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This eBook from the Gutenberg Project consists of approximately 313 pages of information about On the Economy of Machinery and Manufactures.

Terms of Table A Table B first Difference C second Difference

1 1
3
2 4 2
5
3 9 2
7
4 16 2
9
5 25 2
11
6 36 2
13
7 49

Any number in the table, column A, may be obtained, by multiplying the number which expresses the distance of that term from the commencement of the table by itself; thus, 25 is the fifth term from the beginning of the table, and 5 multiplied by itself, or by 5, is equal to 25.  Let us now subtract each term of this table from the next succeeding term, and place the results in another column (B), which may be called first difference column.  If we again subtract each term of this first difference from the succeeding term, we find the result is always the number 2, (column C); and that the same number will always recur in that column, which may be called the second difference, will appear to any person who takes the trouble to carry on the table a few terms further.  Now when once this is admitted, it is quite clear that, provided the first term (1) of the table, the first term (3) of the first differences, and the first term (2) of the second or constant difference, are originally given, we can continue the table of square numbers to any extent, merely by addition:  for the series of first differences may be formed by repeatedly adding the constant difference (2) to (3) the first number in column B, and we then have the series of numbers, 3, 5, 6, etc.:  and again, by successively adding each of these to the first number (1) of the table, we produce the square numbers.

249.  Having thus, I hope, thrown some light upon the theoretical part of the question, I shall endeavour to shew that the mechanical execution of such an engine, as would produce this series of numbers, is not so far removed from that of ordinary machinery as might be conceived.(3*) Let the reader imagine three clocks, placed on a table side by side, each having only one hand, and each having a thousand divisions instead of twelve hours marked on the face; and every time a string is pulled, let them strike on a bell the numbers of the divisions to which their hands point.  Let him further suppose that two of the clocks, for the sake of distinction called B and C, have some mechanism by which the clock C advances the hand of the clock B one division, for each stroke it makes upon its own bell:  and let the clock B by a similar contrivance advance the hand of the clock A one division, for each stroke it makes on its own bell.  With such an arrangement, having set the hand of the clock A to the division I, that of B to iii, and that of C to ii, let the reader imagine the repeating parts of the clocks to be set in motion continually in the following order:  viz.—­pull the string of clock A; pull the string of clock B; pull the string of clock C.

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