Scientific American Supplement, No. 315, January 14, 1882 eBook

This eBook from the Gutenberg Project consists of approximately 112 pages of information about Scientific American Supplement, No. 315, January 14, 1882.

Antiseptic Properties.—­Chinoline appears to be an excellent antiseptic.  The author found that 100 grammes of a Bucholze’s solution for the propagation of bacteria, charged with 0.20 g. of chinoline hydrochlorate, had remained perfectly clear and free from bacteria after standing forty-six days exposed to the air, while a similar solution, placed under the same conditions, without chinoline, had turned muddy and contained bacteria after only twelve days’ standing.

Antizymotic Properties.—­Chinoline, even in the proportion of 5 per cent., does not prevent alcoholic fermentation, while in as small a quantity as 0.20 per cent. it does not prevent lactic acid fermentation.

Physiological Effects.—­The author gave a healthy man during several days various doses of chinoline tartrate, which in no way affected the individual operated on, nor was any trace of chinoline found in his urine.  The author, therefore, considers that the base is oxidized by the blood to carbopyridinic acid, which is a still more powerful antiseptic than chinoline itself.  Chinoline taken internally would, therefore, be a useful and safe agent in cases of internal putrid fungoid or other growth.

Chemical Reactions.—­Chinoline yields very characteristic reactions with a number of chemical reagents, for a description of which we refer to the original paper.—­Chemist and Druggist.

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PREPARATION OF CONIINE.

Dr. J. Schorm, of Vienna, the author of this paper, after remarking that in spite of the increase of the consumption of coniine, the methods hitherto in vogue for preparing it yielded an article which darkened on exposure to the air, and the salts of which crystallized but badly, gives the following method for preparing pure coniine and its salts: 

PREPARATION OF CRUDE CONIINE.

A.—­100 kilogrammes of hemlock seed are moistened with hot water, and after swelling up are treated with 4 kilogrammes of sodium carbonate previously dissolved in the requisite quantity of water (caustic alkalies cannot be used).  The swollen seed is worked up uniformly with shovels, and then placed in an apparatus of 400 kilogrammes capacity, similar to that used in the distillation of ethereal oils, and charged with steam under a pressure of three atmospheres.  Coniine distills over with the steam, the greater part separating out in the receiver as an oily stratum, while a part remains dissolved in the water.  The riper the seeds, the greater is the percentage yield of oily coniine, and the sooner is the distillation ended.  The distillate is neutralized with hydrochloric acid, and the whole evaporated to a weak sirupy consistence.  When cool, this sirup yields successive crops of sal-ammoniac crystals, which latter are removed by shaking up the mass with twice its volume of strong alcohol, and filtering.  This filtrate is freed from alcohol by evaporation over a water bath, the approximate quantity of a solution of caustic soda then added, and the whole shaken up with ether.  The ethereal solution is then cooled down to a low temperature, whereby it is separated from conhydrine, which, being somewhat difficultly soluble in ether, crystallizes out.

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Scientific American Supplement, No. 315, January 14, 1882 from Project Gutenberg. Public domain.
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