History of Florence and of the Affairs of Italy eBook

This eBook from the Gutenberg Project consists of approximately 552 pages of information about History of Florence and of the Affairs of Italy.
become the wife of Henry.  Thus the kingdom of Naples passed from the Normans, who had been the founders of it, to the Germans.  As soon as the affairs of Germany were arranged, the Emperor Henry came into Italy with Gostanza his wife, and a son about four years of age named Frederick; and, as Tancred was now dead, leaving only an infant named Roger, he took possession of the kingdom without much difficulty.  After some years, Henry died in Sicily, and was succeeded in the kingdom by Frederick, and in the empire by Otho, duke of Saxony, who was elected through the influence of Innocent III.  But as soon as he had taken the crown, contrary to the general expectation, he became an enemy of the pope, occupied Romagna, and prepared to attack the kingdom.  On this account the pope excommunicated him; he was abandoned by every one, and the electors appointed Frederick, king of Naples, emperor in his stead.  Frederick came to Rome for his coronation; but the pope, being afraid of his power, would not crown him, and endeavored to withdraw him from Italy as he had done Otho.  Frederick returned to Germany in anger, and, after many battles with Otho, at length conquered him.  Meanwhile, Innocent died, who, besides other excellent works, built the hospital of the Holy Ghost at Rome.  He was succeeded by Honorius III., in whose time the religious orders of St. Dominic and St. Francis were founded, 1218.  Honorius crowned Frederick, to whom Giovanni, descended from Baldwin, king of Jerusalem, who commanded the remainder of the Christian army in Asia and still held that title, gave a daughter in marriage; and, with her portion, conceded to him the title to that kingdom:  hence it is that every king of Naples is called king of Jerusalem.


The state of Italy—­Beginning of the greatness of the house of Este—­Guelphs and Ghibellines—­Death of the Emperor Frederick II.—­Manfred takes possession of the kingdom of Naples—­Movements of the Guelphs and Ghibellines in Lombardy—­Charles of Anjou invested by the pope with the kingdom of Naples and Sicily—­Restless policy of the popes—­Ambitious views of pope Nicholas III.—­Nephews of the popes—­Sicilian vespers—­The Emperor Rodolph allows many cities to purchase their independence—­Institution of the jubilee—­The popes at Avignon.

At this time the states of Italy were governed in the following manner:  the Romans no longer elected consuls, but instead of them, and with the same powers, they appointed one senator, and sometimes more.  The league which the cities of Lombardy had formed against Frederick Barbarossa still continued, and comprehended Milan, Brescia, Mantua, and the greater number of the cities of Romagna, together with Verona, Vicenza, Padua, and Trevisa.  Those which took part with the emperor, were Cremona, Bergamo, Parma, Reggio, and Trento.  The other cities and fortresses of Lombardy, Romagna, and the march of Trevisa, favored, according to their necessities, sometimes one party, sometimes the other.

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History of Florence and of the Affairs of Italy from Project Gutenberg. Public domain.
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