Latin for Beginners eBook

This eBook from the Gutenberg Project consists of approximately 299 pages of information about Latin for Beginners.
sua:’-de-o: 
  s\ is like s in sea, never
    as in ease ro’-sa, is
  t\ is always like _t_ in
    _native_, never as in _nation_ ra’-ti-o:, na:’-ti-o: 
  
v\ is like w in wine, never
    as in vine vi:’-num, vir
  x\ has the value of two
    consonants (_cs_ or _gs_) and
    is like _x_ in _extract_, not
    as in _exact_ ex’-tra:, ex-a:c’-tus
  
bs\ is like ps and bt\ like
    _pt_ urbs, ob-ti’-ne-o: 
  
ch\, ph\, and th\ are like
    c, p, t pul’-cher, Phoe’-be:,
                                      the-a:’-trum

a. In combinations of consonants give each its distinct sound.  Doubled consonants should be pronounced with a slight pause between the two sounds.  Thus pronounce tt as in rat-trap, not as in rattle; pp as in hop-pole, not as in upper.  Examples, mit’-to:\, Ap’pi-us\, bel’-lum\.

SYLLABLES

_8._ A Latin word has as many syllables as it has vowels and diphthongs.  Thus aes-ta:’-te\ has three syllables, au-di-en’-dus\ has four.

    a. Two vowels with a consonant between them never make one
    syllable, as is so often the case in English.  Compare English
    inside with Latin i:n-si:’-de.

9. Words are divided into syllables as follows: 

1.  A single consonant between two vowels goes with the second.  Thus a-ma:’-bi-lis\, me-mo’-ri-a\, in-te’-re-a:\, a’-best\, pe-re:’-git\.[3]

    [Footnote 3:  In writing and printing it is customary to divide
    the parts of a compound, as inter-ea:\, ab-est\, sub-a:ctus\,
    
per-e:git\, contrary to the correct phonetic rule.]

2.  Combinations of two or more consonants: 

    a. A consonant followed by l or r goes with the l or r
    Thus pu:’-bli-cus\, a’-gri:\.

EXCEPTION.  Prepositional compounds of this nature, as also ll and rr, follow rule b.  Thus ab’-lu-o:\, ab-rum’-po:\, il’-le\, fer’-rum\.

    b. In all other combinations of consonants the first consonant
    goes with the preceding vowel.[4] Thus mag’-nus\, e-ges’-ta:s\,
    vic-to:’-ri-a\, hos’-pes\, an’-nus\, su-ba:c’-tus\.

    [Footnote 4:  The combination nct is divided nc-t, as fu:nc-tus,
    sa:nc-tus.]

3.  The last syllable of a word is called the ul’-ti-ma; the one next to the last, the pe-nult’; the one before the penult, the an’-te-pe-nult’.

10. EXERCISE

Divide the words in the following passage into syllables and pronounce them, placing the accent as indicated: 

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Latin for Beginners from Project Gutenberg. Public domain.
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