Acbar, contemporary with Elizabeth, firmly established the Mogul rule in India; Aurungzebe (1659-1707) extended the Mogul Empire over South India.
Aislabie, Chancellor of the Exchequer; forfeited most of his huge profits.
Alexander VI., Pope, father of Lucretia and Caesar Borgia. He obtained his office by bribery and held it by a series of infamous crimes (d. 1503).
Alguazils, “a Spanish adaptation of the Arabic al-wazir, the minister and used in Spanish both for a justiciary and a bailiff.” Here it implies cruel and extortionate treatment.
Allipore, a suburb of Calcutta.
Amadis, the model knight who is the hero of the famous mediaeval prose-romance of the same title. Of Portuguese origin, it was afterwards translated and expanded in Spanish and in French.
Aminta, a pastoral play composed by Tasso in 1581.
Antiochus and Tigranes, overthrown respectively by Pompey, B.C. 65, and Lucullus, B.C. 69.
Atahualpa, King of Peru, captured and put to death by Pizarro in 1532.
Atterbury, Bishop of Rochester and champion of the High Church and Tory party (1662-1732).
Aumils, district governors.
Aurungzebe, dethroned and succeeded Shah Jehan in 1658 (d. 1707).
Austrian Succession, War of (see the Essay on Frederic the Great, vol. v. of this edition).
Babington, Anthony, an English Catholic, executed in 1586 for plotting to assassinate Elizabeth. Everard Digby was concerned in the Gunpowder Plot of 1605.
Babington, an English Catholic executed in 1586 for plotting to assassinate Elizabeth under the instruction of a Jesuit named Ballard.
Ballard. See Babington.
Barbariccia and Draghignazzo, the fiends who torment the lost with hooks in the lake of boiling pitch in Malebolge, the eighth circle in Dante’s Inferno.
Baretti, Giuseppe, an Italian lexiographer who came to London, was patronised by Johnson and became Secretary of the Royal Academy.
Barillon, the French Ambassador in England.
Barnard, Sir John, an eminent London merchant, and Lord Mayor (1685-1764).
Barras, a member of the Jacobin (q. v.) club; he put an end to Robespierre’s Reign of Terror and was a member of the Directory till Napoleon abolished it (d. 1829).
Batavian liberties, Batavia is an old name for Holland; the Celtic tribe known as Batavii once dwelt there.
Bath, Lord, William Pulteney, Sir R. Walpole’s opponent, and author of a few magazine articles (1684-1764).
Belisarius, Justinian’s great general, who successively repulsed the Persians, Vandals, Goths, and Huns, but who, tradition says, was left to become a beggar (d. 565).
Benevolences, royal demands from individuals not sanctioned by Parliament and supposed to be given willingly; declared illegal by the Bill of Rights, 1689.