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This eBook from the Gutenberg Project consists of approximately 299 pages of information about Latin for Beginners.

    [Footnote 5:  The Janiculum is a high hill across the Tiber from
    Rome.]

LESSON LI

THE DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUNS HIC, ISTE, ILLE

  [Special Vocabulary]

  hic, haec, hoc\, demonstrative pronoun, _this_ (of mine);
    _he, she, it_
  
ille, illa, illud\, demonstrative pronoun that (yonder);
    he, she, it
  invi:sus, -a, -um\, _hateful, detested_, with dative Cf.  Sec. 143
  
iste, ista, istud\, demonstrative pronoun, that (of yours);
    he, she, it
  li:berta:s, -a:tis\, f., _liberty_
  
modus, -i:\, m., measure; manner, way, mode
  no:men, no:minis\, n., _name_ (nominate)
  
oculus, -i:\, m., eye (oculist)
  pri:stinus, -a, -um\, _former, old-time_ (pristine)
  
pu:blicus, -a, -um\, public, belonging to the state;
    re:s pu:blica, rei:  pu:blicae\, f., _the commonwealth, the state,
    the republic_
  
vesti:gium, vesti:’gi:\, n., footprint, track; trace, vestige
  vo:x, vo:cis\, f., _voice_

290. We have already learned the declension of the demonstrative pronoun is\ and its use. (Cf.  Lesson XVII.) That pronoun refers to persons or things either far or near, and makes no definite reference to place or time.  If we wish to point out an object definitely in place or time, we must use hic\, iste\, or ille\.  These demonstratives, like is\, are used both as pronouns and as adjectives, and their relation to the speaker may be represented graphically thus: 

hic            iste          ille
SPEAKER ------------->-------------->--------------->
this, he;  that, he;  that, he
(near);       (remote);     (more remote)
a. In dialogue hic\ refers to a person or thing near the speaker; iste\, to a person or thing near the person addressed; ille\, to a person or thing remote from both.  These distinctions are illustrated in the model sentences, Sec. 293, which should be carefully studied and imitated.

_291._ Hic\ is declined as follows: 

SINGULAR
MASC.     FEM.      NEUT. 
Nom.  hic      haec     hoc
Gen.  huius    huius    huius
Dat.  huic     huic     huic
Acc.  hunc     hanc     hoc
Abl.  ho:c     ha:c     ho:c
PLURAL
Nom.  hi:       hae      haec
Gen.  ho:rum   ha:rum   ho:rum
Dat.  hi:s     hi:s     hi:s
Acc.  ho:s     ha:s     haec
Abl.  hi:s     hi:s     hi:s

    a. Huius\ is pronounced _h[oo]’y[oo]s_, and huic\ is pronounced
    h[oo]ic (one syllable).

292. The demonstrative pronouns iste\, ista\, istud\, and ille\, illa\, illud\, except for the nominative and accusative singular neuter forms istud\ and illud\, are declined exactly like ipse\, ipsa\, ipsum\. (See Sec. 481.)

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