Latin for Beginners eBook

This eBook from the Gutenberg Project consists of approximately 433 pages of information about Latin for Beginners.

  arbor, arboris\, f., _tree_ (arbor)
  
collis, collis (-ium)\, m., hill
  de:ns, dentis (-ium)\, m., _tooth_ (dentist)
   fo:ns, fontis (-ium), m.. _fountain, spring; source_
  
iter, itineris\, n., march, journey, route (itinerary)
  me:nsis, me:nsis (-ium)\, m., _month_
  
moenia, -ium\, n., plur., walls, fortifications.  Cf. mu:rus\
  
mo:ns, montis (-ium)\, m., mountain;
    summus mo:ns\, _top of the mountain_
  
numquam\, adv., never
  po:ns, pontis\, m., _bridge_ (pontoon)
  
sanguis, sanguinis\, m., blood (sanguinary)
  summus, -a, -um\, _highest, greatest_ (summit)
  
tra:ns\, prep, with acc., across (transatlantic)
  vi:s (vi:s)\, gen. plur. virium\, f. strength, force, violence
    (vim)

246. PARADIGMS

[Transcriber’s Note:  The original text gives vi:- and vi:r- as the “Bases” of vi:s\, and omits the “Stems” for both words.  The forms have been regularized to agree with the inflectional table in the Appendix.]
vi:s, f., _force_  iter, n., _march_
STEMS   vi:- and vi:ri-    iter- and itiner-
BASES   v- and vi:r-       iter- and itiner-
SINGULAR
Nom.    vi:s               iter
Gen.    vi:s (rare)        itineris
Dat.    vi:  (rare)         itineri: 
Acc.    vim                iter
Abl.    vi:                 itinere
PLURAL
Nom.    vi:re:s            itinera
Gen.    vi:rium            itinerum
Dat.    vi:ribus           itineribus
Acc.    vi:ri:s, or -e:s   itinera
Abl.    vi:ribus           itineribus

_247._ There are no rules for gender in the third declension that do not present numerous exceptions.[1] The following rules, however, are of great service, and should be thoroughly mastered: 

  1. Masculine\ are nouns in -or, -o:s, -er, -es (gen. -itis).

    a. arbor\, _tree_, is feminine; and iter\, march, is neuter.

  2. Feminine\ are nouns in -o:, -is, -x, and in -s preceded by
  a consonant or by any long vowel but
o:\.

    a. Masculine are collis\ (_hill_), lapis\, me:nsis\ (_month_),
    
o:rdo:\, pe:s\, and nouns in -nis and -guis—­as ignis\,
    sanguis\ (_blood_)—­and the four monosyllables

      de:ns\, _a tooth_; mo:ns\, a mountain
      po:ns\, _a bridge_; fo:ns\, a fountain

  3. Neuters\ are nouns in -e, -al, -ar, -n, -ur, -us, and
  
caput\.

    [Footnote 1:  Review Sec. 60.  Words denoting males are, of course,
    masculine, and those denoting females, feminine.]

248. Give the gender of the following nouns and the rule by which it is determined: 

animal calamitas flumen lapis navis avis caput ignis legio opus caede:s eques i:nsigne mare salu:s calcar fi:nis labor mi:les urbs

249. EXERCISES

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Latin for Beginners from Project Gutenberg. Public domain.
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