become the wife of Henry. Thus the kingdom of
Naples passed from the Normans, who had been the founders
of it, to the Germans. As soon as the affairs
of Germany were arranged, the Emperor Henry came into
Italy with Gostanza his wife, and a son about four
years of age named Frederick; and, as Tancred was
now dead, leaving only an infant named Roger, he took
possession of the kingdom without much difficulty.
After some years, Henry died in Sicily, and was succeeded
in the kingdom by Frederick, and in the empire by
Otho, duke of Saxony, who was elected through the
influence of Innocent III. But as soon as he had
taken the crown, contrary to the general expectation,
he became an enemy of the pope, occupied Romagna,
and prepared to attack the kingdom. On this account
the pope excommunicated him; he was abandoned by every
one, and the electors appointed Frederick, king of
Naples, emperor in his stead. Frederick came
to Rome for his coronation; but the pope, being afraid
of his power, would not crown him, and endeavored to
withdraw him from Italy as he had done Otho.
Frederick returned to Germany in anger, and, after
many battles with Otho, at length conquered him.
Meanwhile, Innocent died, who, besides other excellent
works, built the hospital of the Holy Ghost at Rome.
He was succeeded by Honorius III., in whose time the
religious orders of St. Dominic and St. Francis were
founded, 1218. Honorius crowned Frederick, to
whom Giovanni, descended from Baldwin, king of Jerusalem,
who commanded the remainder of the Christian army in
Asia and still held that title, gave a daughter in
marriage; and, with her portion, conceded to him the
title to that kingdom: hence it is that every
king of Naples is called king of Jerusalem.
The state of Italy—Beginning of the greatness
of the house of Este—Guelphs and Ghibellines—Death
of the Emperor Frederick II.—Manfred takes
possession of the kingdom of Naples—Movements
of the Guelphs and Ghibellines in Lombardy—Charles
of Anjou invested by the pope with the kingdom of
Naples and Sicily—Restless policy of the
popes—Ambitious views of pope Nicholas III.—Nephews
of the popes—Sicilian vespers—The
Emperor Rodolph allows many cities to purchase their
independence—Institution of the jubilee—The
popes at Avignon.
At this time the states of Italy were governed in
the following manner: the Romans no longer elected
consuls, but instead of them, and with the same powers,
they appointed one senator, and sometimes more.
The league which the cities of Lombardy had formed
against Frederick Barbarossa still continued, and
comprehended Milan, Brescia, Mantua, and the greater
number of the cities of Romagna, together with Verona,
Vicenza, Padua, and Trevisa. Those which took
part with the emperor, were Cremona, Bergamo, Parma,
Reggio, and Trento. The other cities and fortresses
of Lombardy, Romagna, and the march of Trevisa, favored,
according to their necessities, sometimes one party,
sometimes the other.