Leviathan eBook

This eBook from the Gutenberg Project consists of approximately 636 pages of information about Leviathan.
emergent occasion, or sudden need, to resist, or take advantage on their Enemies.  For all men are by nature provided of notable multiplying glasses, (that is their Passions and Self-love,) through which, every little payment appeareth a great grievance; but are destitute of those prospective glasses, (namely Morall and Civill Science,) to see a farre off the miseries that hang over them, and cannot without such payments be avoyded.

CHAPTER XIX

Of the severall kinds of common-wealth by institution,
and of succession to the Soveraigne power

The Different Formes Of Common-wealths But Three The difference of Common-wealths, consisteth in the difference of the Soveraign, or the Person representative of all and every one of the Multitude.  And because the Soveraignty is either in one Man, or in an Assembly of more than one; and into that Assembly either Every man hath right to enter, or not every one, but Certain men distinguished from the rest; it is manifest, there can be but Three kinds of Common-wealth.  For the Representative must needs be One man, or More:  and if more, then it is the Assembly of All, or but of a Part.  When the Representative is One man, then is the Common-wealth a monarchy:  when an Assembly of All that will come together, then it is a democracy, or Popular Common-wealth:  when an Assembly of a Part onely, then it is called an aristocracy.  Other kind of Common-wealth there can be none:  for either One, or More, or All must have the Soveraign Power (which I have shewn to be indivisible) entire.

Tyranny And Oligarchy, But Different Names Of Monarchy, And Aristocracy There be other names of Government, in the Histories, and books of Policy; as Tyranny, and Oligarchy:  But they are not the names of other Formes of Government, but of the same Formes misliked.  For they that are discontented under Monarchy, call it Tyranny; and they that are displeased with Aristocracy, called it Oligarchy:  so also, they which find themselves grieved under a Democracy, call it Anarchy, (which signifies want of Government;) and yet I think no man believes, that want of Government, is any new kind of Government:  nor by the same reason ought they to believe, that the Government is of one kind, when they like it, and another, when they mislike it, or are oppressed by the Governours.

Subordinate Representatives Dangerous It is manifest, that men who are in absolute liberty, may, if they please, give Authority to One Man, to represent them every one; as well as give such Authority to any Assembly of men whatsoever; and consequently may subject themselves, if they think good, to a Monarch, as absolutely, as to any other Representative.  Therefore, where there is already erected a Soveraign Power, there can be no other Representative of the same people,

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Leviathan from Project Gutenberg. Public domain.