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This eBook from the Gutenberg Project consists of approximately 184 pages of information about Beyond Good and Evil.

CHAPTER IX

What is noble?

257.  Every elevation of the type “man,” has hitherto been the work of an aristocratic society and so it will always be—­a society believing in a long scale of gradations of rank and differences of worth among human beings, and requiring slavery in some form or other.  Without the pathos of distance, such as grows out of the incarnated difference of classes, out of the constant out-looking and down-looking of the ruling caste on subordinates and instruments, and out of their equally constant practice of obeying and commanding, of keeping down and keeping at a distance—­that other more mysterious pathos could never have arisen, the longing for an ever new widening of distance within the soul itself, the formation of ever higher, rarer, further, more extended, more comprehensive states, in short, just the elevation of the type “man,” the continued “self-surmounting of man,” to use a moral formula in a supermoral sense.  To be sure, one must not resign oneself to any humanitarian illusions about the history of the origin of an aristocratic society (that is to say, of the preliminary condition for the elevation of the type “man"):  the truth is hard.  Let us acknowledge unprejudicedly how every higher civilization hitherto has originated!  Men with a still natural nature, barbarians in every terrible sense of the word, men of prey, still in possession of unbroken strength of will and desire for power, threw themselves upon weaker, more moral, more peaceful races (perhaps trading or cattle-rearing communities), or upon old mellow civilizations in which the final vital force was flickering out in brilliant fireworks of wit and depravity.  At the commencement, the noble caste was always the barbarian caste:  their superiority did not consist first of all in their physical, but in their psychical power—­they were more complete men (which at every point also implies the same as “more complete beasts").

258.  Corruption—­as the indication that anarchy threatens to break out among the instincts, and that the foundation of the emotions, called “life,” is convulsed—­is something radically different according to the organization in which it manifests itself.  When, for instance, an aristocracy like that of France at the beginning of the Revolution, flung away its privileges with sublime disgust and sacrificed itself to an excess of its moral sentiments, it was corruption:—­it was really only the closing act of the corruption which had existed for centuries, by virtue of which that aristocracy had abdicated step by step its lordly prerogatives and lowered itself to a function of royalty (in the end even to its decoration and parade-dress).  The essential thing, however, in a good and healthy aristocracy is that it should not regard itself as a function either of the kingship or the commonwealth,

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