Leviathan eBook

This eBook from the Gutenberg Project consists of approximately 636 pages of information about Leviathan.

In Such A Warre, Nothing Is Unjust To this warre of every man against every man, this also is consequent; that nothing can be Unjust.  The notions of Right and Wrong, Justice and Injustice have there no place.  Where there is no common Power, there is no Law:  where no Law, no Injustice.  Force, and Fraud, are in warre the two Cardinall vertues.  Justice, and Injustice are none of the Faculties neither of the Body, nor Mind.  If they were, they might be in a man that were alone in the world, as well as his Senses, and Passions.  They are Qualities, that relate to men in Society, not in Solitude.  It is consequent also to the same condition, that there be no Propriety, no Dominion, no Mine and Thine distinct; but onely that to be every mans that he can get; and for so long, as he can keep it.  And thus much for the ill condition, which man by meer Nature is actually placed in; though with a possibility to come out of it, consisting partly in the Passions, partly in his Reason.

The Passions That Incline Men To Peace The Passions that encline men to Peace, are Feare of Death; Desire of such things as are necessary to commodious living; and a Hope by their Industry to obtain them.  And Reason suggesteth convenient Articles of Peace, upon which men may be drawn to agreement.  These Articles, are they, which otherwise are called the Lawes of Nature:  whereof I shall speak more particularly, in the two following Chapters.

CHAPTER XIV

OF THE FIRST AND SECOND NATURALL LAWES, AND OF CONTRACTS

Right Of Nature What The right of nature, which Writers commonly call Jus Naturale, is the Liberty each man hath, to use his own power, as he will himselfe, for the preservation of his own Nature; that is to say, of his own Life; and consequently, of doing any thing, which in his own Judgement, and Reason, hee shall conceive to be the aptest means thereunto.

Liberty What By liberty, is understood, according to the proper signification of the word, the absence of externall Impediments:  which Impediments, may oft take away part of a mans power to do what hee would; but cannot hinder him from using the power left him, according as his judgement, and reason shall dictate to him.

A Law Of Nature What A law of nature, (Lex Naturalis,) is a Precept, or generall Rule, found out by Reason, by which a man is forbidden to do, that, which is destructive of his life, or taketh away the means of preserving the same; and to omit, that, by which he thinketh it may be best preserved.  For though they that speak of this subject, use to confound Jus, and Lex, Right and Law; yet they ought to be distinguished; because right, consisteth in liberty to do, or to forbeare; Whereas law, determineth, and bindeth to one of them:  so that Law, and Right, differ as much, as Obligation, and Liberty; which in one and the same matter are inconsistent.

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