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This eBook from the Gutenberg Project consists of approximately 299 pages of information about Latin for Beginners.

232. Consonant stems are divided into two classes: 

I. Stems that add -s to the base to form the nominative singular. 
II.  Stems that add no termination in the nominative singular.

CLASS I

233. Stems that add -s to the base in the nominative singular are either masculine or feminine and are declined as follows: 

pri:nceps, mi:les, m., lapis,
m., chief soldier m., stone
BASES OR
STEMS pri:ncip- mi:lit- lapid-

SINGULAR TERMINATIONS
M. AND F.
Nom. pri:nceps mi:les lapis -s
Gen. pri:n’cipis mi:litis lapidis -is
Dat. pri:n’cipi:  mi:liti:  lapidi:  -i: 
Acc. pri:n’cipem mi:litem lapidem -em
Abl. pri:n’cipe mi:lite lapide -e

PLURAL
Nom.    pri:n’cipe:s     mi:lite:s      lapide:s     -e:s
Gen.    pri:n’cipum      mi:litum       lapidum      -um
Dat.    pri:nci’pibus    mi:litibus     lapidibus    -ibus
Acc.    pri:n’cipe:s     mi:lite:s      lapide:s     -e:s
Abl.    pri:nci’pibus    mi:litibus     lapidibus    -ibus

re:x, iu:dex, virtu:s, f.,
m., king m.,_judge_ manliness
BASES OR
STEMS re:g- iu:dic- virtu:t-

SINGULAR TERMINATIONS
M. AND F.
Nom. re:x iu:dex virtu:s -s
Gen. re:gis iu:dicis virtu:’tis -is
Dat. re:gi:  iu:dici:  virtu:’ti:  -i: 
Acc. re:gem iu:dicem virtu:’tem -em
Abl. re:ge iu:dice virtu:’te -e

PLURAL
Nom.      re:ge:s      iu:dice:s     virtu:’te:s    -e:s
Gen.      re:gum       iu:dicum      virtu:’tum     -um
Dat.      re:gibus     iu:dicibus    virtu:’tibus   -ibus
Acc.      re:ge:s      iu:dice:s     virtu:’te:s    -e:s
Abl.      re:gibus     iu:dicibus    virtu:’tibus   -ibus

1.  The base or stem is found by dropping -is in the genitive singular.

2.  Most nouns of two syllables, like pri:nceps\ (pri:ncip-), mi:les\
(mi:lit-), iu:dex\ (iu:dic-), have i\ in the base, but e\ in the
nominative.

    a. lapis\ is an exception to this rule.

  3.  Observe the consonant changes of the base or stem in the
  nominative: 

    a. A final -t or -d is dropped before -s; thus miles\ for
    
milets\, lapis\ for lapids\, virtus\ for virtuts\.

    b. A final -c or -g unites with -s and forms -x; thus
    iudec\ + s\ = iudex\, reg\ + s\ = rex\.

  4.  Review Sec. 74 and apply the rules to this declension.

  In like manner decline dux, ducis\, m., _leader_; eques, equitis\,
  m., horseman; pedes, peditis\, m., _foot soldier_; pes, pedis\,
  m.,_foot_.

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