it were not for you, I should let them lie by in a drawer from week’s end to week’s end.  Good night!

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(607) An Irish tailor at Florence, who let out ready-furnished apartments to travelling English.  Lady W. had reported that Lord Orford was flying from England and would come thither. (608) George Walpole, afterwards the third Earl of Orford.  He succeeded to the earldom in 1751, and was appointed lord-lieutenant and custos rotulorum of the county of Norfolk Mr, Pitt, in a letter, written in 1759, says, “Nothing could make a better appearance than the two Norfolk battalions:  Lord Orford, with the port of Mars himself, and really the genteelest figure under arms I ever saw, was the theme of every tongue.”  Chatham Correspondence, vol. ii. p. 4.-E.

(609) George the Second.

(610) Frederic, Prince of Wales.

(611) Dr. Secker, afterwards Bishop of Oxford. (And eventually Archbishop of Canterbury.  According to Walpole, he was bred a man-midwife.-D.) [Secker had committed in Walpole’s eyes, the unpardonable offence of having “procured a marriage between the heiress of the Duke of Kent and the chancellor’s (Hardwicke’s) son;” he, therefore, readily propagated the charges of his being “a Presbyterian, a man-midwife, and president of a very freethinking club,” (Memoires, i. p. 56,) when the fact is, the parents of Secker were Dissenters, and he for a time pursued the study, though not the practice of medicine and surgery.  The third charge is a mere falsehood.  See also Quarterly Review, xxv’i. p. 187.]

(612) The Prince was a member of the Saddlers’ company.

(613) Hugh Boscawen, second Viscount Falmouth, a great dealer in boroughs.  It is of him that Lord Dodington tells the story, that he went to the minister to ask a favour, which the minister seemed unwilling to grant; upon which Lord Falmouth said, “Remember, Sir, we are seven."-D.

(614) Author of Love Elegies. [See ant`e, p. 210.)

(615) Frances, daughter and heir of the last Lord Scudamore, wife of Henry Somerset, Duke of Beaufort; from whom she was divorced for adultery with Lord Talbot.  She was afterwards married to Colonel Fitzroy, natural son of the Duke of Grafton. [The duke Having clearly proved the incontinence of his wife, obtained a divorce in March 1743-4.)

263 Letter 72 To Sir Horace Mann.  Downing Street, June 14, 1742.

We were surprised last Tuesday with the great good news of the peace between the Queen and the King of Prussia. it was so unexpected and so welcome, that I believe he might get an act of parliament to forbid any one thinking that he ever made a slip in integrity.  Then, the reported accounts of the successes of Prince Charles and Lobkowitz over the French have put us into the greatest spirits.  Prince charles is extremely commended for courage and conduct, and makes up a little for other flaws in the family.

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it is at last settled that Lords gower,(616) Cobham, and Bathurst (617) are to come in.  The first is to be privy-seal, and was to have kissed hands last Friday, but Lord Hervey had carried the seal with him to Ickworth; but he must bring it back.  Lord Cobham is to be field-marshal, and to command all the forces in England.  Bathurst was to have the Gentleman-pensioners, but Lord Essex,(618) who is now the Captain, and was to have had the Beef-eaters, will not change.  Bathurst is to have the Beef-eaters; the Duke of Bolton (619) who has them, is to have the Isle of Wight, and Lord lymington,(620) who has that, is to have—­nothing!

The Secret Committee are in great perplexities about Scrope:(621) he would not take the oath, but threatened the Middlesex justices who tendered it to him “Gentlemen,” said he, “have you any complaint against Me? if you have not, don’t you fear that I will prosecute you for enforcing oaths?” However, one of them began to read the oath—­“I, John Scrope,”—­“I John Scrope:"said he; “I did not say any such thing; but come, however, let’s hear the oath;”—­“do promise that I will faithfully and truly answer all such questions as shall be asked me by the Committee of Secrecy, and—­” they were going on, but Scrope cried out, “Hold, hold! there is more than I can digest already.”  He then went before the committee, and desired time to consider.  Pitt asked him abruptly, if he wanted a quarter of an hour:  he replied, “he did not want to inform either his head or his heart, for both were satisfied what to do; but that he would ask the King’s leave.”  He wants to fight Pitt.  He is a most testy little old gentleman, and about eight years ago would have fought Alderman Perry.  It was in the House, at the time of the excise:  he said we should carry it:  Perry said he hoped to see him hanged first.  “You see me hanged, you dog, you!” said Scrope, and pulled him by the nose.  The committee have tried all ways to soften him, and have offered to let him swear to only what part he pleased, or only with regard to money given to members of parliament.  Pultney himself has tried to work on him; but the old gentleman is inflexible, and answered, “that he was fourscore years old, and did not care whether he spent the few months he had to live (622) in the Tower or not; that the last thing he would do should be to betray the King and next to him the Earl of Orford.”  It remains in suspense.  The troops continue going to Flanders, but slowly enough.  Lady Vane has taken a trip thither after a cousin (623) of Lord Berkeley, who is as simple about her as her own husband is, and has written to Mr. Knight at Paris to furnish her with what money she wants.  He says she is vastly to blame; for he was trying to get her a divorce from Lord Vane, and then would have married her himself.  Her adventures(624 arc worthy to be bound up with those of my good sister-in-law, as the German Princess, and Moll Flanders.

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Whom should I meet in the Park last night but Ceretesi!  He told me he was at a Bagne.  I will find out his bagnio; for though I was not much acquainted with him, yet the obligations I had to Florence make me eager to show any Florentine all the civilities in my power; though I do not love them near so well, since what you have told me of their late behaviour; notwithstanding your letter of June 20th, which I have just received.  I perceive that simple-hearted, good, unmeaning Ituccilai is of the number of the false, though you do not directly say so.

I was excessively diverted with your pompous account of the siege of Lucca by a single Englishman.  I do believe that you and the Chutes might put a certain city into as great a panic.  Adieu!

(616) John Leveson Gower, second Lord Gower; in 1746 created an earl.  He died in 1754.-E.

(617) Allan, first Lord Bathurst, one of the twelve Tory peers created by Queen Anne, in 1711.  He was the friend of Pope, Congreve, Swift, Prior, and other men of letters.  He lived to see his eldest son chancellor of England, and died at the advanced age of ninety, in 1775; having been created an earl in 1772.-D.

(618) William Capel, third Earl of Essex; ambassador at the court of Turin. he died in January 1743.  The Beef-eaters are otherwise called the Yeomen of the Guard.-D.

(619) Charles Powlett, third Duke of Bolton.  His second wife was Miss Lavinia Fenton, otherwise Mrs. Beswick, the actress; who became celebrated in the character of Polly Peacham in the Beggar’s Opera.  By her the duke had three sons, born before marriage.  With his first wife, the daughter and sole heiress of John Vaughan, Earl of Carberry in Ireland, he never cohabited.  He died in 1754.-D.

(620) John Wallop, first Viscount Lymington; in the following April created Earl of Portsmouth.  He died in 1762.-E.

(621) John Scrope, secretary of the treasury.  He had been in Monmouth’s rebellion, when very young, and carried intelligence to Holland in woman’s clothes.

(622) He did not die till 1753.  Tindal states that, upon giving this answer he was no further pressed.-E.

(623) Henry Berkeley; killed the next year at the battle of Dettingen.

(624) Lady Vane’s Memoirs, dictated by herself, were actually published afterward,,; in a book, called “The Adventures of Peregrine Pickle;” and she makes mention of Lady Orford. [See ant`e, p. 189, Letter 42.  Sir Walter Scott says, that “she not only furnished Smollett with the materials for recording her own infamy, but rewarded him handsomely for the insertion of her story.”]

265 Letter 73 To sir Horace Mann.  Midsummer Day, 1742.

One begins every letter with an Io Paean! indeed our hymns are not so tumultuous as they were some time ago, to the tune of Admiral Vernon.  They say there came an express last night, of the taking of Prague and the destruction of some thousand French.  It is really amazing the fortune of the Queen!  We expect every day the news of the king of Poland having made his peace; for it is affirmed that the Prussians left him but sixteen days to think of it.  There is nothing could stop the King of Prussia, if he should march to Dresden:  how long his being at peace with that king will stop him I look upon as very uncertain.

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They say we expect the Report from the Secret Committee next Tuesday, and then finish.  I preface all my news with “they say;” for I am not at all in the secret, and I had rather that “they say” should tell you a lie than myself.  They have sunk the affair of Scrope:  the Chancellor (625) and Sir John Rushout spoke in the committee against persecuting him, for he is secretary to the treasury.  I don’t think there is so easy a language as the ministerial in the world-one learns it in a week!  There are few members in town, and most of them no friends to the committee; so that there is not the least apprehension of any violence following the Report.  I dare say there is not; for my uncle, who is my political weather-glass, and whose quicksilver rises and falls with the least variation of parliamentary weather, is in great spirits, and has spoken three times in the House within this week; he had not opened his lips before since the change.  Mr. Pultney has his warrant in his pocket for Earl of Bath, and kisses hands as soon as the parliament rises.  The promotions I mentioned to you are not yet come to pass; but a fortnight will settle things wonderfully.

The Italian, (626) who I told you is here, has let me into a piece of secret history, which you never mentioned:  perhaps it is not true; but he says the mighty mystery of the Count’s (627) elopement from Florence, was occasioned by a letter from Wachtendonck,(628) which was so impertinent as to talk of satisfaction for some affront.  The great Count very wisely never answered it-his life, to be sure, is of too great consequence to be trusted at the end of a rash German’s sword! however, the General wrote again, and hinted at coming himself for an answer.  So it happened that when he arrived, the Count was gone to the baths of Lucca-those waters were reckoned better for his health, than steel in the abstract-How oddly it happened!  He Just returned to Florence as the General was dead!  Now was not this heroic lover worth running after?  I wonder, as the Count must have known my lady’s courage and genius for adventures, that he never thought of putting her in men’s clothes, and sending her to answer the challenge.  How pretty it would have been to have fought for one’s lover! and how great the obligation, when he durst not fight for himself!

I heard the other day, that the Primate of Lorrain was dead of the smallpox.  Will you make my compliments of condolence? though I dare say they are little afflicted:  he -was a ’most worthless creature, and all his wit and parts, I believe little comforted them for his brutality and other vices.

The fine Mr. Pit (629) is arrived:  I dine with him to-day at Lord Lincoln’s, with the Pomfrets.  So now the old partie quarr`ee is complete again.  The earl is not quite cured,(630) and a partner in sentiments may help to open the wound again.  My Lady Townshend dines with us too.  She flung the broadest Wortley-eye (631) on Mr. Pitt, the other night, in the park!

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Adieu! my dear child; are you quite well?  I trust the summer will perfectly re-establish you.

(625) Mr. Sandys, chancellor of the exchequer.

(626) Ceretesi.

(627) Count Richcourt.

(628) General Wachtendonck, commander of the Queen of Hungary’s troops at Leghorn.

(629) George Pitt, of Strathfieldsea:  he had been in love with Lady Charlotte Fermor, second daughter of Lord Pomfret, who was afterwards married to William Finch, vice-chamberlain. (Mr. Pitt was created Lord Rivers in 1776.  In 1761 he was British envoy at Turin in 1770, ambassador extraordinary to Spain.  He died in 1803.-D.)

(630) Of his love for lady Sophia Fermor.-D.

(631) Mr. Pitt was very handsome, and Lady Mary Wortley Montagu had liked him extremely, when he was in Italy.

267 Letter 74 To Sir Horace Mann.  Downing Street, June 30, 1742.

It is about six o’clock, and I am come from the House, where, at last, we have had another Report from the Secret Committee.  They have been disputing this week among themselves, whether this should be final or not.  The new ministry, thanked them! were for finishing; but their arguments were not so persuasive as dutiful, and we are to have yet another.  This lasted two hours and a half in reading, though confined to the affair of Burrel and Bristow, the Weymouth election, and secret-service money.  They moved to print it; but though they had fetched most of their members from Ale and the country, they were not strong enough to divide.  Velters Cornwall, whom I have mentioned to you, I believe, for odd humour, said, “ie believed the somethingness of this report would make amends for the nothingness of the last, and that he was for printing it, if it was only from believing that the King would not see it, unless it is printed.”  Perhaps it may be printed at the conclusion; at least it will without authority-and so you will see it.

I received yours of June 24, N. S. with one from Mr. Chute, this morning, and I will now go answer it and Your last.  You seem still to be uneasy about my letters, and their being retarded.  I have not observed, lately, the same signs of yours being opened; and for my own, I think it may very often depend upon the packet-boat and winds.

You ask me if Pultney has lately received any new disgusts.-How can one answer for a temper so hasty, so unsettled!-not that I know, unless that he finds, what he has been twenty years undoing, is not yet undone.

I must interrupt the thread of my answer, to tell you that I hear news came last night that the States of Holland have voted forty@seven thousand men for the Assistance of the Queen,(632) and that it was not doubted but the States—­General would imitate this resolution.  This seems to be the consequence of the King of Prussia’s proceedings-but how can they trust him so easily?

I am amazed that your leghorn ministry are so wavering; they are very old style, above eleven days out of fashion, if they any longer fear the French:  my only apprehension is, lest these successes should make Richcourt more impertinent.

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You have no notion how I laughed at the man that “takes nothing but Madeira."(633) I told it to my Lady Pomfret, concluding it would divert her too; and forgetting that she repines when she should laugh, and reasons when she should be diverted.  She asked gravely what language that was That Madeira being subject to an European prince, to be sure they talk some European dialect!” The grave personage!  It was a piece with her saying, “that Swift would have written better, if he had never written ludicrously.”

I met a friend of yours the other day at an auction, and though I knew him not the least, yet being your friend, and so like you (for, do you know, he is excessively,) I had a great need to speak to him-and did.  He says, “he has left off writing to you, for he never could get an answer.”  I said, you had never received ’but one from him in all the time I was with you, and that I was witness to your having Answered it.  He was with his mother, Lady Abercorn,(634) a most frightful gentlewoman:  Mr. Winnington says, he one day overheard her and the Duchess of Devonshire (635) talking of “hideous ugly women!” By the way, I find I have never told you that it was Lord Paisley;(636) but that you will have perceived.

Amorevoli is gone to Dresden for the summer; our directors are in great fear that he will serve them like Farinelli, and not return for the winter.

I am writing to you in one of the charming rooms towards the park:  it is a delightful evening, and I am willing to enjoy this sweet corner while I may, for we are soon to quit it.  Mrs. Sandys came yesterday to give us warning; Lord Wilmington has lent it to them.  Sir Robert might have had it for his own at first, but would only take it as first lord of the treasury.(637) He goes into a small house of his own in Arlington Street, opposite to where we formerly lived.  Whither I shall travel is yet uncertain:  he is for my living with him; but then I shall be cooped-and besides, I never found that people loved one another the less for living asunder.

The drowsy Lord Mayor (638) is dead-so the newspapers say.  I think he is not dead, but sleepeth.  Lord Gower is laid up with the gout:  this, they say, is the reason of his not having the privy seal yet.  The town has talked of nothing lately but a plot:  I will tell you the circumstances. last week the Scotch hero (639) sent his brother (640) two papers, which he said had been left at his house by an Unknown hand; that he believed it was by Colonel Cecil, agent for the Pretender—­though how could that be, for he had had no conversation with Colonel Cecil for these two years!  He desired Lord Islay to lay them before the ministry.  One of the papers seemed a letter, though with no address or subscription, written in true genuine Stuart characters.  It was to thank Mr. Burnus (D. of A.) for his services, and that he hoped he would answer the assurances given of him.  The other was to command the Jacobites,

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and to exhort the patriots to continue what they had mutually so well begun, and to say how pleased he was with their having removed mr.  Tench.  Lord Islay showed these letters to Lord Orford, and then to the King, and told him he had showed them to my father.  “You did well."-Lord Islay, “Lord Orford says one is of the Pretender’s hand."-King, “He (641) knows it:  whenever any thing of this sort comes to your hand, carry it to Walpole.”  This private conversation you must not repeat.  A few days afterwards, the Duke wrote to his brother, “That upon recollection he thought it right to say, that he had received those letters from Lord Barrimore"(642) who is as well known for General to the Chevalier, as Montemar is to the Queen of Spain-or as the Duke of A. would be to either of them.  Lord Islay asked Sir R. if he was against publishing this story, which he thought was a justification both of his brother and Sir R. The latter replied, he could certainly have no objection to its being public-but pray, will his grace’s sending these letters to the secretaries of state Justify him from the assurances that had been given of’ him?(643) However, the Pretender’s being of opinion that the dismission of Mr. Tench was for his service, will scarce be an argument to the new ministry for making more noise about these papers.

I am sorry the boy is so uneasy at being on the foot of a servant.  I will send for his mother, and ask her why she did not tell him the conditions to which we had agreed; at the same time, I will tell her that she may send any letters for him to me.  Adieu! my dear child:  I am going to write to Mr. Chute, that is, to-morrow.  I never was more diverted than with his letter.

(632) The Queen of Hungary, Maria Theresa.-D.

(633) The only daughter and heiress of the Marquis Accianoli at Florence, was married to one of the same name, who was born at Madeira. ’ (634) Anne Plummer, Countess of Abercorn, wife of James, the seventh earl.  She died in 1756.-E.

(635) Catherine, daughter of John Hoskins, Esq.  She was married to the third Duke of Devonshire in 171@, and died in 1777.-E.

(636) James Hamilton succeeded as eighth Earl of Abercorn, on the death of his father in 1743.  He was created Viscount Hamilton in England in 1786, and died unmarried in 1789.-D.

(637) This is the house, in Downing Street, which is still the residence of the first lord of the treasury.  George the First gave it to Baron Bothmar, the Hanoverian minister-, for life.  On his death, George the Second offered to give it to Sir Robert Walpole; who, however, refused it, and begged of the King that it might be attached to the office of first lord of the treasury.-D.

(638) Sir Robert Godschall.

(639) The Duke of Argyll.

(640) Earl of Islay.

(641) Besides intercepted letters, Sir R. Walpole had more than once received letters from the Pretender, making him the greatest offers, which Sir R. always carried to the King, and got him to endorse, when he returned them to Sir R.

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(642) James Barry, fourth Earl of Barrymore, succeeded his half-brother Lawrence in the family titles in 1699, and died in 1747, at the age of eighty.  James, Lord Barrymore, was an adherent of the Pretender, whereas Lawrence had been so great a supporter of the revolution, that he was attainted, and his estates sequestered by James the Second’s Irish parliament, in 1689.-D.

(643) The Duke of Argyll, in the latter part of his life, was often melancholy and disordered in his understanding.  After this transaction, and it is supposed he had gone still farther, he could with difficulty be brought even to write his name.  The marriage of his eldest daughter with the Earl of Dalkeith was deferred for some time, because the duke could not be prevailed upon to sign the writings.

269 Letter 75 To Sir Horace Mann.

On the Death of Richard West, Esq.(644)

While surfeited with life, each hoary knave
Grows, here, immortal, and eludes the grave,
Thy virtues immaturely met their fate,
Cramp’d in the limit of too short a date!

Thy mind, not exercised so oft in vain,
In health was gentle, and composed in pain: 
successive trials still refined thy soul,
And plastic Patience perfected the whole.

A friendly aspect, not suborn’d by art;
An eye, which look’d the meaning of thy heart;
A tongue, With simple truth and freedom fraught,
The faithful index of thy honest thought.

Thy pen disdain’d to seek the servile ways
Of partial censure, and more partial praise;
Through every tongue it flowed in nervous ease,
With sense to Polish , and With wit to please.

No lurking venom from thy pencil fell;
Thine was the kindest satire, living well: 
The vain, the loose, the base, might blush to see
In what thou wert, what they themselves should be,

Let me not charge on Providence a crime,
Who snatch’d thee, blooming, to a better clime,
To raise those virtues to a higher sphere: 
Virtues! which only could have starved thee here;

A Receipt To Make A Lord. 
Occasioned by a late report of a promotion.(645)

Take a man, who by nature’s a true son of earth,’
By rapine enriched, though a beggar by birth;
In genius the lowest, ill-bred and obscene;
In morals most Wicked, most nasty in mien;
By none ever trusted, yet ever employed;
In blunders quite fertile, in merit quite void;
A scold in the Senate, abroad a buffoon,
The scorn and the jest of all courts but his own: 
A slave to that wealth that ne’er made him a friend,
And proud of that cunning that ne’er gain’d an end;
A dupe in each treaty, a Swiss in each vote;
In manners and form, a complete Hottentot. 
Such an one could you find, of all men you’d commend him; But be
sure let the curse of each Briton attend him.
thus fully prepared, add the grace of the throne,
The folly of monarchs, and screen of a crown—­
Take a prince for his purpose, without ears or eyes,
And a long parchment roll stuff’d brimful of lies: 
These mingled together, a fiat shall pass,
and the thing be a Peer, that before was an ass.

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The former copy I think you will like:  it was written by one Mr. Ashton (646) on Mr. West, two friends of mine, whom you have heard me often mention.  The other copy was printed in the Common Sense, I don’t know by whom composed:  the end of it is very bad, and there are great falsities in it, but some strokes are terribly like!

I have not a moment to thank the Grifona, nor to answer yours of June 17, N. S. which I have this instant read.  Yours, in great haste.

(644) See ante, pp. 121, (Letter 1), 251, (Letter 65).

(645) The report, mentioned in a preceding letter, that Horace Walpole, brother to Sir Robert, was created a peer.

(646)Thomas Ashton, afterwards fellow of Eton College. [See ant`e, p. 128, Letter 6, footnote 153.)

271 Letter 76 To Sir Horace Mann.  London, July 7, 1742.

Well! you may bid the Secret Committee good night.  The House adjourns to-day till Tuesday, and on Thursday is to be prorogued.  Yesterday we had a bill of Pultney’s, about returning officers and regulating elections:  the House was thin, and he carried it by 93 to 92.  Mr. Pelham was not there, and Winnington did not vote, for the gentleman is testy still; when he saw how near he had been to losing it, he said loud enough to be heard, “I will make the gentlemen of that side feel me!” and, rising up, he said, “He was astonished, that a bill so calculated for the freedom of elections was so near being thrown out; that there was a report on the table, which showed how necessary such a bill was, and that though we had not time this year to consider what was proper to be done in consequence of it, he hoped we should next,"-with much to the same purpose; but all the effect this notable speech had, was to frighten my uncle, and make him give two or three shrugs extraordinary to his breeches.  They now say,(647) that Pultney will not take out the patent for his earldom, but remain in the House of Commons in terrorem; however, all his friends are to have places immediately, or, as the fashion of expressing it is, they are to go to Court in the Bath coach!"(648)

Your relation Guise (649) is arrived from Carthagena, madder than ever.  As he was marching up to one of the forts, all his men deserted him; his lieutenant advised him to retire; he replied, “He never had turned his back yet, and would not now,” and stood all the fire.  When the pelicans were flying over his head, he cried out, “What would Chloe (650) give for some of these to make a pelican pie!” When he is brave enough to perform such actions as are really almost incredible, what pity it is that he should for ever persist In saving things that are totally so!

Lord Annandale (651) is at last mad in all the forms:  he has long been an out-pensioner of Bedlam College.  Lord and Lady Talbot,(652) are parted; he gives her three thousand pounds a-year.  Is it not amazing, that in England people will not find out that they can live separate without parting?  The Duke of Beaufort says, “He pities Lord Talbot to have met with two such tempers as their two wives!”

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Sir Robert Rich (653) is going to Flanders, to try to make up an affair for his son; who, having quarrelled with a Captain Vane, as the commanding officer was trying to make it up at the head of the regiment, Rich came behind Vane, “And to show you,” said he, “that I will not make it up, take that,” and gave him a box on the ear.  They were immediately put in arrest; but the learned in the laws of honour say, they must fight, for no German officer will serve with Vane, till he has had satisfaction.

Mr. Harris,(654) who married Lady Walpole’s mother, is to be one of the peace-offerings on the new altar.  Bootle is to be chief-justice; but the Lord Chancellor would not consent to it, unless Lord Glenorchy,(655) whose daughter is married to Mr. Yorke, had a place in lieu of the Admiralty, which he has lost-he is to have Harris’s.  Lord Edgecumbe’s, in Ireland, they say, is destined to Harry Vane,(656) Pultney’s toad-eater.

Monticelli lives in a manner at our house.  I tell my sister that she is in love with him, and that I am glad it was not Amorevoli.  Monticelli dines frequently with Sir Robert, which diverts me extremely; you know how low his ideas are of music and the virtuosi; he calls them all fiddlers.

I have not time now to write more, for I am going to a masquerade at the Ranelagh amphitheatre:  the King is fond of it, and has pressed people to go; but I don’t find that it will be full.  Good night!  All love to the Pope for his good thing.

(647) Sir R. W. to defeat Pultney’s ambition persuaded the ++King to insist on his going into the House of Lords:  the day he carried his patent thither, he flung it upon the floor in a passion, and could scarce be prevailed on to have it passed. ["I remember,” says Horace Walpole, (Reminiscences), “my father’s action and words when he returned from court, and told me what he had done — ’I have turned the key of the closet on him!’ making that motion with his hand.”]

(648) His title was to be Earl of Bath.

(649) General Guise, a, very brave officer, but apt to romance; and a great connoisseur in pictures. (He bequested his collection of pictures, which is a very indifferent one, to christ church College, Oxford.-D.)

(650) the duke of Newcastle’s French cook.

(651) George Johnstone, third Marquis of Annandale, in Scotland.  He was not declared a lunatic till the year 1748.  Upon his death, in 1792, his titles became either extinct or dormant.-D.

(652) Mary, daughter of Adam de Cardonel, secretary to John the great Duke of Marlborough, married to William, second Lord Talbot, eldest son of Lord Chancellor Talbot.-D.

(653) Sir Robert Rich, Bart., of Rose Hall, Suffolk.  At his death, in 1768, he was colonel of the fourth regiment of dragoons, governor of Chelsea Hospital, and field-marshal of the forces.-E.

(654) This article did not prove true.  Mr. Harris was not removed, nor Bootle made chief-justice.

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(655) John Campbell, Lord Glenorchy, and, on his father’s death, in 1752, third Earl of Breadalbane.  His first wife was Lady Amiable Grey, eldest daughter and coheir of the Duke of Kent.  By her he had an only daughter, Jemima, who, upon the death of her grandfather, became Baroness Lucas of Crudwell, and Marchioness de Grey.  She married Philip Yorke, eldest son of the Chancellor Hardwicke, and eventually himself the second duke of that title.-D.

(656) Henry Vane, eldest son of Gilbert, second Lord Barnard, and one of the tribe who came into office upon the breaking up of Sir Robert Walpole’s administration.  He was created Earl of Darlington in 1753, and died in 1758.-D.

273 Letter 77 To Sir Horace Mann.  Downing Street, July 14, 1742.

Sir Robert Brown(657) is displaced from being paymaster of something, I forget what, for Sir Charles Gilmour, a friend of Lord Tweedale.(658) Nee Finch (659) is made groom of the bedchamber, which was vacant; and Will Finch (660) vice chamberlain, which was not vacant; but they have emptied it of Lord Sidney Beauclerc.(661) Boone is made commissary-general, in Hurley’s room, and JefFries(662) in Will Stuart’s.  All these have been kissing hands to-day, headed by the Earl of Bath.  He went into the King the other day “,it this’long list, but was told shortly, that unless he would take up his patent and quit the House of Commons, nothing should be done-he has consented.  I made some of them very angry; for when they told me who had kissed hands, I asked, if the Pretender had kissed hands too, for being King?  I forgot to tell you, that Murray is to be solicitor-general, in Sir John Strange’s place, who is made chief justice, or some such thing.(663)

I don’t know who it was that said it, but it was a very good answer to one who asked why Lord Gower had not kissed hands sooner—­“the Dispensation was not come from Rome."(664)

I am writing to you up to the ears in packing:  Lord Wilmington has lent this house to Sandys, and he has given us instant warning; we are moving as fast as possible to Siberia,-Sir Robert has a house there, within a few mile,, of the Duke of Courland; in short, child, we are all going to Norfolk, till we can get a house ready in town:  all the furniture is taken down, and lying about in confusion.  I look like St. John in the Isle of Patmos, writing revelations, and prophesying “Woe! woe! woe! the kingdom of desolation is at hand!” -indeed, I have prettier animals about me, than he ever dreamed of:  here is the dear Patapan, and a little Vandyke cat, with black whiskers -ind boots; you would swear it was of a very ancient family, in the West of England, famous for their loyalty.

I told you I was going to the masquerade at Ranelagh gardens, last week:  it was miserable; there were but an hundred men, six women, and two shepherdesses.  The King liked it,—­and that he might not be known, they had dressed him a box with red damask!  Lady Pomfret and her three daughters were there, all dressed alike, that they might not be known.  My Lady said to Lady Bel Finch,(665) who was dressed like a nun, and for coolness had cut off the nose of her mask, “Madam, you are the first nun that ever I saw without a nose!”

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As I came home last night, they told me there was a fire in Downing Street; when I came to Whitehall, I could not get to the end of the street in my chariot, for the crowd; when I got out, the first thing I heard was a man enjoying himself:  “Well! if it lasts two hours longer, Sir Robert Walpole’s house will be burnt to the ground!” it was a very comfortable hearing! but I found the fire was on the opposite side of the way, and at a good distance.  I stood in the crowd an hour to hear their discourse:  one man was relating at how many fires he had happened to be present, and did not think himself at all unlucky in passing by, just at this.  What diverted me most, was a servant-maid, who was working, and carrying pails of water, with the strength of half-a-dozen troopers, and swearing the mob out of her way-the soft creature’s name was Phillis!  When I arrived at our door, I found the house full of goods, beds, women, and children, and three Scotch members of parliament, who lodge in the row, and who had sent in a saddle, a flitch of bacon, and a bottle of ink.  There was no wind, and the house was saved, with the loss of only its garret, and the furniture.

I forgot to mention the Dominichin last post, as I suppose I had before, for I always was for buying it; it is one of the most engaging pictures I ever saw.  I have no qualms about its originality; and even if Sir Robert should not like it when it comes, which is impossible, I think I would live upon a flitch of bacon and a bottle of ink, rather than not spare the money to buy it myself:  so my dear Sir, buy it.

Your brother has this moment brought me a letter:  I find by it, that you are very old style with relation to the Prussian peace.  Why, we have sent Robinson (666) and Lord Hyndford (667) a green ribbon, for it, above a fortnight ago.  Muley, (as Lord Lovel calls him,) Duke of Bedford, (668) is, they say, to have a blue one, for making his own peace:  you know we always mind home-peaces more than foreign ones.

I am quite sorry for all the trouble you have had about the Maltese cats; but you know they were for Lord Islay, not for myself.  Adieu!  I have no more time.

(657) Sir Robert Brown had been a merchant at Venice, and British resident there, for which he was created a baronet in 1732.  He held the place at this time of” “paymaster of his Majesty’s works, concerning the repairs, new buildings, and well-keeping of any of his Majesty’s houses of access, and others, in time of progress."-D

(658) John Hay, fourth Marquis of Tweedale.  In 1748, he married Frances, daughter of John Earl Granville, and died in 1762.-E.

(659) The Hon. Edward Finch, fifth son of Daniel, sixth Earl of Winchilsea and second Earl of Nottingham, and the direct ancestor of the present Lord Winchilsea.  He assumed the name of Hatton, in 1764, in consequence of inheriting the fortune of William Viscount Hatton, his mother’s brother.  He was employed in diplomacy, and was made master of the robes in 1757.  He died in 1771.-D.

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(660) The Hon. William Finch, second son of Daniel, sixth Earl of Winchilsea, had been envoy in Sweden and in Holland.  He continued to hold the office of vice-chamberlain of the household till his death in 1766.  These two brothers, and their elder brother Daniel, seventh Earl of Winchilsea, are the persons whom Sir Charles Hanbury Williams, calls, on account of the blackness of their complexions, “the dark, funereal Finches.” [His widow, Charlotte, daughter of the Earl of Pomfret, was appointed governess to the young princes and princesses.]

(661) Lord Sidney Beauclerk, fifth son of the first Duke of St. Albans; a man of bad character.  Sir Charles Hanbury Williams calls him “Worthless Sidney.”  He was notorious for hunting after the fortunes of the old and childless.  Being very handsome, he had almost persuaded Lady Betty Germain, in her old age, to marry him; but she was dissuaded from it by the Duke of Dorset and her relations.  He failed also in obtaining the fortune of Sir’ Thomas Reeve, Chief Justice of the (common Pleas, whom he used to attend on the circuit, with a view of ingratiating himself with him.  At length he induced Mr. Topham, of Windsor, to leave his estate to him.  He died in 1744, leaving one son, Topham Beauclerk, Esq.-D. [This son, so celebrated for his conversational, talents, and described by Dr. Jonson as uniting the eloquent manners of a gentleman with the mental acccomplishments of a scholar, married, in 1768, Lady Diana Spencer, daughter of the Duke of Marlborough, and died in 1780.]

(662) John JefFries, secretary of the treasury.-D.

(663) Sir John Strange was made master of the rolls, but not till some years afterwards; he died in 1754.

(664) From the Pretender.  Lord Gower had been, until he was made privy-seal, one of the leading Jacobites; and was even supposed to lean to that party, after he had accepted the appointment.

(665) Lady Isabella Finch, third daughter of the sixth Earl of Winchilsea, first lady of the bedchamber to the Princess Amelia.  It was for her that Kent built the pretty and singular house on the western side of Berkeley Square, with a fine room in it, of which the ceiling is painted in arabesque compartments, by Zucchi;-now the residence of C. B. Wall, Esq.-D. [In this house her ladyship died unmarried, in 1771.)

(666) Sir Thomas Robinson, minister at Vienna; be was made secretary of state in 1754. (And a peer, by the title of Lord Grantham, in 1761.-D.)

(667) John Carmichael, third Earl of Hyndford.  He had been sent as envoy to the King of Prussia, during the first war of Silesia.  He was afterwards sent ambassador to St. Petersburgh and Vienna, and died in 1767.-D.

(668) The Duke of Bedford had not the Garter till some years after this.

275 Letter 78 To Sir Horace Mann.

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You scolded me so much about my little paper, that I dare not venture upon it even now, when I have very little to say to you.  The long session is over, and the Secret Committee already forgotten.  Nobody remembers it but poor Paxton, who has lost his place(669) by it. saw him the day after he came out of Newgate:  he came to Chelsea:(670) Lord Fitzwilliam was there, and in the height of zeal, took him about the neck and kissed him.  Lord Orford had been at Court that morning, and with his usual spirits, said to the new ministers, “So! the parliament is up, and Paxton, Bell, and I have got our liberty!” The King spoke in the kindest manner to him at his levee, but did not call him into the closet, as the new ministry feared he would, and as perhaps, the old ministry expected he would.  The day before, when the King went to put an end to the session, Lord Quarendon asked Winnington “whether Bell would be let out time enough to hire a mob to huzza him as he went to the House of Lords.”

The few people that are left in town have been much diverted with an adventure that has befallen the new ministers.  Last Sunday the Duke of Newcastle gave them a dinner at Claremont, where their servants got so drunk, that when they came to the inn over against the gate of Newpark,(671) the coachman, who was the only remaining fragment of their suite, tumbled off the box, and there they were planted.  There were Lord Bath, Lord Carteret, Lord Limerick, and Harry Furnese (672) in the coach:  they asked the innkeeper if he could contrive no way to convey them to town. , No,” he said, “not unless it was to get Lord Orford’s coachman to drive them.”  They demurred; but Lord Carteret said “Oh, I dare say, Lord Orford will willingly let us have him.”  So they sent and he drove them home.(673)

Ceretesi had a mind to see this wonderful Lord Orford, of whom he had heard so much; I carried him to dine at Chelsea.  You know the earl don’t speak a word of any language but English and Latin,(674) and Ceretesi not a word of either; yet he assured me that he was very happy to have made cosi bella conascenza!  He whips out his pocket-book every moment, and writes descriptions in issimo of every thing he sees:  the grotto alone took up three pages.  What volumes he will publish at his return, in usum Serenissimi Pannom!(675)

There has lately been the most shocking scene of murder imaginable; a parcel of drunken constables took it into their heads to put the laws in execution against disorderly persons, and so took up every woman they met, till they had collected five and six or twenty, all of whom they thrust into St. Martin’s roundhouse, where they kept them all night, with doors and windows closed.  The poor creatures, who could not stir or breathe, screamed as long as they had any breath left, begging at least for water:  one poor wretch said she was worth eighteen-pence, and would gladly give it for a draught of water, but in vain! 

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So well did they keep them there, that in the morning four were found stifled to death, two died soon after, and a dozen more are in a shocking way.  In short, it is horrid to think what the poor creatures suffered:  several of them were beggars, who, from having no lodging, were necessarily found in the street, and others honest labouring women.  One of the dead was a poor washerwoman, big with child, who was returning home late from washing.  One of the constables is taken, and others absconded; but I question(676) if any of them will suffer death, though the greatest criminals in this town are the officers of justice; there is no tyranny they do not exercise, no villainy of which they do not partake.  These same men, the same night, broke into a bagnio in Covent-Garden, and took up Jack Spencer,(677) Mr. Stewart, and Lord George Graham,(678) and would have thrust them into the round-house with the poor women, if they had not been worth more than eighteen-pence!

I have just now received yours of the 15th of July, with a married letter from both Prince and Princess:(679) but sure nothing ever equalled the setting out of it!  She says, “The generosity of your friendship for me, Sir, leaves me nothing to desire of all that is precious in England, China, and the Indies!” Do you know, after such a testimony under the hand of a princess, that I am determined, after the laudable example of the house of Medici, to take the title of Horace the Magnificent!  I am only afraid it should be a dangerous example for my posterity, who may ruin themselves in emulating the magnificence of their ancestor.  It happens comically, for the other day, in removing from Downing-street, Sir Robert found an old account-book of his father, wherein he set down all his, expenses.  In three months and ten days that he was in London one winter as member of parliament, he spent-what do you think?-sixty-four pounds seven shillings and five-pence!  There are many articles for Nottingham ale, eighteen-pences for dinners, five shillings to Bob (now Earl of Orford), and one memorandum of six shillings given in exchange to Mr. Wilkins for his wig-and yet this old man, my grandfather, had two thousand pounds a-year, Norfolk sterling!  He little thought that what maintained him for a whole session, would scarce serve one of his younger grandsons to buy japan and fans for princesses at Florence!

Lord Orford has been at court again to-day:  Lord Carteret came up to thank him for his coachman; the Duke of Newcastle standing by.  My father said, “My lord, whenever the duke is near overturning you, you have nothing to do but to send to me, and I will save you.”  The duke said to Lord Carteret, “Do you know, my lord, that the Venison you eat that day came out of Newpark?” Lord Orford laughed, and said, “So, you see I am made to kill the fatted calf for the return of the prodigals!” The King passed by all the new ministry to speak to him, and afterwards only spoke to my Lord Carteret.

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Should I answer the letters from the court of Petraria again? there will be no end of our magnificent correspondence!-but would it not be too haughty to let a princess write last?

Oh, the cats!  I can never keep them, and yet It is barbarous to send them all to Lord Islay:  he will shut them up and starve them, and then bury them under the stairs with his wife.  Adieu!

(669) Solicitor to the treasury.  See ante, p. 246.

(670) Sir R. Walpole’s house at Chelsea.-D.

(671) Lord Walpole was ranger of Newpark. (Now called Richmond Park.-D.)

(672) One of the band of incapables who obtained power and place on the fall of Walpole.  Horace Walpole, in his Memoires, calls him “that old rag of Lord Bath’s quota to an administration, the mute Harry Furnese."-D.

(673) This occurrence was celebrated in a ballad which is inserted in C. Hanbury Williams’s works, and begins thus.

“As Caleb and Carteret, two birds of a feather, Went down to a feast at Newcastle’s together.”

Lord Bath is called “Caleb,” in consequence of the name of Caleb DAnvers having been used in The Craftsman, of which he was the principal author.-D.

(674) It was very remarkable that Lord Orford could get and keep such an ascendant with King George 1. when they had no way of conversing but very imperfectly in Latin.

(675) The coffee-house at Florence where the nobility meet.

(676) The keeper of the round-house was tried but acquitted of wilful murder. [The keeper, whose name was William Bird, was tried at the Old Bailey in October, and received sentence of death; which was afterwards transmuted to transportation.]

(677) The Honourable John Spencer, second son of Charles, third Earl of Sunderland, by Anne his wife, second daughter of the great Duke of Marlborough.  He was the favourite grandson of old Sarah, Duchess of Marlborough who left him a vast fortune, having disinherited, to the utmost of her power, his eldest brother, Charles, Duke of Marlborough.  The condition upon which she made this bequest was that neither he nor his heirs should take any place or pension from any government, except the rangership of Windsor Park.  He was the ancestor of the present Earl Spencer, and died in 1746.- D.

(678) Lord George Graham, youngest son of the Duke of Montrose, and a captain in the navy.  He died in 1747.-D.

(679) Prince and Princess Craon.

278 Letter 79
To Sir Horace Mann. 
Chelsea, July 29, 1742.

I am quite out of humour; the whole town is melted away; you never saw such a desert.  You know what Florence is in the vintage-season, at least I remember what it was:  London is just as empty, nothing but half-a-dozen private gentlewomen left, who live upon the scandal that they laid up in the winter.  I am going too! this day se’nnight we set out for Houghton, for three months; but I scarce

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think that I shall allow thirty days apiece to them.  Next post I shall not be able to write to you; and when I am there shall scarce find any materials to furnish a letter above every other post.  I beg, however, that you will write constantly to me:  it will be my only entertainment, for I neither hunt, brew, drink, nor reap.  When I return in the winter, I will make amends for this barren season of our correspondence.

I carried Sir Robert the other night to Ranelagh for the first time:  my uncle’s prudence, or fear, would never let him go before.  It was pretty full, and all its fulness flocked round us:  we walked with a train at our heels, like two chairmen going to fight; but they were extremely civil, and did not crowd him, or say the least impertinence—­I think he grows popular already!  The other day he got it asked, whether he should be received if he went to Carleton House?-no, truly!-but yesterday morning Lord Baltimore’ came (680) to soften it a little; that his royal highness -did not refuse to see him, but that now the Court was out of town, and he had no drawing-room, he did not see any body.

They have given Mrs. Pultney an admirable name, and one that is likely to stick by her-instead of Lady Bath, they call her the wife of Bath.(681) Don’t you figure her squabbling at the gate with St. Peter for a halfpenny.

Cibber has published a little pamphlet against Pope, which has a great deal of spirit, and, from some circumstances, will notably vex him.(682) I will send it to you by the first opportunity, with a new pamphlet, said to be Doddington’s, called “A Comparison of the Old and New Ministry:”  it is much liked.  I have not forgot your magazines, but will send them and these pamphlets together.  Adieu!  I am at the end of my tell.

P. S. Lord Edgecumbe is just made lord-lieutenant of Cornwall, at which the Lord of Bath looks sour.  He said, yesterday, that the King would give orders for several other considerable alterations; but gave no orders, except for this, which was not asked by that earl.

(680) Lord of the bedchamber to the Prince.

(681) In allusion to the old ballad.

(682) This pamphlet, which was entitled “A Letter from Mr. Cibber to Mr. Pope; inquiring into the motives that might induce him, in his satirical works to be so frequently fond of Mr. Cibber’s name,” so “notably vexed” the great poet, that, in a new edition of the Dunciad, he dethroned Theobald from his eminence as King of the dunces, and enthroned Cibber in his stead.-E.

279 Letter 80
To Sir Horace Mann. 
(From Houghton.)

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Here are three new ballads,(683) and you must take them as a plump part of a long letter.  Consider, I am in the barren land of Norfolk, where news grows as slow as any thing green; and besides, I am in the house of a fallen minister!  The first song I fancy is Lord Edgcumbe’s; at least he had reason to write it.  The second I do not think so good as the real Story that occasioned it.  The last is reckoned vastly the best, and is much admired:  I cannot say I see all those beauties in it, nor am charmed with the poetry, which is cried up.  I don’t find that any body knows whose it is.(684) Pultney is very anoyed, especially as he pretends, about his wife, and says, “it is too much to abuse ladies!” You see, their twenty years’ satires come back home!  He is gone to the Bath in great dudgeon:  the day before he went, he went in to the King to ask him to turn out Mr. Hill of the customs, for having opposed him at Heydon.  “Sir,” said the King, “was it not when you was opposing me?  I won’t turn him out:  I will part with no more of my friends.”  Lord Wilmington was waiting to receive orders accordingly, but the King gave him none.

We came hither last Saturday; as we passed through Grosvenor-square, we met Sir Roger Newdigate, (685) with a vast body of Tories, proceeding to his election at Brentford:  we might have expected some insult, but only one single fellow hissed. and was not followed.  Lord Edgcumbe, Mr. Ellis, and Mr. Hervey, in their way to Coke’s,(686) and Lord Chief Justice Wills (on the circuit) are the Only company here yet.  My Lord invited nobody, but left it to their charity.  The other night, as soon as he had gone through showing Mr. Wills the house, Well,” said he, “here I am to enjoy ’t, and my Lord of Bath may—.”  I forgot to tell you, in confirmation of what you see in the song of the wife of Bath having shares of places, Sir Robert told me, that when formerly she got a place for her own father, she took the salary and left him only the perquisites!

It is much thought that the King will go abroad, if he can avoid leaving the Prince in his place—.  Imagine all this!

I received to-day yours of July 21), and two from Mr. Chute and Madame Pucci,(687) which I will answer very soon:  where is she now?  I delight in Mr. Villiers’s, (688) modesty-in one place you had written it villette’s; I fancy on purpose, for it would do for him.

Good night, my dear child!  I have written myself threadbare.  I know you will hate my campaign, but what can one do!

(683) As these ballads are to be found in the edition of Sir Charles Hanbury Williams’s works, published in 1822, it has been deemed better to omit them here.  They are called, “Labour in Vain,” “The Old Coachman,” and “The Country Girl."-D.

(684) it was written by Hanbury Williams.

(685) Sir Roger Newdigate, the fifth baronet of the family.  He was elected member for Middlesex, upon the vacancy occasioned by Pultney’s being created Earl of Bath.  He belonged to the Tory or Jacobite party.-D. [Sir Roger afterwards represented the University of Oxford in five parliaments, and died in 1806, in his eighty-seventh year.  Among other benefactions to his Alma Mater, he gave the noble candelabra in the Radcliffe library, and founded an annual prize for English verses on ancient painting, sculpture, and architecture.]

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(686) Holkham.  Coke was the son of Lord Lovel, afterward Viscount Coke, when his father was created Earl of Leicester.-D.

(687) She was the daughter of the Conte di Valvasone, of Friuli, sister of Madame Suares, and of the bedchamber to the Duchess of Modena.

(688) Thomas Villiers a younger son of william, second Earl of Jersey, at this time British minister at the court of Dresden, and eventually created Lord Hyde, and Earl of clarendon.  Sir H. Mann had alluded in one of his letters to a speech attributed to Mr. Villiers, in which he took great credit to himself for having induced the King of Poland to become a party to the peace of Breslau, recently concluded between the Queen of Hungary and the King, of Prussia; a course of proceeding, which, in fact, his Polish Majesty had no alternative but to adopt.  Villettes was an inferior diplomatic agent from England to some of the Italian courts, and was at this moment resident at the court of Turin.-D.

280 Letter 81 To Sir Horace Mann.  Houghton, Aug. 20, 1742

By the tediousness of the post, and distance of place, I am still receiving letters from you about the Secret Committee, which seems strange, for it is as much forgotten now, as if it had happened in the last reign.  Thus much I must answer you about it, that it is possible to resume the inquiry upon the Report next session; but you may judge whether they will, after all the late promotions.

We are willing to believe that there are no news in town, for we hear none at all:  Lord Lovel sent us word to-day, that he heard, by a messenger from the post office, that Montemar (689) is put under arrest.  I don’t tell you this for news, for you must know it long ago:  but I expect the confirmation of it from you next post.  Since we came hither I have heard no more of the king’s journey to Flanders:  our troops are as peaceable there as On Hounslow Heath, except some bickerings and blows about beef with butchers, and about sacraments with friars.  You know the English can eat no meat, nor be civil to any God but their own.

As much as I am obliged to you for the description of your Cocchiata,(690) I don’t like to hear of it.  It is very unpleasant, instead of being at it, to be prisoner, in a melancholy, barren province, which would put one in mind of the deluge, only that we have no water.  Do remember exactly how your last was; for I intend that you shall give me just such another Cocchiata next summer, if it pleases the kings and queens of this world to let us be at peace For “it rests that without fig-leaves,” as my Lord Bacon says in one of his letters , “I do ingenuously confess and acknowledge,” (691) that I like nothing so well as Italy.

I agree with you extremely about Tuscany for Prince Charles,(692) but I can only agree with you on paper; for as to knowing anything of it, I am sure Sir Robert himself knows nothing of it:  the Duke of Newcastle and my Lord Carteret keep him in as great ignorance as possible, especially the latter; and even in other times, you know how little he ever thought on those things.  Believe me, he will every day know less.

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Your last, which I have been answering, was the. 5th of August; I this minute receive another of the 12th.  How I am charmed with your spirit and usage of Richcourt!  Mais ce n’est pas d’aujourdhui que je commence `a les m`epriser!  I am so glad that you have quitted your calm, to treat them as they deserve.  You don’t tell me if his opposition in the council hindered your intercession from taking place for the valet de chambre.  I hope not!  I could not bear his thwarting you!

I am now going to write to your brother, to get you the overtures; and to desire he will send them with some pamphlets and the magazines which I left in commission for you, at my leaving London.  I am going to send him, too, des pleins pouvoirs, for nominating a person to represent me at his new babe’s christening.

I am sorry Mrs. Goldsworthy is coming to England, though I think it can be of no effect.  Sir Charles (692) has no sort of interest with the new powers, and I don’t think the Richmonds have enough to remove foreign ministers.  However, I will consult with Sir Robert about it, and see if he thinks there is any danger for you, which I do not in the least; and whatever can be done by me, I think you know, will.

P. S. I inclose an answer to Madame Pucci’s letter.  Where is she in all this Modenese desolation

(689) Montemar was the General of the King of Spain, who commanded the troops of that sovereign against the Imperialists in Italy.-D.

(690) A sort of serenade.  Sir H. Mann had mentioned, that he was about to give an entertainment of this kind in his garden to the society of Florence.-D.

(691) Prince Charles of Lorraine, younger brother of Francis, who was now Grand Duke of Tuscany.  He was a general of some abilities; but it was his misfortune to be so often opposed to the superior talents of the King of Prussia.-D.

(692) Sir Charles Wager.

281 Letter 82
To Sir Horace Mann. 
Houghton, August 28, 1742.

I did receive your letter of the 12th, as I think I mentioned in my last; and to-day another of the 19th.  Had I been you, instead of saying that I would have taken my lady’s(693) woman for my spy, I should have said, that I would hire Richcourt himself:  I dare to say that one might buy the count’s own secrets of himself.

I am sorry to hear that the Impressarii have sent for the Chiaretta; I am not one of the managers; I should have remonstrated against her, for she will not do on the same stage with the Barbarina.  I don’t know who will be glad of her coming, but Mr. Blighe and Amorevoli.

’Tis amazing, but we hear not a syllable of Prague taken,(694) it must be!  Indeed, Carthagena, too, was certain of being taken! but it seems, Maillebois is to stop at Bavaria.  I hope Belleisle (695) will be made prisoner?  I am indifferent about the fate of the great Broglio-but Belleisle is able, and is our most determined enemy:  we need not have more, for to-day it is confirmed that Cardinal Tencin (696) and M. d’Argenson are declared of the prime ministry.  The first moment they can, Tencin will be for transporting the Pretenders into England.  Your advice about Naples was quite judicious:  the appearance of a bomb will have great weight in the councils of the little king.

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We don’t talk now of any of the Royals passing into Flanders; though the Champion (697) this morning had an admirable quotation, on the supposition that the King would go himself:  it was this line from the Rehearsal:-

“Give us our fiddle; we ourselves will play.”

The lesson for the Day (698) that I sent you, I gave to Mr. Coke, who came in as I was writing it, and by his dispersing it, it has got into print, with an additional one, which I cannot say I am proud should go under my name.  Since that, nothing but lessons are the fashion:  first and second lessons, morning and evening lessons, epistles, etc.  One of the Tory papers published so abusive an one last week on the new ministry, that three gentlemen called on the printer, to know how he dared to publish it.  Don’t you like these men who for twenty years together led the way, and published every thing that was scandalous, that they should wonder at any body’s daring to publish against them!  Oh! it will come home to them!  Indeed, every body’s fame now is published at length:  last week the Champion mentioned the Earl of Orford and his natural daughter, Lady Mary, at length (for which he had a great mind to prosecute the printer).  To-day, the London Evening Post says, Mr. Pane, nephew of Mr. Scrope, is made first clerk of the treasury, as a reward for his uncle’s taciturnity before the Secret Committee.  He is in the room of old Tilson, who was so tormented by that Committee that it turned his brain, and he is dead.

I am excessively shocked at Mr. Fane’s (699) behaviour to you; but Mr. Fane is an honourable man! he lets poor you pay him his salary for eighteen months, without thinking of returning it!  But if he had lost that sum to Jansen,(700) or to any of the honourable men at White’s, he would think his honour engaged to pay it.  There is nothing, sure, so whimsical as modern honour!  You may debauch a woman upon a promise of marriage, and not marry her; you may ruin your tailor’s or your baker’s family by not paying them; you may make Mr. Mann maintain you for eighteen months, as a public minister, out of his own pocket, and still be a man of honour!  But, not to pay a common sharper, or not to murder a man that has trod upon your toe, is such a blot in your scutcheon, that you could never recover your honour, though you had in your veins “all the blood of all the Howards!”

My love to Mr. Chute:  tell him, as he looks on the east front of Houghton, to tap under the two windows in the left-hand wing, up stairs, close to the colonnade-there are Patapan and I, at this instant, writing to you; there we are almost every morning, or in the library; the evenings, we walk till dark; then Lady Mary, Miss Leneve, and I play at comet; the Earl, Mrs. Leneve, and whosoever is here, discourse; car telle est notre vie!  Adieu!

(693) Lady Walpole.  Richcourt, the Florentine minister, was her lover, and both, as has been seen in the former part of these letters, were enemies of Sir .  H. Mann.-D.

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(694) This means retaken by the Imperialists from the French, who had obtained possession of it on the 25th of November, 1741.  The Austrian troops drove the French out of Prague, in December, 1742.-D.

(695) This wish was gratified, though not in this year.  Marshal Belleisle was taken prisoner in 1745, by the Hanoverian dragoons, was confined for some months in Windsor Castle, and exchanged after the battle of Fontenoy.-D.

(696) A profligate ecclesiastic, who was deeply engaged in the corrupt political intrigues of the day.  In these he was assisted by his sister Madame Tencin, an unprincipled woman of much ability, who had been the mistress of the still more infamous Cardinal Dubois.  Voltaire boasts in his Memoirs, of having killed the Cardinal Tencin from vexation, at a sort of political hoax, which he played off upon him.-D. [The cardinal was afterwards, made Archbishop of Lyons.  In 1752, he entirely quitted the court, and retired to his diocese, where he died in 1758, ,greatly esteemed,” says the Biog.  Univ. for his extensive charities.”  His sister died in 1749.  She was mother of the celebrated D’Alembert by Destouches Canon, and authoress of “Le Comte de Comminges,” “Les Malheurs de l’Amour,” and other romances.]

(697) ’The Champion was an opposition Journal, written by Fielding. [Assisted by Ralph, the historian.)

(698) Entitled " The Lessons for the Day, 1742.”  Published in Sir Charles Hanbury Williams’s works, but written by Walpole.-D.

(699) Charles Fane, afterwards Lord Fane, had been minister at Florence before Mr. Mann.

(700) A notorious gambler.  He is mentioned by Pope, in the character of the young man of fashion, in the fourth canto of the Dunciad,

“As much estate, and principle, and wit, As Jansen, Fleetwood, Cibber, shall think fit."-D.

284 Letter 83 To Sir Horace Mann.  Houghton, Sept. 11, 1742.

I could not write to you last week, for I was at Woolterton,(701) and in a course of visits, that took up my every moment.  I received one from you there, of August 26th, but have had none at all this week.

You know I am not prejudiced in favour of the country, nor like a place because it bears turnips well, or because you may gallop over it without meeting a tree:  but I really was charmed with Woolterton; it is all wood and water!  My uncle and aunt may, without any expense, do what they have all their lives avoided, wash themselves and make fires.(702) Their house is more than a good one; if they had not saved eighteen pence in every room, it would have been a fine one.  I saw several of my acquaintance,(703) Volterra vases, Grisoni landscapes, the four little bronzes, the raffle-picture, etc.

We have printed about the expedition to Naples:  the affair at Elba, too, is in the papers, but we affect not to believe it.  We are in great apprehensions of not taking Prague—­the only thing that has been taken on our side lately, I think, is my Lord Stair’s journey hither and back again-we don’t know for what-he is such an Orlando!  The papers are full of the most defending King’S Journey to Flanders;our private letters say not a word of it-I say our, for at present I think the earl’s intelligences and mine are pretty equal as to authority.

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Here is a little thing which I think has humour in it.


1.  Jean-sans-terre, on l’Empereur en pet-en-l’air; imprim`e `a Frankfort.

2.  La France mourante d’une suppression
d’hommes et d’argent:  dedi`e au public.

3.  L’art de faire les Neutralit`es, invent`e
en Allemagne, et `ecrit en cette langue, par Un des Electeurs, et nouvellement traduit en Napolitain; par le Chef d’Escadre Martin.

4.  Voyage d’Allemaune, par Monsieur de Maupertuis; avec un t`elescope, invent`e pendant son voyage; `a l’usage des H`eros, pour regarder leur victoires de loin.

5.  M`ethode court et facile pour faire entrer les troupes Fran`coies en Allemagne:-mais comment faire, pour les en faire sortir?

6.  Trait`e tr`es salutaire et tr`es utile sur la reconnoissance envers les bienfaicteurs, par le Roy de Pologne.  Folio, imprim`e `a Dresde.

7.  Obligation sacr`ee des Trait`es, Promesses, et Renonciations, par le Grand Turc; avec des Remarques retractoires, par un Jesuite.

8.  Probleme; combien il faut d’argent FranSois pour payer le sang Su`edois circul`e par le Comte de Gyllembourg

9.  Nouvelle m`ethode de friser les cheveux `a la Francoise; par le Colonel Mentz et sa Confrairie.

10.  Recueil de Dissertations sur la meilleure mani`ere de faire la partition des successions, par le Cardinal de Fleury; avec des notes, historiques et politiques, par la Reine d’Espagne.

11.  Nouveau Voyage de Madrid `a Antibes, par l’Infant Dom Philippe.

12.  Lart de chercher les ennemis sans lea trouver; par le Marechal de Maillebois.

13.  La fid`elit`e couronn`ee, par le G`en`eral Munich et le Comte d’Osterman.

14.  Le bal de Lintz et les amusements de DOnawert; pi`ece pastorale et galante,
                           en un acte, par le Grand Duc.

15. l’Art de maitriser les Femmes, par sa Majest`e Catliolique.

16.  Avantures Boh`emiennes, tragi-comiques, tr`es curieuses, tr`es int`erressantes, et charg`ees d’incidents.  Tom. i. ii. iii.  N.B.  Le dernier tome, qui fera le denouement, est sous presse.

Adieu! my dear child; if it was not for this secret of transcribing, what should one do in the country to make out a letter?

285 Letter 84 To Sir Horace Mann.  Houghton, Sept. 25th, 1742.

At last, my dear child, I have got two letters from you!  I have been in strange pain, between fear of your being ill, and apprehensions of your letters being stopped; but I have received that by Crew, and another since.  But you have been ill!  I am angry with Mr. Chute for not writing to let me know it.  I fancied you worse than you say, or at least than you own.  But I don’t wonder you have fevers! such a busy politician as Villettes,(704) and such a blustering negotiator as il Furibondo (705) are enough to put all your little economy of health

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and spirits in confusion.  I agree with you, that " they don’t pique themselves upon understanding sense, any more than Deutralities!” The grand journey to Flanders(706) is a little -it a stand:  the expense has been computed at two thousand pounds a day!  Many dozen of embroidered portmanteaus full of laurels and bays have been prepared this fortnight.  The Regency has been settled and unsettled twenty times:  it is now said, that the weight of it is not to be laid on the Prince.  The King is to return by his birthday; but whether he is to bring back part of French Flanders with him, or will only have time to fetch Dunkirk, is uncertain.  In the mean time, Lord Carteret is gone to the Hague; by which jaunt it seems that Lord Stair’s journey was not conclusive.  The converting of the siege of Prague into a blockade makes no great figure in the journals on this side the water and question-but it is the fashion not to take towns that one was sure of taking.  I cannot pardon the Princess for having thought of putting off her `epuisements and lassitudes to take a trip to Leghorn, “pendant qu’on ne donnoit `a manger `a Monsieur le Prince son fils, que de la chair de chevaux!” Poor Prince Beauvau!(707) I shall be glad to hear he is safe from this siege.  Some of the French princes of the blood have been stealing away a volunteering, but took care to be missed in time.  Our Duke goes with his lord and father-they say, to marry a princess of Prussia, whereof great preparations have been making in his equipage and in his breeches.

Poor Prince Craon! where did De Sade get fifty sequins.  When I was at Florence, you know all his clothes were in pawn to his landlord; but he redeemed them by pawning his Modenese bill of credit to his landlady!  I delight in the style of the neutrality maker(708)-his neutralities and his English arc perfectly of a piece.

You have diverted me excessively with the history of the Princess Eleonora’s(709) posthumous issue-but how could the woman have spirit enough to have five children by her footman, and yet not have enough to own them.  Really, a woman so much in the great world should have known better!  Why, no yeoman’s dowager could have acted more prudishly!  It always amazes me, when I reflect on the women, who are the first to propagate scandal of one another.  If they would but agree not to censure what they all agree to do, there would be no more loss of characters among them than amongst men.  A woman cannot have an affair, but instantly all her sex travel about to publish it, and leave her off:  now, if a man cheats another of his estate at play, forges a will, or marries a ward to his own son, nobody thinks of leaving him off for such trifles.

The English parson at Stosch’s, the archbishop on the chapter of music, the Fanciulla’s persisting in her mistake, and old Count Galli’s distress, are all admirable stories.(710) But what is the meaning of Montemar’s writing to the Antinora?—­I thought he had left the Galia for my illustrissima,(711) her sister. lord!  I am horridly tired of that romantic love and correspondence!  Must I answer her last letter? there were but six lines—­what can I say?  I perceive, by what you mention of the cause of his disorder, that Rucellai does not turn out that simple, honest man you thought him-come, own it

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I just recollect a story, which perhaps will serve your archbishop on his Don Pilogio(712)-the Tartuffe was meant for the then archbishop of Paris, who, after the first night, forbad its being acted.  Moliere came forth, and told the audience, “Messieurs, on devoit vous donner le Tartuffe, mais MOnSeigneur l’Archev`eque ne veut pas qu’on le joue.”

My lord is very impatient for his Dominichin; so you will send it by the first safe conveyance.  He is making a gallery, for the ceiling of which I have given the design of that in the little library of St. Mark at Venice:  Mr. Chute will remember how charming it was; and for the frieze, I have prevailed to have that of the temple at Tivoli.  Naylor(713) came here the other day with two coaches full of relations:  as his mother-in-law, who was one of the company is widow of Dr. Hare, Sir Robert’s old tutor at Cambridge, he made them stay to dine:  when they were gone, he said, “Ha, child! what is that Mr. Naylor, Horace ? he is the absurdest man I ever saw!” I subscribed to his opinion; won’t you?  I must tell you a story of him.  When his father married this second wife, Naylor said,"Father, they say you are to be married to-day, are you?” “Well,” replied the bishop, “and what is that to you?” “Nay, nothing; only if you had told me, I would have powdered my hair.”

(704) Mr. Villettes was minister at Turin.

(705) Admiral Matthews; his ships having committed some outrages on the coast of Italy, the Italians called him it Furibondo.

(706) Of George the Second.-D.

(707) Afterwards a marshal of France.  He was a man of some ability, and the friend and patron of St. Lambert, and of other men of letters of the time of Lewis XV.-D. [He was made a marshal in 1783 by the unfortunate Louis XVI. and in 1789 a minister of state.  He died in 1793, a few weeks after the murder of his royal master.]

(708) Admiral Matthews.

(709) Eleonora of Guastalla, widow of the last cardinal of Medici, died at Venice. (The father of the children was a French running footman.-D.) [Cosmo the Third was sixty-seven years old at the period of the marriage:  “une fois le marriage conclu,” says the Biog.  Univ.  “El`eonore refusa de la consommer, rebut`ee par la figure, par l’age et surtout par les d`esordres de son `epouse.”  Cosmo died at the age of eighty-one.  A translation of his Travels through England, in 1669, was published in 1820.

(710) These are stories in a letter of Sir H. Mann’s, which are neither very decent nor very amusing.-D.

(711) Madame Grifoni.

(712) The Archbishop of Florence had forbid the acting of a burlettae called Don Pilogio, a sort of imitation of Tartuffe.  When the Impresario of the Theatre remonstrated upon the expense he had been put to in preparing the music for it, the archbishop told him he might use it for some other opera.-D.

(713) He was the son of Dr. Here, Bishop of Chichester, and changed his name for an estate.

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                            287 Letter 85
          To Sir Horace Mann. 
Houghton, Oct. 8th, 1742.

I have not heard from you this fortnight; if I don’t receive a letter to-morrow, I shall be quite out of humour.  It is true, of late I have written to you but every other post; but then I have been in the country, in Norfolk, in Siberia!  You were still at Florence, in the midst of Kings of Sardinia, Montemars, and Neapolitan neutralities; your letters are my only diversion.  As to German news, it is all so simple that I am peevish:  the raising of the siege of Prague,((714) and Prince Charles and Marechal Maillebois playing at hunt the squirrel, have disgusted me from inquiring about the war.  The earl laughs in his great chair, and sings a bit of an old ballad,

“They both did fight, they both did beat, they both did run
They both strive again to meet, the quite contrary way.”

Apropos!  I see in the papers that a Marquis de Beauvau escaped out of Prague with the Prince de Deuxpons and the Duc de Brissac; was it our Prince Beauvau?

At last the mighty monarch does not go to Flanders, after making the greatest preparations that ever were made but by Harry the Eighth, and the authors of the grand Cyrus and the illustrious Hassa:  you may judge by the quantity of napkins, which were to the amount of nine hundred dozen-indeed, I don’t recollect that ancient heroes were ever so provident of necessaries, or thought how they were to wash their hands and face after a victory.  Six hundred horses, under the care of the Duke of Richmond, were even shipped; and the clothes and furniture of his court magnificent enough for a bull-fight at the conquest of Granada.  Felton Hervey’s(715) war-horse, besides having richer caparisons than any of the expedition, had a gold net to keep off the flies-in winter!  Judge of the clamours this expense to no purpose will produce!  My Lord Carteret is set out from the Hague, but was not landed when the last letters came from London:  there are no great expectations from this trip; no more than followed from my Lord Stair’s.

I send you two more odes on Pultney,(716) I believe by the same hand as the former, though none are equal to the Nova Progenies, which has been more liked than almost ever any thing was.  It is not at all known whose they are; I believe Hanbury Williams’s.  The note to the first was printed with it:  the advice to him to be privy seal has its foundation; for when the consultation was held who were to have places, and my Lord Gower was named to succeed Lord Hervey, Pultney said with some warmth, “I designed to be privy seal myself!”

We expect some company next week from Newmarket:  here is at present only Mr. Keene and Pigwiggin,(717)-you never saw so agreeable a creature!-oh yes! you have seen his parents!  I must tell you a new story of them Sir Robert had given them a little horse for Pigwiggin, and somebody had given them another:  both which, to save the charge of keeping, they sent to grass in Newpark.  After three years that they had not used them, my Lord Walpole let his own son ride them, while he was at the park, in the holidays.  Do you know, that the woman Horace sent to Sir Robert, and made him give her five guineas for the two horses, because George had ridden them?  I give you my word this is fact.

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There has been a great fracas at Kensington:  one of the Mesdames(718) pulled the chair from under Countess Deloraine(719) at cards, who, being provoked that her monarch was diverted with her disgrace, with the malice of a hobby-horse, gave him just such another fall.  But alas! the Monarch, like Louis XIV. is mortal in the part that touched the ground, and was so hurt and so angry, that the countess is disgraced, and her German rival (720) remains in the sole and quiet possession of her royal master’s favour.

October 9th.

Well!  I have waited till this morning, but have no letter from you; what can be the meaning of it?  Sure, if you was ill, Mr. Chute would write to me!  Your brother protests he never lets your letters lie at the office.

Sa Majest`e Patapanique(721) has had a dreadful misfortune!-not lost his first minister, nor his purse—­nor had part of his camp equipage burned in the river, nor waited for his secretary of state, who is perhaps blown to Flanders—­nay, nor had his chair pulled from under him-worse! worse! quarrelling with a great pointer last night about their countesses, he received a terrible shake by the back and a bruise on the left eye—­poor dear Pat! you never saw such universal consternation! it was at supper.  Sir Robert, who makes as much rout with him as I do, says, he never saw ten people show so much real concern!  Adieu!  Yours, ever and ever-but write to me.

(714) The Marshal de Maillebois and the Count de Saxe had been sent with reinforcements from France, to deliver the Marshal de Broglio and the Marshal de Belleisle, who, with their army, were shut up in Prague, and surrounded by the superior forces of the Queen of Hungary, commanded by Prince Charles of Lorraine.  They succeeded in facilitating the escape of the Marshal de Broglio, and of a portion of the French troops; but the Marshal de Belleisle continued to be blockaded in Prague with twenty-two thousand men, till December 1742, when he made his escape to Egra.-D.

(715) Felton Hervey, tenth son of John, first Earl of Bristol; in 1737, appointed groom of the bedchamber to the Duke of Cumberland.  He died in 1775.-E.

(716) These are “The Capuchin,” and the ode beginning, “’Great Earl of Bath, your reign is o’er;” As they have been frequently published, they are omitted.  The “Nova Progenies” is the well-known ode beginning, “See, a new progeny descends."-D.

(717) Eldest son of old Horace Walpole. [Afterwards the second Lord Walpole of Wolterton, and in 1806, at the age of eighty-three created Earl of Orford.  He died in 1809.-E.]

(718) The Princesses, daughters of George II.-D.

(719) Elizabeth Fenwick, widow of Henry Scott, third Earl of Deloraine.  She was a favourite of George II. and lived much in his intimate society.  From the ironical epithets applied to her in Lord Hervey’s ballad in the subsequent letter, it would appear, that her general conduct was not considered to be very exemplary.  She died in 1794.-D.

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(720) Lady Yarmouth.

289 Letter 86
                                        To Sir Horace Mann. 
Houghton, Oct. 18, 1742.

I have received two letters from you since last post; I suppose the wind stopped the packet-boat.

Well! was not I in the right to persist in buying the Dominichin? don’t you laugh at those wise connoisseurs, who pronounced it a copy?  If it is one, where is the original? or who was that so great master that could equal Dominichin?  Your brother has received the money for it, and Lord Orford is in great impatience for it; yet he begs, if you can find any opportunity, that it may be sent in a man-of-war.  I must desire that the statue may be sent to Leghorn, to be shipped with it, and that you will get Campagni and Libri to transact the payment as they did for the picture, and I will pay your brother.

Villettes’ important despatches to you are as ridiculous as good Mr. Matthews’s devotion. — I fancy Mr. Matthews’s own god (722) would make as foolish a figure about a monkey’s neck, as a Roman Catholic one.  You know, Sir Francis Dashwood used to say that Lord Shrewsbury’s providence was an old angry man in a blue cloak:  another person-that I knew, believed providence was like a mouse, because he is invisible.  I dare to say Matthews believes, that providence lives upon beef and pudding, loves prize-fighting and bull-baiting, and drinks fog to the health of Old England.

I go to London in a week, and then will send you cart-loads of news:  I know none now, but that we hear to-day of the arrival of Duc d’Aremberg-I suppose to return my Lord Carteret’s visit.  The latter was near being lost; he told the King that being in a storm, he had thought it safest to put into Yarmouth roads, at which he laughed, hoh! hoh! hoh!

For want of news, I live upon ballads to you; here is one that has made a vast noise, and by Lord Hervey’s taking great pains to disperse it, has been thought his own-if it is,(723) he has taken true care to disguise the niceness of his style.

1.  O England, attend. while thy fate I deplore, Rehearsing the schemes and the conduct of power.  And since only of those who have power I sing, I am sure none can think that I hint at the King.

2.  From the time his son made him old Robin depose, All the power of a King he was well-known to lose; But of all but the name and the badges bereft, Like old women, his paraphernalia are left.

3.  To tell how he shook in St. James’s for fear, When first these new Ministers bullied him there, Makes my blood boil with rage, to think what a thing They have made of a man We ’obey as a King.

4.  Whom they pleas’d they put in, whom they pleas’d they put out, And just like a top they all lash’d him about, Whilst he like a top with a murmuring noise, Seem’d to grumble, but turn’d to these rude lashing boys.

5.  At last Carteret arriving, spoke thus to his grief, If you’ll make me your Doctor, I’ll bring you relief; You see to your closet familiar I come, And seem like my wife in the circle-at home.”

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6.  Quoth the King, “My good Lord, perhaps you’ve been told, That I used to abuse you a little of old; ’But now bring whom you will, and eke turn away, But let me and my money, and Walmoden(724) stay.”

7.”  For you and Walmoden, I freely consent, But as for your money, I must have it spent; I have promised your son (nay, no frowns,) shall have some, Nor think ’tis for nothing we patriots are come.

8.  “But, however, little King, since I find you so good, Thus stooping below your high courage and blood, Put yourself in my hands, and I’ll do what I can, To make you look yet like a King and a man.

9.  “At your Admiralty and your Treasury-board, To save one single man y; u shan’t say a word, For, by God! all your rubbish front both you shall shoot, Walpole’s ciphers and Gasherry’S(725) vassals to boot.

10.  “And to guard Prince’s ears, as all Statesmen take care, So, long as yours are-not one man shall come near; For of all your Court-crew we’ll leave only those Who we know never dare to say boh! to a goose.

11.  “So your friend booby Grafton I’ll e’en let you keep, Awake he can’t hurt, and is still half asleep; Nor ever was dangerous, but to womankind, And his body’s as impotent now as his mind.

12.  “There’s another Court-booby, at once hot and dull, Your pious pimp, Schutz, a mean, Hanover tool; For your card-play at night he too shall remain, With virtuous and sober, and wise Deloraine.(726)

13.  “And for all your Court-nobles who can’t write or read, As of such titled ciphers all courts stand in need, Who, like parliament-Swiss, vote and fight for their pay, They’re as good as a new set to cry yea and nay.

14.  “Though Newcastle’s as false, as he’s silly, I know, By betraying old Robin to me long ago, As well as all those who employed him before, Yet I leave him in place, but I leave him no power.

15.  “For granting his heart is as black as his hat, With no more truth in this, than there’s sense beneath that; Yet as he’s a coward, he’ll shake when I frown; You call’d him a rascal, I’ll use him like one,

16.  “And since his estate at elections he’ll spend, And beggar himself, without making a friend; So whilst the extravagant fool has a sous, As his brains I can’t fear, so his fortune I’ll use,

17.  “And as miser Hardwicke, with all courts will draw, He too may remain, but shall stick to his law; For of foreign affairs, when he talks like a fool, I’ll laugh in his face,, and will cry ‘Go to school!’

18.  “The Countess of Wilmington, excellent nurse, I’ll trust with the Treasury, not with its purse, For nothing by her I’ve resolved shall be done, She shall sit at that board, as you sit on the throne.

19.  “Perhaps now, you expect that I should begin To tell you the men I design to bring in; But we’re not yet determined on all their demands -And you’ll know soon enough, when they come to kiss hands.

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20.  “All that weathercock Pultney shall ask, we must grant, For to make him a great noble nothing, I want; And to cheat such a man, demands all my arts, For though he’s a fool, he’s a fool with great parts,

21.  “And as popular Clodius, the Pultney of Rome, >From a noble, for power did plebeian become, So this Clodius to be a Patrician shall choose, Till what one got by changing, the other shall lose.

22.  “Thus flatter’d and courted, and gaz’d at by all, Like Phaeton, rais’d for a day, he shall fall, Put the world in a flame, and show he did strive To get reins in his hand, though ’tis plain he can’t drive.

23.  “For your foreign affairs, howe’er they turn out, At least I’ll take care you shall make a great rout:  Then cock your great hat, strut, bounce, and look bluff, For though kick’d and cuffd here, you shall there kick and cuff.

24.  “That Walpole did nothing they all used to say, So I’ll do enough, but I’ll make the dogs pay; Great fleets I’ll provide, and great armies engage, Whate’er debts we make, or whate’er wars we wage.”

25.  With cordials like these the Monarch’s new guest Revived his sunk spirits and gladden’d his heart; Till in raptures he cried, " y dear Lord, you shall do Whatever you will, give me troops to review.

26.  “But oh! my dear England, since this is thy state, Who is there that loves thee but weeps at thy fate?  Since in changing thy masters, thou art just like old Rome, Whilst Faction, Oppression, and Slavery’s thy doom.

27.  “For though you have made that rogue Walpole retire, You’re out of the frying-pan into the fire!  But since to the Protestant line I’m a friend, I tremble to think where these changes may end!”

This has not been printed.  You see the burthen of all the songs Is the rogue Walpole, which he has observed himself, but I believe is content, as long as they pay off his arrears to those that began the tune.  Adieu!

(722) Admiral Matthews’s crew having disturbed some Roman Catholic ceremonies in a little island on the coast of Italy, hung a crucifix about a monkey’s neck.

(723) It was certainly written by Lord Hervey.

(724) Lady Yarmouth.

(725) Sir Charles Wager’s nephew, and Secretary to the Admiralty.

(726) Countess Dowager of Deloraine, governess to the young Princesses.

293 Letter 87 To Sir Horace Mann.  Houghton, Oct. 23, 1742.

At last I see an end of my pilgrimage; the day after tomorrow I am affirming it to you as earnestly as if’ you had been doubting of it like myself:  but both my brothers are here, and Sir Robert will let me go.  He must follow himself soon:  the Parliament meets the 16th of November, that the King may go abroad the first of March:  but if all threats prove true prophecies, he will scarce enter upon heroism so soon, for we are promised a winter just like the last-new Secret Committees to be tried for, and impeachments actually put into execution.  It is horrid to have a prospect of a session like the last.

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In the meantime, my Lord of Bath and Lord Hervey, who seem deserted by every body else, are grown the greatest friends in the world at Bath; and to make a complete triumvirate, my Lord Gower is always of their party:  how they must love one another, the late, the present, and the would-be Privy Seal!

Lord Hyndford has had great honours in Prussia:  that King bespoke for him a service of plate to the value of three thousand pounds.  He asked leave for his Majesty’s arms to be put upon it:  the King replied, “they should, with the arms of Silesia added to his paternal coat for ever.”  I will tell you Sir ]Robert’s remark on this:  “He is rewarded thus for having obtained Silesia for the King of Prussia, which he was sent to preserve to the Queen of Hungary!” Her affairs begin to take a little better turn again; Broglio is prevented from joining Maillebois, who, they affirm, can never bring his army off, as the King of Poland is guarding all the avenues of Saxony, to prevent his passing through that country.

I wrote to you in my last to desire that the Dominichin and my statue might come by a man-of-war.  Now.  Sir Robert, who is impatient for his picture, would have it sent in a Dutch ship, as he says he can easily get it from Holland.  If you think this conveyance quite safe, I beg my statue may bear it company.

Tell me if you are tired of ballads on my Lord Bath; if you are not, here is another admirable one,(727) I believe by the same hand as the others; but by the conclusion certainly ought not to be Williams’s.  I only send you the good ones, for the newspapers are every day full of bad ones on this famous earl.

My compliments to the Princess; I dreamed last night that she was come to Houghton, and not at all `epuis`ee with her journey.  Adieu!

P.S.  I must add a postscript, to mention a thing I have often designed to ask you to do for me.  Since I came to England I have been buying drawings, (the time is well chosen, when I had neglected it in Italy!) I saw at Florence two books that I should now be very glad to have, if you could get them tolerably reasonable; one was at an English painter’s; I think his name was Huckford, over against your house in via Bardi; they were of Holbein:  the other was of Guercino, and brought to me to see by the Abb`e Bonducci; my dear child, you will oblige me much if you can get them.

(727) Sir Charles Hanbury Williams’s ode, beginning “What Statesman, what Hero, what King-.”  It is to be found in all editions of his poems.-D.

294 Letter 88
             To Sir Horace Mann. 
Arlington Street, Nov. 1, 1742.

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I have not felt so pleasantly these three months as I do at present, though I have a great cold with coming into an unaired house, and have been forced to carry that cold to the King’s levee and the drawing-room.  There were so many new faces that I scarce knew where I was; I should have taken ’it for Carlton House, or my Lady Mayoress’s visiting-day, only the people did not seem enough at home, but rather as admitted to see the King dine in public.  ’Tis quite ridiculous to see the numbers of old ladies, who, from having been wives of patriots, have not been dressed these twenty years; out they come, in all the accoutrements that were in use in Queen Anne’s days.  Then the joy and awkward jollity of them is inexpressible!  They titter, and, wherever you meet them, are always going to court, and looking at their watches an hour before the time.  I met several on the birthday, (for I did not arrive time enough to make clothes,) and they were dressed in all the colours of the rainbow:  they seem to have said to themselves twenty years ago, ,Well, if ever I do go to court again, I will have a pink and silver, or a blue and silver,” and they keep their resolutions.- But here’s a letter from you, sent to me back from Houghton; I must stop to read it.-Well, I have read it, and am diverted with Madame Grifoni’s being with child; I hope she was too.  I don’t wonder that she hates the country; I dare to say her child does not owe its existence to the Villeggiatura.  When you wrote, it seems you had not heard what a speedy determination was put to Don Philip’s reign in Savoy.  I suppose he will retain the title:  you know great princes are fond of titles, which proves they are not so great as they once were.

I find a very different face of things from what we had conceived in the country.  There are, indeed, thoughts of renewing attacks on Lord Orford, and Of stepping the supplies; but the new ministry laugh at these threats, having secured a vast majority in the House:  the Opposition themselves own that the Court will have upwards of a hundred majority:  I don’t, indeed, conceive how; but they are confident of carrying every thing.  They talk of Lord Gower’s not keeping the privy seal; that he will either resign it, or have it taken away:  Lord Bath, who is entering into all the court measures, is most likely to succeed him.  The late Lord Privy Seal(728) has had a most ridiculous accident at Bath:  he used to play in a little inner room; but one night some ladies had got it, and he was reduced to the public room; but being extremely absent and deep in politics, he walked through the little room to a convenience behind the curtain, from whence (still absent) he produced himself in a situation extremely diverting to the women:  imagine his delicacy, and the passion he was in at their laughing!

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I laughed at myself prodigiously the other day for a piece of absence; I was writing on the King’s birthday, and being disturbed with the mob in the street, I rang for the porter, and, with an air of grandeur, as if I was still at Downing Street, cried, “Pray send away those marrowbones and cleavers!” The poor fellow with the most mortified air in the world, replied, “Sir, they are not at our door, but over the way at my Lord Carteret’s.”  “Oh,” said I, “then let them alone; may be he does not dislike the noise!” I pity the poor porter, who sees all his old customers going over the way too.

Our operas begin to-morrow with a pasticcio, full of most of my favourite songs:  the Fumagalli has disappointed us; she had received an hundred ducats, and then wrote word that she had spent them, and was afraid of coming through the Spanish quarters; but if they would send her an hundred more, she would come next year.  Villettes has what been written to in the strongest manner to have her forced hither (for she is at Turin.) I tell you this by way of key, in case you should receive a mysterious letter in cipher from him about this important business.

I have not seen Due d’Aremberg; but I hear that all the entertainments for him are suppers, for he -will dine at his own hour, eleven in the morning.  He proposed it to the Duchess of Richmond when she invited him; but she said she did not know where to find company to dine with him at that hour.

I must advise YOU to be cautious how you refuse humouring our captains (729) in any of their foolish schemes; for they are popular, and I should be very sorry to have them out of humour with you when they come home, lest it should give any handle to your enemies.  Think of it, my dear child!  The officers in Flanders, that are members of parliament, have had intimations, that if they asked leave to come on their private affairs, and drop in, not all together, they will be very well received; this is decorum.  Little Brook’s little wife is a little with child.  Adieu!

(728) Lord Hervey.

(729) The captains of ships in the English fleet at Leghorn.

296 Letter 89 To Sir Horace Mann.  London, Nov. 15, 1742.

I have not written to you lately, expecting letters from you; last I have received two.  I still send mine through France, as I am afraid they would get to you with still more difficulty through Holland.

Our army is just now ordered to march to Mayence, at the repeated instances of the Queen of Hungary; Lord Stair goes with them, but almost all the officers that arc in parliament arc come over, for the troops are only to be in garrison till March, when, it is said, the King will take the field with them.  This step makes a great noise, for the old remains of the Opposition are determined to persist, and have termed this a H(inoverian measure.  They begin to-morrow, with opposing the address on the King’s speech:  Pitt is to be the leading mail; there are none but he and Lyttelton of the Prince’s court, who do not join with the ministry:  the Prince has told them, that he will follow the advice they long ago gave him, “turning out all his people who do not vote as he would have them.”

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Lord Orford is come to town, and was at the King’s levee to-day; the joy the latter showed to see him was very visible:  all the new ministry came and spoke to him; and he had a long, laughing conversation with my Lord Chesterfield, who is still in Opposition.

You have heard, I suppose, of the revolution in the French Court; Madame de Mailly is disgraced, and her handsome sister De la Tournelle(730) succeeds:  the latter insisted on three conditions; first, that the Mailly should quit the palace before she entered it; next, that she should be declared mistress, to which post, they pretend, there is a large salary annexed, (but that is not probable,) and lastly, that she may always have her own parties at supper:  the last article would very well explain what she proposes to do with her salary.

There are admirable instructions come up from Worcester to Sandys and Winnington; they tell the latter how little hopes they always had of him.  “But for you, Mr. Sandys, who have always, etc., you to snatch at the first place you could get,” etc.  In short, they charge him, who is in the Treasury and Exchequer not to vote for any supplies.(731)

I write to you in a vast hurry, for I am going to the meeting at the Cockpit, to hear the King’s speech read to the members:  Mr. Pelham presides there.  They talk of a majority of fourscore:  we shall see to-morrow.

The Pomfrets stay in the country most part of the winter-.  Lord Lincoln and Mr. (George) Pitt have declared off in form.(732) So much for the schemes of my lady!  The Duke of Grafton used to say that they put him in mind of a troop of Italian comedians; Lord Lincoln was Valere, Lady Sophia, Columbine, and my lady the old mother behind the scenes.

Our operas go on au plus miserable:  all our hopes lie in a new dancer, Sodi, who has performed but once, but seems to please as much as the Fausan.  Did I tell you how well they had chosen the plot of the first opera?  There was a prince who rebels against his father, who had before rebelled against his.(733) The Duke of Montagu says, there is to be an opera of dancing, with singing between the acts.

My Lord Tyrawley(734) is come from Portugal, and has brought three wives and fourteen children; one of the former is a Portuguese, with long black hair plaited down to the bottom of her back.  He was asked the other night at supper, what he thought of England; whether he found much alteration from fifteen years ago?  “No,” he said, “not at all:  why, there is my Lord Bath, I don’t see the least alteration in him; he is just what he was:  and then I found Lord Grantham (735) walking on tiptoe, as if he was still afraid of waking the Queen.”

Hanbury Williams is very ill at Bath, and his wife in the same way in private lodgings in the city.  Mr. Doddington has at last owned his match with his old mistress.(736) I suppose he wants a new one.

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I commend your prudence about Leghorn; but, my dear child, what pain I am in about you!  Is it possible to be easy while the Spaniards are at your gates! write me word every minute as your apprehensions vanish or increase.  I ask every moment what people think; but how can they tell here?  You say nothing of Mr. Chute, sure he is with You Still!  When I am in such uneasiness about you, I want you every post to mention your friends being with you:  I am sure you have none so good or sensible as he is.  I am vastly obliged to you for the thought of the book of shells, and shall like -it much; and thank you too about my Scagliola table; but I am distressed about your expenses.  Is there any way one could get your allowance increased?  You know how low my interest is now; but you know too what a push I would make to be of any service to you-tell me,, and adieu!

(730) Afterwards created Duchess of Chateauroux. (Mary Anne (le Mailly, widow of the Marquis de la Tournelle.  She succeeded her sister Madame de Mailly, as mistress of Louis XV., as the latter had succeeded the other sister, Madame de Vintimille, in the same situation.  Madame de Chateauroux was sent away from the court during the illness of Louis at Metz; but on his recovery he recalled her.  Shortly after which she died, December 10, 1744, and on her deathbed accused M. de Maurepas, the minister, of having poisoned her.  The intrigue, by means of which she supplanted her sister, was conducted principally by the Marshal de Richelieu.-D.

(731) “We earnestly entreat, insist, and require, that you will postpone the supplies until you have renewed the secret committee of inquiry."-E.

(732) An admirer of Lady Sophia Fermor.-D.

(733) This was a pasticcio, called “Mandane,” another name for Metastasio’s drama of “Artaserse."-E.

(734) Lord Tyrawley was many years ambassador at Lisbon.  Pope has mentioned his and another ambassador’s seraglios in one of his imitations of Horace, “Kinnoul’s lewd cargo, or Tyrawley’s crew.” [James O’Hara, second and last Lord Tyrawley of that family, He died in 1773, at the age of eighty-five.]

(735) Henry Nassau d’Auverquerque, second Earl of Grantham.  He had been chamberlain to Queen Caroline.  He died in 1754, when his titles became extinct.-E.

(736) Mrs. Beghan.

298 Letter 90
To Sir Horace Mann. 
Arlington Street, Dec. 2, 1742.,

You will wonder that it is above a fortnight Since I wrote to you; but I have had an inflammation in one of my eyes, and durst not meddle with a pen.  I have had two letters from you of Nov. 6th and 13th, but I am in the utmost impatience for another, to hear you are quite recovered of your Trinculos and FuribOndos.  You tell me you was in a fever; I cannot be easy till I hear from you again.  I hope this will come much too late for a medicine, but it will always serve for sal volatile to give you spirits.  Yesterday was appointed for considering

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the army; but Mr. Lyttelton stood up and moved for another Secret Committee, in the very words of last year; but the whole debate ran, not upon Robert Earl of Orford, but Robert Earl of Sandys:(737) he is the constant butt of the party; indeed he bears it notably.  After five hours’ haranguing, we came to a division, and threw out the motion by a majority of sixty-seven, 253 against 186.  The Prince had declared so openly for union and agreement in all measures, that, except the Nepotism,(738) all his servants but one were with us.  I don’t know whether they will attempt any thing else, but with these majorities we must have an easy winter.  The union of the Whigs has saved this parliament.  It is expected that Pitt and Lyttelton will be dismissed by the Prince.  That faction and Waller are the only Whigs of any note that do not join with the Court.  I do not count Doddington, who must now always be with the minority, for no majority will accept him.  It is believed that Lord Gower will retire, or be desired to do so.  I suppose you have heard from Rome,(739) that Murray is made Solicitor-general, in the room of Sir John Strange, who has resigned for his health.  This is the sum of politics; we can’t expect any winter, (I hope no winter will be) like the last.  By the crowds that come hither, one should not know that Sir Robert is out of place, only that now he is scarce abused.

De reste, the town is wondrous dull; operas unfrequented, plays not in fashion, amours as old as marriages-in short, nothing but whist!  I have not yet learned to play, but I find that I wait in vain for its being left off.

I agree with you about not sending home the Dominichin in an English vessel; but what I mentioned to you of its coming in a Dutch vessel, if you find an opportunity, I think will be very safe, if you approve it; but manage that as you like.  I shall hope for my statue at the same time; but till the conveyance is absolutely safe, I know you will not venture them.  Now I mention my statue, I must beg you will send me a full bill of all my debts to you, which I am sure by this time must be infinite; I beg to know the particulars, that I may pay your brother.  Adieu, my dear Sir; take care of yourself, and submit to popery and slavery rather than get colds with sea-heroes.(740)

(737) Samuel Sandys, chancellor of the Exchequer, in the room of Sir R. Walpole.

(738) Lord Cobham’s nephews and cousins.-D.

(739) This alludes to the supposed Jacobite principles of Murray, afterwards Lord Mansfield.-D.

(740) Sir H. Mann had complained, in one of his letters, of the labours he had gone through in doing the honours of Florence to some of Admiral Matthews’s (il Furibondo) officers.  The English fleet was now at Leghorn, upon the plea of defending the Tuscan territories, in case of their being attacked by the Spaniards.-D.

299 Letter 91 To Sir Horace Mann.  Arlington Street, Dec. 9, 1742.

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I shall have quite a partiality for the post of Holland; it brought me two letters last week, and two more yesterday, of November 20th and 27th; but I find you have your perpetual headaches-how can you say that you shall tire me with talking Of them? you may make me suffer by your pains, but I will hear and insist upon your always telling me of your health.  Do you think I only correspond with you to know the posture of the Spaniards or the `epuisements of the Princess!  I am anxious, too, to know how poor Mr. Whithed does, and Mr. Chute’s gout.  I shall look upon our sea captains with as much horror as the King of Naples can, if they bring gouts, fits, and headaches.  You will have had a letter from me by this time, to give up sending the Dominichin by a man-of-war, and to propose its coming in a Dutch ship.  I believe that will be safe.

We have had another great day in the House on the army in Flanders, which the Opposition were for disbanding; but we carried ’it by a hundred and twenty.(741) Murray spoke for the first time, with the greatest applause; Pitt answered him with all his force and art of language, but on an ill-founded argument.  In all appearances, they will be great rivals.  Shippen was in great rage at Murray’s apostacy;(742) if any thing can really change his principles, possibly this competition may.  To-morrow we shall have a tougher battle on the sixteen thousand Hanoverians.  Hanover is the word given out for this winter:  there is a most bold pamphlet come out, said to be Lord Marchmont’s,(743) which affirms that in every treaty made since the accession of this family, England has been sacrificed to the interest of Hanover, and consequently insinuates the incompatibility of the two.  Lord Chesterfield says, “that if we have a mind effectually to prevent the Pretender from ever obtaining this crown, we should make him Elector of Hanover, for the people of England will never fetch another king from thence.”  Adieu! my dear child.  I am sensible that I write you short letters, but I write you all I know.  I don’t know how it is, but the wonderful seems worn out.  In this our day, we have no rabbit women-no elopements-no epic poems,(744) finer than Milton’s-no contest about harlequins and Polly Peachems.  Jansen (745) has won no more estates, and the Duchess of Queensberry is grown as tame as her neighbours.  Whist has spread an universal opium over the whole nation; it makes courtiers and patriots sit down to the same pack of cards.  The only thing extraordinary, and which yet did not seem to surprise any body, was the Barberina’s(746) being attacked by four men masqued, the other night, as she came out of the opera house, who would have forced her away, but she screamed, and the guard came.  Nobody knows who set them on, and I believe nobody inquired.

The Austrians in Flanders have separated from our troops a little out of humour, because it was impracticable for them to march without any preparatory provisions for their reception.  They will probably march in two months, if no peace prevents it.  Adieu!

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(741) Upon a motion, made by Sir William Yonge, that 534,763 pounds be granted for defraying the charge of 16,259 men, to be employed in Flanders.  The numbers on the division were 280 against 160.-E.

(742) From Toryism.-D.

(743) Hugh Hume, third Earl of Marchmont.

(744) This alludes to the extravagant encomiums bestowed on Glover’s Leonidas by the young patriots.

(745) H. Jansen, a celebrated gamester, who cheated the late Duke of Bedford of an immense sum:  Pope hints at that affair in this line, “Or when a duke to Jansen punts at White’s.”

(746) A famous dancer.

301 Letter 92
To Sir Horace Mann. 
Arlington Street, Dec. 23, 1742.

I have had no letter from you this fortnight, and I have heard nothing this month:  judge now how fit I am to write.  I hope it is not another mark of growing old; but, I do assure you, my writing begins to leave me.  Don’t be frightened!  I don’t mean this as an introduction towards having done with you-I will write to you to the very stump of my pen, and as Pope says,

“Squeeze out the last dull droppings of my sense.”

But I declare, it is hard to sit spinning out one’s brains by the fireside, without having heard the least thing to set one’s hand a-going.  I am so put to it for something to say, that I would make a memorandum of the most improbable lie that could be invented by a viscountess-dowager; as the old Duchess of Rutland (747) does when she is told of some strange casualty, “Lucy, child, step into the next room and set that down."-"Lord, Madam!” says Lady Lucy,(748) “it can’t be true!"-"Oh, no matter, child; it will do for news into the country next post.”  But do you conceive that the kingdom of the Dull is come upon earth-not with the forerunners and prognostics of other to-come kingdoms?  No, no; the sun and the moon go on just as they used to do, without giving us any hints:  we see no knights come prancing upon pale horses, or red horses; no stars, called wormwood, fall into the Thames, and turn a third part into wormwood; no locusts, like horses, with their hair as the hair of women-in short, no thousand things, each of which destroys a third part of mankind:  the only token of this new kingdom is a woman riding on a beast, which is the mother of abominations, and the name in the forehead is whist:  and the four-and-twenty elders, and the woman, and the whole town, do nothing but play with this beast.  Scandal itself is dead, or confined to a pack of cards; for the only malicious whisper I have heard this fortnight, is of an intrigue between the Queen of hearts and the Knave of clubs.  Y our friend Lady Sandwich (749) has got a son; if one may believe the belly she wore, it is a brave one.  Lord Holderness(750) has lately given a magnificent repast to fifteen persons; there were three courses of ten, fifteen, and fifteen, and a sumptuous dessert:  a great saloon illuminated, odours, and violins-and,

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who do you think were the invited?-the Visconti, Giuletta, the Galli, Amorevoli, Monticelli, Vanneschi and his wife, Weedemans the hautboy, the prompter, etc.  The bouquet was given to the Guiletta, who is barely handsome.  How can one love magnificence and low company at the same instant!  We are making great parties for the Barberina and the Auretti, a charming French girl; and our schemes succeed so well, that the opera begins to fill surprisingly; for all those who don’t love music, love noise and party, and will any night give half-a-guinea for the liberty of hissing-such is English harmony.

I have been in a round of dinners with Lord Stafford, and Bussy the French minister, who tells one stories of Capuchins, confessions, Henri Quatre, Louis XIV., Gascons, and the string which all Frenchmen go through, without any connexion or relation to the discourse.  These very stories, which I have already heard four times, are only interrupted by English puns, which old Churchill translates out of jest-books into the mouth of my Lord Chesterfield, and into most execrable French.

Adieu!  I have scribbled, and blotted, and made nothing out, and, in short, have nothing to say, so good night!

(747) Lady Lucinda Sherard, widow of John Manners, second Duke of Rutland.  She died in 1751.-E.

(748) Lady Lucy Manners, married, in 1742, to William, second Duke of Montrose.  She died in 1788.-E.

(749) Judith, sister of Lord Viscount Fane, wife of John Montagu, fifth Earl of Sandwich.-E.

(750) Robert d’Arcy, fourth Earl of Holderness; subsequently made secretary of State.  Upon his death his earldom extinguished, and what remained of his estate, as well as the Barony of Conyers, descended to his only daughter, who was married to Francis Osborne, fifth Duke of Leeds, in 1773.-D. [From whom she was divorced in 1779.  She afterwards married Captain John Byron, son of Admiral Byron, and father of the great poet.]

302 Letter 93 To Sir Horace Mann.  Arlington Street, Jan. 6, 1743.

You will wonder that you have not heard from me, but I have been too ill to write.  I have been confined these ten days with a most violent cough, and they suspected an inflammation on my lungs; but I am come off with the loss of my eyes and my voice, both of which I am recovering, and would write to you to-day.  I have received your long letter of December 11th, and return you a thousand thanks for giving up so much of your time; I wish I could make as long a letter for you, but we arc in a neutrality of news.  The Elector Palatine (751) is dead; but I have not heard what alterations that will make.  Lord Wilmington’s death, which is reckoned hard upon, is likely to make more conversation here.  He is going to Bath, but that is only to pass away the time until be dies.

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The great Vernon is landed, but we have not been alarmed with any bonfires or illuminations; he has outlived all his popularity.  There is nothing new but the separation of a Mr. and Mrs. French, whom it is impossible you should know.  She has been fashionable these two winters; her husband has commenced a suit in Doctors’ Commons against her cat, and will, they say, recover considerable damages:  but the lawyers are of opinion, that the kittens must inherit Mr. French’s estate, as they were born in lawful wedlock.

The parliament meets again on Monday, but I don’t hear of any fatigue that we are likely to have; in a little time, I suppose, we shall hear what campaigning we are to make.

I must tell you of an admirable reply of your acquaintance the Duchess of Queensberry:(752) old Lady Granville, Lord Carteret’s mother, whom they call the Queen-Mother, from taking upon her to do the honours of her son’s power, was pressing the duchess to ask her for some place for herself or friends, and assured her that she would procure it, be it what it would.  Could she have picked out a fitter person to be gracious to?  The duchess made her a most grave curtsey, and said, “Indeed, there was one thing she had set her heart on."-"Dear child, how you oblige me by asking, any thing!  What is it? tell me.”  “Only that you would speak to my Lord Carteret to get me made lady of the bedchamber to the Queen of Hungary.”

I come now to your letter, and am not at all pleased to find that the Princess absolutely intends to murder you with her cold rooms.  I wish you could come on those cold nights and sit by my fireside; I have the prettiest warm little apartment, with all my baubles, and Patapans, and cats!  Patapan and I go to-morrow to New Park, to my lord, for the air, and come back with him on Monday.

What an infamous story that affair of Nomis is! and how different the ideas of honour among officers in your world and ours!  Your history of cicisbeosm is more entertaining:  I figure the distress of a parcel of lovers who have so many things to dread-the government in this world! purgatory in the next! inquisitions, villeggiaturas, convents, etc.

Lord Essex is extremely bad, and has not strength enough to go through the remedies that are necessary to his recovery.  He now fancies that he does not exist, will not be persuaded to walk or talk, because, as he sometimes says, “How should he do any thing? he is not.”  You say, “How came I not to see Duc d’Aremberg?” I did once at the opera; but he went away soon after:  and here it is not the way to visit foreigners, unless you are of the Court, or are particularly in a way of having them at your house:  consequently Sir R. never saw him either-we are not of the Court!  Next, as to Arlington Street:  Sir R. is in a middling kind of house, which has long been his, and was let; he has taken a small one next to it for me, and they are laid together.

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I come now to speak to you of the affair of the Duke of Newcastle; but absolutely, on considering it much myself, and on talking of it with your brother, we both are against your attempting any such thing.  In the first place, I never heard a suspicion of the duke’s taking presents, and should think he would rather be affronted:  in the next place, my dear child, though you are fond of that coffee-pot, it would be thought nothing among such wardrobes as he has, of the finest wrought plate:  why, he has- a set of gold plates that would make a figure on any sideboard in the Arabian Tales;(753) and as to Benvenuto cellini, if the duke could take it for his, people in England understand all work too well to be deceived.  Lastly, as there has been no talk of alterations in the foreign ministers, and as all changes seem at an end, why should you be apprehensive?  As to Stone,(754) if any thing was done, to be sure it should be to him though I really can’t advise even that.  These are my sentiments sincerely:  by no means think of the duke.  Adieu!

(751) Charles Philip of Neubourg, , Elector Palatine.  He died December 31, 1742.  He was succeeded by Charles Theodore, Prince of Sulzbach, descended from a younger branch of the house of Neubourg, and who, in his old age, became Elector of Bavaria.-D.

(752) Catherine Hyde, daughter of the Earl of Clarendon, and wife of Charles Douglas, Duke of Queensberry; a famous beauty, celebrated by Prior in that pretty poem which begins, “Kitty, beautiful and young,” and often mentioned in Swift and Pope’s letters, She was forbid the Court for promoting subscriptions to the second part of the Beggar’s Opera, when it had been prohibited from being acted.  She and the duke erected the monument to Gay in Westminster Abbey. [And to which Pope supplied the epitaph, “the first eight lines of which,” says Dr. Johnson, “have no grammar; the adjectives without substantives, and the epithets without a subject.”  The duchess died in 1777, and her husband in the year following.]

(753) Walpole, in his Memoires, says that the duke’s houses, gardens, table, and equipages swallowed immense treasures, and that the sums he owed were only exceeded by those he wasted.  He employed several physicians, without having had apparently much need of them.  His gold plate appears to have been almost as dear to him as his health; for he usually kept it in pawn, except when he wished to display it on great occasions.

(754) Andrew Stone, at this time private secretary to the Duke of Newcastle. he subsequently filled the offices of under-secretary of state, sub-governor to Prince George, keeper of the state-paper office, and, on the marriage of George the third, treasurer to the Queen. he died in 1773.-E.

304 Letter 94 To Sir Horace Mann.  Arlington Street, Jan. 13, 1743,

Your brother brought me two letters together this morning, and at the same time showed me yours to your father.  How should I be ashamed, were I he, to receive such a letter! so dutiful, so humble, and yet so expressive of the straits to which he has let you be reduced!  My dear child, it looks too much like the son of a minister, when I am no longer so; but I can’t help repeating to you offers of any kind of service that you think I can do for you any way.

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I am quite happy at your thinking Tuscany so secure from Spain, unless the wise head of Richcourt works against the season; but how can I ever be easy while a provincial Frenchman, Something half French, half German, instigated by a mad Englishwoman is to govern an Italian dominion?

I laughed much at the magnificent presents made by one of the first families in Florence to their young accouch`ee.  Do but think if a Duke or Duchess of Somerset were to give a Lady Hertford fifty pounds and twenty yards of velvet for bringing an heir to the blood of Seymour!

It grieves me that my letters drop in so slowly to you:  I have never missed writing, but when I have been absolutely too much out of order, or once or twice when I had no earthly thing to tell you.  This winter is so quiet, that one must inquire much to know any thing.  The parliament is met again, but we do not hear of any intended opposition to any thing. the tories have dropped the affair of the Hanoverians in the House of Lords, in compliment to Lord Gower. there is a second pamphlet on that subject which makes a great noise.(755) The ministry are much distressed on the ways and means for raising the money for this year:  there is to be a lottery, but that will not supply a quarter of what they want.  They have talked of a new duty on tea, to be paid by every housekeeper for all the persons in their families; but it will scarce be proposed.  Tea is so universal, that it would make a greater clamour than a duty on wine.  Nothing is determined; the new folks do not shine at expedients.  Sir Robert’s health is now drunk at all the clubs in the city; there they are for having him made a duke, and placed again at the head of the Treasury; but I believe nothing could prevail on him to return thither.  He says he will keep the 12th of February,.-the day he resigned, with his family as long as he lives.  They talk of Sandys being raised to the peerage, by way of getting rid of him; he is so dull they can scarce draw him on.(756)

The English troops in Flanders march to-day, whither we don’t know, but “probably to Liege:  from whence they imagine the Hanoverians are going into Juliers and Bergue.(757) The ministry have been greatly alarmed with the King of Sardinia’s retreat, and suspected that it was a total one from the Queen’s interest; but it seems he sent for Villettes and the Hungarian minister, and had their previous approbations of his deserting Chamberry, etc.

Vernon is not yet got to town, we are impatient for what will follow the arrival of this mad hero.  Wentworth will certainly challenge him, but Vernon does not profess personal valour:  he was once knocked down by a merchant, who then offered him satisfaction-but he was satisfied.

Lord Essex’ is dead:(758) Lord Lincoln will have the bedchamber; Lord Berkeley of Stratton(759) (a disciple of Carteret’s) the Pensioners; and Lord Carteret himself probably the riband.

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As to my Lady Walpole’s dormant title,(760) it was in her family; but being in the King’s power to give to which sister in equal claim he pleased, it was bestowed on Lord Clinton, who descended from the younger sister of Lady W.’s grandmother, or great grand-something.  My Lady Clifford,(761) Coke’s mother, got her barony so, in preference to Lady Salisbury and Lady Sondes, her elder sisters, who had already titles for their children.  It is called a title in abeyance.

Sir Robert has just bid me tell you to send the Dominichin by the first safe conveyance to Matthews, who has had orders from Lord Winchilsea (762) to send it by the first man-of-war to England; or if you meet with a ship going to Port Mahon, then you must send it thither to Anstruther, and write to him that Lord Orford desires that he will take care of it, and send it by the first ship that comes directly home.  He is so impatient for it, that he will have it thus; but I own I should not like to have my things tumbled out of one ship into another, and beg mine may stay till they can come at once.  Adieu!

(755) Entitled “The Case of the Hanover Forces in the Pay of Great Britain examined.”  It was written by Lord Chesterfield, and excited much attention.-E.

(756) In December he was created a peer, by the title of Lord Sandys, Baron of Ombersley, and made cofferer of the household.-E.

(757) The British troops began their march from Flanders at the end of February, under the command of the Earl of Stair; but were so tardy in their movements, that it was the middle of May before they crossed the Rhine and fixed their station at Hochst, between Mayence and Frankfort.-E.

(758) William Capel, third Earl of Essex. [A lord of the bedchamber, knight of the garter, and captain of the yeomen of the guard.)

(759) John, fifth and last Lord Berkeley of Stratton.  He died in 1773.-D.

(760) The barony of Clinton in fee descended to the daughters of Theophilus, Earl of Huntingdon, who died without male issue.  One of those ladies died without children, by which means the title lay between the families of Rolle and Fortescue.  King George I. gave it to Hugh Fortescue, afterwards Created an earl; on whose death it descended to his only sister, a maiden lady, after whom, without issue, it devolved on Lady Orford.

(761) Lady Margaret Tufton, third daughter of Thomas, sixth Earl of Thanet. the barony of De Clifford had descended to Lord Thanet, from his mother, Lady Margaret Sackville, daughter of Anne Clifford, Countess of Dorset, Pembroke, and Montgomery.  Upon Lord Thanet’s death, the barony of De Clifford fell into abeyance between his five daughters.  These were Lady Catherine, married to Edward Watson, Viscount Sondus; Lady Anne, married to James Cecil, Earl of Salisbury; Lady Margaret, before mentioned; Lady Mary, married first to Anthony Grey, Earl of Harold, and secondly to John Earl Gower; and Lady Isabella, married to Lord Nassau Powlett.-D.

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(762) First lord of the admiralty.-]).

306 Letter 95
To Sir Horace Mann. 
Arlington Street, Jan. 27, 1743.

I could not write you last Thursday, I was so much out of order with a cold; your brother came and found me in bed.  TO-night, that I can write, I have nothing to tell you; except that yesterday the welcome news (to the ministry) came of the accession of the Dutch to the King’s measures.  They are in great triumph; but till it Is clear what part his Prussian Uprightness is acting, other people take the liberty to be still in suspense.  So they are about all our domestic matters too.  It is a general stare! the alteration that must soon happen in the Treasury will put some end to the uncertainties of this winter.  Mr. Pelham is universally named to the head of it; but Messrs. Prince,(263) Carteret, Pultney, and Companies must be a little considered. how they will like it:  the latter the least.

You will wonder, perhaps be peevish, when I protest I have not another paragraph by me in the world.  I want even common conversation; for I cannot persist, like the royal family, in asking people the same questions, “Do you love walking?” “Do you love music’!” “Was you at the opera?” “When do you go into the country!” I have nothing else to say:  nothing happens; scarce the common episodes of a newspaper, of a man falling off a ladder and breaking his leg; or of a countryman cheated out of his leather pouch, with fifty shillings in it.  We are in such a state of sameness, that I shall begin to wonder at the change of seasons, and talk of the spring as a strange accident.  Lord Tyrawley, who has been fifteen years in Portugal, is of my opinion; he says he finds nothing but a fog, whist, and the House of Commons.

In this lamentable state, when I know not what to write even to you, what can I do about my serene Princess Grifoni?  Alas!  I owe her two letters, and where to find a beau sentiment, I cannot tell!  I believe I may have some by me in an old chest of draws, with some exploded red-heel shoes and full-bottom wigs; but they would come out so yellow and moth-eaten!  Do bow to her, in every superlative degree in the language, that my eyes have been so bad, that as I wrote you word, over and over, I have not been able to write a line.  That will move her, when she hears what melancholy descriptions I write, of my not being able to write-nay, indeed it will not be so ridiculous as you think; for it is ten times worse for the eyes to write in a language one don’t much practise!  I remember a tutor at Cambridge, who had been examining some lads in Latin, but in a little while excused himself, and said he must speak English, for his mouth was very sore.

I had a letter from you yesterday of January 7th, N. S. which has wonderfully excited my compassion for the necessities of the princely family,(764) and the shifts the old Lady’ is put to for quadrille.(765)

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I triumph much on my penetration about the honest Rucellai(766)-we little people, who have no honesty, virtue, nor shame, do so exult when a good neighbour, who was a pattern, turns out as bad as oneself!  We are like the good woman in the Gospel, who chuckled so much on finding her lost bit; we have more joy on a saint’s fall, than in ninety-nine devils, who were always de nous autres!  I am a little pleased too, that Marquis BagneSi’(767) whom you know I always liked much, has behaved so well; and am more pleased to hear what a Beffana(768) the Electress(769) is-Pho! here am I sending you back your own paragraphs, cut and turned! it is so silly to think that you won’t know them again!  I will not spin myself any longer; it is better to make a short letter.  I am going to the masquerade, and will fancy myself in via della Pergola.(770) Adieu!  “Do you know me?"-"That man there with you, in the black domino, is Mr. Chute.,, Good night!

(763) Frederick, Prince of Wales.-D.

(764) Prince and Princess Craon.

(765) Madame Sarasin.

(766) Sir H. Mann says, in his letter of January 7, 1743, 11 I must be so just as to tell you, @my friend, the Senator Rucellai, is, as you always thought, a sad fellow.  He has quite abandoned me for fear of offending."-D.

(767) “Apropos of duels, two of our young nobles, Marquis BagneSi and Strozzi, have fought about a debt of’ fifteen shillings; the latter, the creditor and the occasion of the fight, behaved ill."-Letter from Sir H. Mann, dated Jan. 7, 1743.-D.

(768) A Beffana was a puppet, which was carried about the town on the evening of the Epiphany.  The word is derived from Epifania.  It also means an ugly woman.  The Electress happened to go out for the first time after an illness on the Epiphany, and said in joke to Prince Craon, that the “Beffane all went abroad on that day."-D.

(769) The Electress Palatine Dowager, the last of the House of Medici.

(770) A street at Florence, in which the Opera house stands.

308 Letter 96 To Sir Horace Mann.  Arlington Street, Feb. 2, 1743.

Last night at the Duchess of Richmond’s I saw Madame Goldsworthy:  what a pert, little, unbred thing it is!  The duchess presented us to one another; but I cannot say that either of us stepped a foot beyond the first civilities.  The good duchess was for harbouring her and all her brood:  how it happened to her I don’t conceive, but the thing had decency enough to refuse it.  She is going to live with her father at Plymouth-tant mieux!

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The day before yesterday the lords had a great day:  Earl Stanhope(771) moved for an address to his Britannic Majesty, in consideration of the heavy wars, taxes, etc. far exceeding all that ever were known, to exonerate his people of foreign troops, Hanoverians,) which are so expensive, and can In no light answer the ends for which they were hired.  Lord Sandwich seconded:  extremely well, I hear, for I was not there.  Lord Carteret answered, but was under great concern.  Lord Bath spoke too, and would fain have persuaded that this measure was not Solely Of one minister, but that himself and all the council were equally concerned in it.  The late Privy Seal(772) Spoke for an hour and a half, with the greatest applause, against the Hanoverians:  and my Lord Chancellor extremely well for them.  The division was, 90 for the Court, 35 against it The present Privy Seal(773) voted with the Opposition:  so there will soon be another.  Lord Halifax, the Prince’s new Lord, was with the minority too; the other, Lord Darnley,(774) with the Court.  After the division, Lord Scarborough, his Royal Highness’s Treasurer, moved an address of approbation of the measure, which was carried by 78 to the former 35.  Lord Orford was ill, and could not be there, but sent his proxy:  he has got a great cold and slow fever, but does not keep his room.  If Lord Gower loses the Privy Seal, (as it is taken for granted he does not design to keep it,) and Lord Bath refuses it, Lord Cholmondeley stands the fairest for it.

I will conclude abruptly, for you will be tired of my telling you that I have nothing to tell you-but so it is literally-oh! yes, you will want to know what the Duke of Argyle did-he was not there; he is every thing but superannuated.  Adieu!

(771) Philip, second Earl Stanhope, born in 1714.  He succeeded his father when he was only seven years old, and died in 1786.  His character is thus sketched by his great-grandson, Viscount Mahon, in his History of England, vol. iii. p. 242.-"He had great talents, but fitter for speculation than for practical objects of action.  He made himself one of the best-Lalande used to say the best-mathematicians in England of his day, and was likewise deeply skilled in other branches of science and philosophy.  The Greek language was as familiar to him as the English; he was said to know every line of Homer by heart.  In public life, on the contrary, he was shy, ungainly, and embarrassed.  From his first onset in Parliament, he took part with vehemence against the administration of Sir Robert Walpole.”  Bishop Secker says, that Lord Stanhope “spoke a precomposed speech, which he held in his hand, with great tremblings and agitations, and hesitated frequently in the midst of great vehemence."-E.

(772) Lord Hervey.

(773) Lord Gower.

(774) Edward Bligh, second Earl of Darnley, in Ireland, and Lord of the Bedchamber to Frederic Prince of Wales.-D.

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309 Letter 97
To Sir Horace Mann. 
Feb. 13, 1743.

Ceretesi tells me that Madame Galli is dead:  I have had two letters from you this week; but the last mentions only the death of old Strozzi.  I am quite sorry for Madame Galli, because I proposed seeing her again, on my return to Florence, which I have firmly in my intention:  I hope it will be a little before Ceretesi’s, for he seems to be planted here.  I don’t conceive who -waters him!  Here are two noble Venetians that have carried him about lately to Oxford and Blenheim:  I am literally waiting for him now, to introduce him to Lady Brown’s sunday night; it is the great mart for all travelling and travelled calves-pho! here he is.

Monday morning.-Here is your brother:  he tells me you never hear from me; how can that be?  I receive yours, and you generally mention having got one of mine, though long after the time you should.  I never miss above one post, and that but very seldom.  I am longer receiving yours, though you have never missed; but then-I frequently receive two at once.  I am delighted with Goldsworthy’s mystery about King Theodore!  If you will promise me not to tell him, I will tell you@a secret, which is, that if that person is not King Theodore, I assure you it is not Sir Robert Walpole.

I have nothing to tell you but that Lord Effingham Howard(775) is dead, and Lord Litchfield(776) at the point of death; he was struck with a palsy last Thursday.  Adieu!

(775) Francis, first Earl of Effingham, and seventh Lord Howard of Effingham.  He died February 12, 1743.-D.

(776) George Henry Lee, second Earl of Lichfield.  He died February 15, 1743.-D.

309 Letter 98 To Sir Horace Mann.  Arlington Street, Feb. 24, 1743.

I write to you in the greatest hurry in the world, but write I will.  Besides, I must wish you joy; you are warriors; nay, conquerors;(777) two things quite novel in this war, for hitherto it has been armies without fighting, and deaths without killing.  We talk of this battle as of a comet; “Have you heard of the battle?” it Is so strange a thing, that numbers imagine you may go (ind see it at Charing Cross.  Indeed, our officers, who are going to Flanders, don’t quite like it; they are afraid it should grow the fashion to fight, and that a pair of colours should be no longer a sinecure.  I am quite unhappy about poor Mr. Chute:  besides, it is cruel to find that abstinence is not a drug.  If mortification ever ceases to be a medicine, or virtue to be a passport to carnivals in the other world, who will be a self-tormentor any longer-not, my child, that I am one; but, tell me, is he quite recovered?

I thank you for King Theodore’s declaration,(778) and wish Him success with all my soul.  I hate the Genoese; they make a commonwealth the most devilish of all tyrannies!

We have every now and then motions for disbanding Hessians and Hanoverians, alias mercenaries; but they come to nothing.  To-day the party have declared that they have done for this session; so you will hear little more but of fine equipages for Flanders:  our troops are actually marched, and the officers begin to follow them-1 hopes they know whither!  You know in the last war in Spain, Lord Peterborough rode galloping about to inquire for his army.

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But to come to more real contests; Handel has set up an oratorio against the opera @ind succeeds.  He has hired all the goddesses from farces and the singers of Roast Beef(779) from between the acts at both theatres, with a man with one note in his voice, and a girl without ever an one; and so they sing, and make brave hallelujahs; and the good company encore the recitative, if it happens to have any cadence like what they call a tune.  I was much diverted the other night at the opera; two gentlewoman sat before my sister, and not knowing her, discoursed at their ease.  Says one, “Lord! how fine Mr. W. is!” “Yes,” replied the other, with a tone of saying sentences, “some men love to be particularly so, your petit-maitres-but they are not always the brightest of their sex.’@-Do thank me for this period!  I am sure you will enjoy it as much as we did.

I shall be very glad of my things, and approve entirely of your precautions; Sir R. will be quite happy, for there is no telling YOU how impatient he is for his Dominichin.  Adieu!

(777) This alludes to an engagement, which took place on the 8th of February, near Bologna, between the Spaniards under M. de Gages, and the Austrians under General Traun, in which the latter were successful.-D.

(778) With regard to Corsica, of which he had declared himself King.  By this declaration, which was dated January 30, Theodore recalled, under pain of confiscation of their estates, all the Corsicans in foreign service, except that of the Queen of Hungary, and the Grand Duke of Tuscany.-E.

(779) It was customary at this time for the galleries to call for a ballad called “The Roast Beef of Old England,” between the acts, or before or after the play.

310 Letter 99 To Sir Horace Mann.  March 3d, 1743.

So, she is dead at last, the old Electress!(780)-well, I have nothing more to say about her and the Medici; they had outlived all their acquaintance:  indeed, her death makes the battle very considerable -makes us call a victory what before we did not look upon as very decided laurels.

Lord Hervey has entertained the town with another piece of wisdom:  on Sunday it was declared that he had married his eldest daughter the night before to a Mr. Phipps,(781) grandson of the Duchess of Buckingham.  They sent for the boy but the day before from Oxford, and bedded them at a day’s notice.  But after all this mystery, it does not turn out that there is any thing great in this match, but the greatness of the secret.  Poor Hervey,(782) the brother, is in fear and trembling, for he apprehends being ravished to bed to some fortune or other with as little ceremony.  The Oratorios thrive abundantly-for my part, they give me an idea of heaven, where every body is to sing whether they have voices or not.

The Board (the Jacobite Club) have chosen his Majesty’s Lord Privy Seal(783) for their President, in the room of Lord Litchfield.  Don’t you like the harmony of parties?  We expect the parliament will rise this month:  I shall be sorry, for if I am not hurried out of town, at least every body else will-and who can look forward from April to November?  Adieu! though I write in defiance of having nothing to say, yet you see I can’t go a great way in this obstinacy; but you will bear a short letter rather than none.

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(780) Anna Maria of Medicis, daughter of Cosmo III. widow of John William, Elector Palatine.  After her husband’s death she returned to Florence, where she died, Feb @ 7 1743, aged seventy-five, being the last of that family.

(781) Constantine Phipps, in 1767, created Lord Mulgrave in Ireland.  He married, on the 26th of February, Lepel, eldest daughter of Lord Hervey, and died in 1775.  Her ladyship was found dead in her bed, 9th March, 1780, at her son’s house in the Admiralty.-E.

(782) George William Hervey, afterwards second Earl of Bristol.  He died unmarried, in 1775.-E.

(783) Lord Gower.

311 Letter 100
To Sir Horace Mann. 
Arlington Street, March 14, 1743.

I don’t at all know how to advise you about mourning; I always think that the custom of a country, and what other foreign ministers do, should be your rule.  But I had a private scruple rose with me:  that was, whether you should show so much respect to the late woman (784) as other ministers do, since she left that legacy to Quella a Roma.(785) I mentioned this to my lord, but he thinks that the tender manner of her wording it, takes off that exception; however, he thinks it better that you should write for advice to your commanding officer.  That will be very late, and you will probably have determined before.  You see what a casuist I am in ceremony; I leave the question more perplexed than I found it.

Pray, Sir, congratulate me upon the new acquisition of glory to my family!  We have long been eminent statesmen; now that we are out of employment we have betaken ourselves to war-and we have made great proficiency in a short season.  We don’t run, like my Lord Stair, into Berg and Juliers, to seek battles where we are sure of not finding them-we make shorter marches; a step across the Court of Requests brings us to engagement.  But not to detain you any longer with flourishes, which will probably be inserted in my uncle Horace’s patent when he is made a field-marshal; you must know that he has fought a duel, and has scratched a scratch three inches long on the side of his enemy-lo Paon!  The circumstances of this memorable engagement were, in short, that on some witness being to be examined the other day in the House upon remittances to the army, my uncle said, He hoped they would indemnify him, if he told any thing that affected himself.”  Soon after he was standing behind the Speaker’s chair, and Will.  Chetwynd,(786) an intimate of Bolingbroke, came up to him, What, Mr. Walpole, are you for rubbing up old sores?” He replied, “I think I said very little, considering that you and your friends would last year have hanged up me and my brother at the lobby-door without a trial.”  Chetwynd answered, I would still have you both have your deserts.”  The other said, If you and I had, probably I should be here and you would be somewhere else.”  This drew more words, and Chetwynd took him by the arm and led him out. 

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In the lobby, Horace said, “We shall be-observed, we had better put it off till to-morrow.”  “No, no, now! now!” When they came to the bottom of the stairs, Horace said, “I am out of breath, let us draw here.”  They drew; Chetwynd hit him on the breast, but was not near enough to pierce his coat.  Horace made a pass which the other put by with his hand, but It glanced along his side-a clerk, who had observed them go out together so arm-in-arm-ly, could not believe it amicable, but followed them, and came up just time enough to beat down their swords, as Horace had driven him against a post, and would probably have run him through at the next thrust.  Chetwynd went away to a surgeon’s, and kept his bed the next day; he has not reappeared yet, but is in no danger.  My uncle returned to the House, and was so little moved as to speak immediately upon the Cambrick bill, which made Swinny say, “That it was a sign he was not ruffled."(787) Don’t you delight in this duel?  I expect to see it daubed up by some circuit-painter on the ceiling of the saloon at Woolterton.

I have no news to tell you, but that we hear King Theodore has sent over proposals of his person and crown to Lady Lucy Stanhope,(788) with whom he fell in love the last time he was in England.

Princess Buckingham(789) is dead or dying:  she has sent for Mr. Anstis, and settled the ceremonial of her burial.  On Saturday she was so ill that she feared dying before all the pomp was come home:  she said, “Why won’t they send the canopy for me to see? let them send it, though all the tassels are not finished.”  But yesterday was the greatest stroke of all!  She made her ladies vow to her, that if she should lie senseless, they would not sit down in the room before she was dead.  She has a great mind to be buried by her father at Paris.  Mrs. Selwyn says, “She need not be carried out of England, and yet be buried by her father.”  You know that Lady Dorchester always told her, that old Graham(790) was her father.

I am much obliged to you for the trouble you have taken about the statue; do draw upon me for it immediately, and for all my other debts to you:  I am sure they must be numerous; pray don’t fail.

A thousand loves to the Chutes:  a thousand compliments to the Princess; and a thousand-what? to the Grifona.  Alas! what can one do?  I have forgot all my Italian.  Adieu!

(784) The Electress Palatine Dowager.

(785) She left a legacy to the Pretender, describing him only by these words, To Him at Rome.

(786) William Chetwynd, brother of the Lord Viscount Chetwynd.  On the coalition he was made Master of the Mint.

(787) Coxe, in his Memoirs of Lord Walpole, gives the following account of this duel:  “A motion being made in the House of Commons, which Mr. Walpole supported, he said to Mr. Chetwynd, ‘I hope we shall carry this question.’  Mr. Chetwynd replied, ‘I hope to see you hanged first!’ ’You see me hanged first!’ rejoined Mr. Walpole and instantly seized him by the nose.  They went out and fought.  The account being conveyed to Lord Orford, he sent his son to make inquiries; who, on coming into the House of Commons, found his uncle speaking with the same composure as if nothing had happened to ruffle his tamper or endanger his life.  Mr. Chetwynd was wounded.” vol. ii. p. 68.-E.

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(788) Sister of Philip, second Earl Stanhope.

(789) Catherine, Duchess of Buckingham, natural daughter of King James II. by the Countess of Dorchester.  She was so proud of her birth, that she would never go to Versailles, because they would not give her the rank of Princess of the Blood.  At Rome, whither she went two or three times to see her brother, and to carry on negotiations with him for his interest, she had a box at the Opera distinguished like those of crowned heads.  She not only regulated the ceremony of her own burial, and dressed up the waxen figure of herself for Westminster Abbey, but had shown the same insensible pride on the death of her only son, dressing his figure, and sending messages to her friends, that if they had a mind to see him lie in state, she would carry them in conveniently by a back-door.  She sent to the old Duchess of Marlborough to borrow the triumphal car that had carried the Duke’s body.  Old Sarah, as mad and proud as herself, sent her word, “that it had carried my Lord Marlborough, and should never be profaned by any other corpse.”  The Buckingham retorted that, “she had spoken to the undertaker, and he had engaged to make a finer for twenty pounds.” [See ant`e, p. 204.]

(790) Colonel Graham.  When the Duchess was young, and as insolent as afterwards, her mother used to say, “You need not be so proud, for you are not the King’s but old Graham’s daughter.”  It is certain, that his legitimate daughter, the Countess of Berkshire and Suffolk, was extremely like the Duchess, and that he often said with a sneer, “Well, well, kings are great men, they make free with whom they please!  All I can say is, that I am sure the same man begot those two women.”  The Duchess often went to weep over her father’s body at Paris:  one of the monks seeing her tenderness, thought it a proper opportunity to make her observe how ragged the pall is that lies over the body, (which is kept unburied, to be some time or other interred in England,)-but she would not buy a new!

314 Letter 101 To Sir Horace Mann.  Arlington Street, March 25, 1743.

Well! my dear Sir, the Genii, or whoever are to look after the seasons, seem to me to change turns, and to wait instead of one another, like lords of the bedchamber.  We have had loads of sunshine all the winter; and within these ten days nothing but snows, north-east winds, and blue plagues.  The last ships have brought over all your epidemic distempers:  not a family in London has escaped under five or six ill:  many people have been forced to hire new labourers.  Guernier, the apothecary, took two new apothecaries, and yet could not drug all his patients.  It is a cold and fever.  I had one of the worst, and was blooded on Saturday and Sunday, but it is quite gone:  my father was blooded last night:  his is but slight.  The physicians say that there has been nothing like it since the year Thirty-three, and then not so bad:  in short, our army abroad would shudder to see what streams of blood have been let out!  Nobody has died of it, but old Mr. Eyres, of Chelsea, through obstinacy of not bleeding; and his ancient Grace of York:(791) Wilcox of Rochester(792) succeeds him, who is fit for nothing in the world, but to die of this cold too.

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They now talk of the King’s not going abroad:  I like to talk on that side; because though it may not be true, one may at least be able to give some sort of reason why he should not.  We go into mourning for your Electress on Sunday; I suppose they will tack the Elector of Mentz to her, for he is just dead.  I delight in Richcourt’s calculation- I don’t doubt but it is the method he often uses in accounting with the Great Duke.

I have had two letters from you of the 5th and 12th, with a note of things coming by sea; but my dear child, you are either run Roman Catholicly devout, or take me to be so; for nothing but a religious fit of zeal could make you think of sending me so many presents.  Why, there are Madonnas enough in one case to furnish a more than common cathedral-I absolutely will drive to Demetrius, the silversmith’s, and bespeak myself a pompous shrine!  But indeed, seriously, how can I, who have a conscience, and am no saint, take all these things?  You must either let me pay for them, or I will demand my unfortunate coffee-pot again, which has put you upon ruining yourself By the way, do let me have it again, for I cannot trust it any longer in your hands at this rate; and since I have found out its virtue, I will present it to somebody, whom I shall have no scruple of letting send me bales and cargoes, and ship-loads of Madonnas, perfumes, prints, frankincense, etc.  You have not even drawn upon me for my statue, my hermaphrodite, my gallery, and twenty other things, for which I am lawfully your debtor.

I must tell you one thing, that I will not say a word to my lord of this Argosie, as Shakspeare calls his costly ships, till it is arrived, for he will tremble for his Dominichin, and think it will not come safe in all this company-by the way, will a captain of a man-of-war care to take all?  We were talking over Italy last night- my lord protests, that if he thought he had strength, he would see Florence, Bologna, and Rome, by way of Marseilles, to Leghorn.  You may imagine how I gave in to such a jaunt.  I don’t set my heart upon it, because I think he cannot do it; but if he does, I promise you, you shall be his Cicerone.  I delight in the gallantry of the Princess’s brother.(793) I will tell you what, if the Italians don’t take care, they will grow as brave and as wrongheaded as their neighbours.  Oh! how shall I do about writing to her?  Well, if I can, I will be bold, and write to her to-night.

I have no idea what the two minerals are that you mention, but I will inquire, and if there are such, you shall have them; and gold and silver, if they grow in this land; for I am sure I am deep enough in your debt.  Adieu! .

P. S. It won’t do!  I have tried to write, but you would bless yourself to see what stuff I have been forging for half an hour, and have not waded through three lines of paper. i have totally forgot my Italian, and if she will but have prudence enough to support the loss of a correspondence, which was long since worn threadbare, we will come to as decent a silence as may be.

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(791) Doctor lancelot Blackburne.  Walpole, in his Memoires, vol. i. p. 74, calls him “the jolly old archbishop, who had the manners of a man of quality, though he had been a buccaneer, and was a clergyman.”  Noble, in his continuation of Granger, treats these aspersions as the effect of malice.  “How is it possible!” he asks, ,that a buccaneer should be so great a scholar as Blackburne certainly was? he who had so perfect a knowledge of the classics, as to be able to read them with the same ease as he could Shakspeare, must have taken great pains to have acquired the learned languages, and have had both leisure and good masters.”  He is allowed to have been a remarkably pleasant man; and it was said of him, that “he gained more hearts than souls."-E.

(792) He was not succeeded by Dr. Wilcox, but by Dr. Herring, who was elevated, in 1747, to the archbishopric of Canterbury, and died in 1757.-E.

(793) a Signor Capponi, brother of Madame Grifoni.

315 Letter 102
To Sir Horace Mann. 
Monday, April 4, 1743.

I had my pen in my hand all last Thursday morning to write to you, but my pen had nothing to say.  I would make it do something to-day though what will come of it, I don’t conceive.

They say, the King does not go abroad:  we know nothing about our army.  I suppose it is gone to blockade Egra, and to not take Prague, as it has been the fashion for every body to send their army to do these three years.  The officers in parliament are not gone yet.  We have nothing to do, but I believe the ministry have something for us to do, for we are continually adjourned, but not prorogued.  They talk of marrying Princess Caroline and Louisa to the future Kings of Sweden and Denmark; but if the latter(794) is King of both, I don’t apprehend that he is to marry both the Princesses in his double capacity.

Herring, Of Bangor, the youngest bishop, is named to the see of York. it looks as if the bench thought the church going out of fashion; for two or three(795) of them have refused this mitre.

Next Thursday we are to be entertained with a pompous parade for the burial of old Princess Buckingham.  They have invited ten peeresses to walk:  all somehow or other dashed with blood-royal, and rather than not have King James’s daughter attended by princesses, they have fished out two or three countesses descended from his competitor Monmouth.

There, I am at the end of my tell!  If I write on, it must be to ask questions.  I Would ask why Mr. Chute has left me off but when he sees what a frippery correspondent I am, he will scarce be in haste to renew with me again.  I really don’t know why I am so dry; mine used to be the pen of a ready writer, but whist seems to have stretched its leaden wand over me too, who have nothing to do with it.  I am trying to set up the noble game of bilboquet against it, and composing a grammar in opposition to Mr. Hoyle’s.  You will some day or other see an advertisement in the papers, to tell you where it may be bought, and that ladies may be waited upon by the author at their houses, to receive any further directions.  I am ’really ashamed to send this scantling of paper by the post, over so many seas and mountains:  it seems as impertinent as the commission which Prior gave to the winds,

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“Lybs must fly south, and Eurus east,
For jewels for her neck and breast.”

Indeed, one would take you for my Chloe, when one looks on this modicum of gilt paper, which resembles a billet-doux more than a letter to a minister.  You must take it as the widow’s mite, and since the death of my spouse, poor Mr. News, I cannot afford such large doles as formerly.  Adieu! my dear child, I am yours ever, from a quire of the largest foolscap to a vessel of the smallest gilt.

(794) There was a party at this time in Sweden, who tried to choose the Prince Royal of Denmark for successor to King Frederick of sweden.

(795) Dr. Wilcox, Bishop of Rochester, and Dr. Sherlock, Bishop of Salisbury:  the latter afterwards accepted the See of London.

317 Letter 103 To Sir Horace Mann.  Arlington Street, April 14, 1743.

This has been a noble week; I have received three letters at once from you.  I am ashamed when I reflect on the poverty of my own! but what can one do?  I don’t sell you my news, and therefore should not be excusable to invent.  I wish we don’t grow to have more news!  Our politics, which have not always been the most in earnest, now begin to take a very serious turn.  Our army is wading over the Rhine, up to their middles in snow.  I hope they will be thawed before their return:  but they have gone through excessive hardships.  The King sends six thousand more of his Hanoverians at his own expense:  this will be popular-and the six thousand Hessians march too.  All this will compose an army considerable enough to be a great loss if they miscarry.  The King certainly goes abroad in less than a fortnight.  He takes the Duke with him to Hanover who from thence goes directly to the army.  The Court will not be great:  the King takes only Lord Carteret, the Duke of Richmond, master of the horse, and Lord Holderness and Lord Harcourt,(796) for the bedchamber.  The Duchesses of Richmond and Marlborough,(797) and plump Carteret,(798) go to the Hague.

His Royal Highness is not Regent:  there are to be fourteen.  The Earl of Bath and Mr. Pelham, neither of them in regency-posts, are to be of the number.

I have read your letters about Mystery to Sir Robert.  He denies absolutely having ever had transactions with King Theodore, and is amazed Lord Carteret can; which he can’t help thinking but he must, by the intelligence about Lady W. Now I can conceive all that affected friendship for Richcourt!  She must have meant to return to England by Richcourt’s interest with Touissant(799) and then where was her friendship?  You are quite in the right not to have engaged with King Theodore:  your character is not-Furibondo.  Sir R. entirely disapproves all Mysterious dealings; he thinks Furibondo most bad and most improper, and always did.  You mistook me about Lady W.’s Lord-I meant Quarendon, who is now Earl of Litchfield, by his father’s death, which I mentioned.  I think her lucky in Sturges’s death, and him lucky in dying.  He had outlived resentment; I think had almost lived to be pitied.

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I forgot to thank you about the model, which I should have been sorry to have missed.  I long for all the things, and my Lord more. so.  Am I not to have a bill of lading, or how!

I never say any thing of the Pomfrets, because in the great city of London the Countess’s follies do not make the same figure as they did in little Florence.  Besides, there are such numbers here who have such equal pretensions to be absurd, that one is scarce aware of particular ridicules.

I really don’t know whether Vanneschi be dead; he married some low English woman, who is kept by Amorevoli; so the Abbate turned the opera every way to his profit.  As to Bonducci,(200) I don’t think I could serve him; for I have no interest with the Lords Middlesex and Holderness, the two sole managers.  Nor if I had, would I employ it, ’to bring over more ruin to the operas.  Gentlemen directors, with favourite abb`es and favourite mistresses, have almost overturned the thing in England.  You will plead my want of interest to Mr. Smith(801) too:  besides, we had Bufos here once, and from not understanding the language, people thought it a dull kind of dumb-show.  We are next Tuesday to have the Miserere of Rome.  It must be curious! the finest piece of vocal music in the world, to be performed by three good voices, and forty bad ones, from Oxford, Canterbury, and the farces!  There is a new subscription formed for an opera next year, to be carried on by the Dilettanti, a club, for which the nominal qualification is having been in Italy, and the real one, being drunk:  the two chiefs are Lord Middlesex and Sir Francis Dashwood, who were seldom sober the whole time they were in Italy.

The parliament rises next week:  every body is going out of town.  My Lord goes the first week in May; but I shall reprieve myself till towards August.  Dull as London is in summer, there is always more company in it than