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This eBook from the Gutenberg Project consists of approximately 472 pages of information about History of Florence and of the Affairs of Italy.
the Romans to accept a foreign senator appointed annually by the pope.  He made honorable terms with the Visconti, and routed and took prisoner, John Agut, an Englishman, who with four thousand English had fought on the side of the Ghibellines in Tuscany.  Urban V., hearing of so many victories, resolved to visit Italy and Rome, whither also the emperor came; after remaining a few months, he returned to the kingdom of Bohemia, and the pope to Avignon.  On the death of Urban, Gregory XI. was created pope; and, as the Cardinal Egidio was dead, Italy again recommenced her ancient discords, occasioned by the union of the other powers against the Visconti; and the pope, having first sent a legate with six thousand Bretons, came in person and established the papal court at Rome in 1376, after an absence of seventy-one years in France.  To Gregory XI., succeeded Urban VI., but shortly afterwards Clement VI. was elected at Fondi by ten cardinals, who declared the appointment of Urban irregular.  At this time, the Genoese threw off the yoke of the Visconti under whom they had lived many years; and between them and the Venetians several important battles were fought for the island of Tenedos.  Although the Genoese were for a time successful, and held Venice in a state of siege during many months, the Venetians were at length victorious; and by the intervention of the pope, peace was made in the year 1381.  In these wars, artillery was first used, having been recently invented by the Dutch.

CHAPTER VII

Schism in the church—­Ambitious views of Giovanni Galeazzo Visconti—­The pope and the Romans come to an agreement—­Boniface IX. introduces the practice of Annates—­Disturbance in Lombardy—­The Venetians acquire dominion on terra firma—­Differences between the pope and the people of Rome—­Council of Pisa—­Council of Constance—­Filippo Visconti recovers his dominion—­Giovanna II. of Naples—­Political condition of Italy.

A schism having thus arisen in the church, Queen Joan favored the schismatic pope, upon which Urban caused Charles of Durazzo, descended from the kings of Naples, to undertake the conquest of her dominions.  Having succeeded in his object, she fled to France, and he assumed the sovereignty.  The king of France, being exasperated, sent Louis of Anjou into Italy to recover the kingdom for the queen, to expel Urban from Rome, and establish the anti-pope.  But in the midst of this enterprise Louis died, and his people being routed returned to France.  In this conjuncture the pope went to Naples, where he put nine cardinals into prison for having taken the part of France and the anti-pope.  He then became offended with the king, for having refused to make his nephew prince of Capua; and pretending not to care about it, requested he would grant him Nocera for his habitation, but, having fortified it, he prepared to deprive the king of his dominions.  Upon this the king pitched

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