*Project Gutenberg*. Public domain.

## TO SET OUT A RIGHT ANGLE WITH A TAPE

Measure 40 ft. on the line to which you wish to run at right angles, and put pegs at A and B; then, with the end of the tape held carefully at A, take 80 ft., and have the 80 ft. mark held at B. Take the 50 ft. mark and pull from A and B until the tape lies straight and even, you will then have the point C perpendicular to AB. Continue straight lines by sighting over two sticks in the well-known way.

*Another method*.—Stick a pin in each
corner of a square board, and look diagonally across
them, first in the direction of the line to which
you wish to run at right angles, and then for the new
line sight across the other two pins.

## A SIMPLE LEVELLING INSTRUMENT

Fasten a common carpenter’s square in a slit to the top of a stake by means of a screw, and then tie a plumb-line at the angle so that it may hang along the short arm, when the plumb-line hangs vertically and sights may be taken over it. A carpenter’s spirit-level set on an adjustable stand will do as well. The other arm will then be a level.

Another very simple, but effective, device for finding a level line is by means of a triangle of wood made of half-inch boards from 9 to 12 ft. long. To make the legs level, set the triangle up on fairly level ground, suspend a plummet from the top and mark on the cross-piece where the line touches it. Then reverse the triangle, end for end, exactly, and mark the new line the plumb-line makes. Now make a new mark exactly half way between the two, and when the plumb-line coincides with this, the two legs are standing on level ground. For short water races this is a very handy method of laying out a level line.

## TO MEASURE THE HEIGHT OF A STANDING TREE

Take a stake about your own height, and walking from the butt of the tree to what you judge to be the height of the timber portion you want, drive your stake into the ground till the top is level with your eyes; now lie straight out on your back, placing your feet against the stake, and sight a point on the tree. AB equals BC. If BC is, say 40 ft., that will be the height of your “stick of timber.” Thus, much labour may be saved in felling trees the timber portion of which may afterwards be found to be too short for your purpose.