Latin for Beginners eBook

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ablative of means and the ablative of the personal agent.  Both are often translated into English by the preposition _by_. (Cf.  Sec. 100. _b._) _Means is a thing\; the agent or actor is a person\_.  The ablative of means has no preposition.  The ablative of the personal agent has a:\ or ab\.  Compare

      Fera sagitta necatur, _the wild beast is killed by an arrow_
      Fera a Diana necatur, _the wild beast is killed by Diana_

    Sagitta\, in the first sentence, is the ablative of means;
    
a Diana\, in the second, is the ablative of the personal agent.

182. EXERCISES

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 289.

I. 1.  Viri inopia cibi defessi ab eo loco discedent. 2.  Gerinani castris Romanis adpropinquabant, tamen legatus copias a proelio continebat. 3.  Multa Gallorum oppida ab Romanis capientur. 4.  Tum Romani totum populum eorum oppidorum gladiis pilisque interficient. 5.  Oppidani Romanis resistent, sed defessi longo proelio fugient. 6.  Multi ex Gallia fugiebant et in Germanorum vicis habitabant. 7.  Miseri nautae vulnerantur ab inimicis[2] saevis et cibo egent. 8.  Discedite et date viris frumentum et copiam vini. 9.  Copiae nostrae a proelio continebantur ab Sexto legato. 10.  Id oppidum ab provincia Romana longe aberat.

II. 1.  The weary sailors were approaching a place dear to the goddess Diana. 2.  They were without food and without wine. 3.  Then Galba and seven other men are sent to the ancient island by Sextus. 4.  Already they are not far away from the land, and they see armed men on a high place. 5.  They are kept from the land by the men with spears and arrows. 6.  The men kept hurling their weapons down from the high place with great eagerness.

    [Footnote 2:  inimicis\, here used as a noun.  See vocabulary.]

LESSON XXXI

PERFECT, PLUPERFECT, AND FUTURE PERFECT OF SUM

  [Special Vocabulary]

  NOUNS
   aurum, -i:, n., gold (oriole)
  mora, -ae\, f., _delay_
  
na:vigium, na:vi’gi:\, n., boat, ship
  ventus, -i:\, m., _wind_ (ventilate)

  VERB
  na:vigo:, -a:re\, _sail_ (navigate)

  ADJECTIVES
   attentus, -a, -um, attentive, careful
  dubius, -a, -um\, _doubtful_ (dubious)
   perfidus, -a, -um, _faithless, treacherous_ (perfidy)

  ADVERB
  antea:\, _before, previously_

  PREPOSITION
  sine\, with abl., _without_

183. Principal Parts.  There are certain parts of the verb that are of so much consequence in tense formation that we call them the principal parts.

The principal parts of the Latin verb are the present, the past, and the past participle; as go, went, gone; see, saw, seen, etc.

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Latin for Beginners from Project Gutenberg. Public domain.
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