12 Lit ex spermate.
13 Comp. Isai. xl. 4, etc.
14 Muhammad appears, according to this text, to have considered Eblis not only as the father of the Djinn, but as one of their number. The truth appears to be that Muhammad derived his doctrines of the Genii from the Persian and Indian mythology, and attempted to identify them with the Satan and demons of the Semitic races. Both the Satans and Djinn represent in the Koran the principle of Evil. See Sura [xci.] ii. 32, n.
15 The sea of Greece and the sea of Persia. But as no literal interpretation of the passage seems satisfactory, the Commentators have devised a spiritual or metaphorical one, and explain it of the two oceans of natural and supernatural knowledge. There is no trace of this legend in the Rabbinic writings.
16 The loss of our fish is a sign to us of our finding him whom we seek, namely, El-Khidr, or El-Khadir, the reputed vizier of Dhoulkarnain, and said to have drunk of the fountain of life, by virtue of which he still lives, and will live till the day of judgment. He is also said to appear, clad in green robes, to Muslims in distress, whence his name. Perhaps the name Khidr is formed from Jethro.
17 Probably Alexander the Great-so called from his expeditions to the East and West. He seems to be regarded in this passage as invested with a divine commission for the extirpation of impiety and idolatry. Comp. Dan. viii. and Tr. Tanith, fol. 32. Hottinger Bibl. Orient. 109.
18 Ar. Yadjoudj and Madjoudj-the barbarous people of E. Asia. See Ibn Batoutah’s Travels, iv. p. 274 (Par.ed.)
19 This rampart has been identified with fortifications which extended from the W. shore of the Caspian Sea to the Pontus Euxinus, made, as it is said, by Alexander, and repaired by Yezdegird ii. Caussin de Perceval, vol.i.p. 66. See Sura [lxv.] xxi. 96
20 The form of this word in the Arabic, with the h in the second syllable and the final m, shews that the word was borrowed from the Hebrew, and not from the Greek or Syriac.
21 Observe in this expression the same admixture of the Semitic and Indo-Persian elements as was noticed above in the identification of Satans and Djinn, verse 48.
SURA XXXII.-ADORATION [LXX.]
In the Name of God, the Compassionate, the Merciful.
ELIF. Lam. Mim.1 This Book is
without a doubt a Revelation sent down from the
Lord of the Worlds.
Will they say, He hath forged it? Nay, it is the truth from thy Lord that thou mayest warn a people to whom no warner hath come before thee, that haply they may be guided.
God it is who hath created the Heavens and the Earth and all that is between them in six days; then ascended his throne. Save Him ye have no patron, and none to plead for you. Will ye not then reflect?