Latin for Beginners eBook

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174. The forms of the Present Infinitive, active and passive, are as follows: 

CONJ.   PRES.      PRES.  INFINITIVE    PRES.  INFINITIVE
STEM        ACTIVE              PASSIVE
I.   ama:-     ama:’re,            ama:’ri:,
to love           to be loved
II.   mone:-    mone:’re,           mone:’ri:,
to advise         to be advised
III.   rege-     re’gere,            re’gi:,
to rule           to be ruled
cape-     ca’pere             ca’pi:,
to take           to be taken
IV.   audi:-    audi:’re,           audi:ri:,
to hear           to be heard

1.  Observe that to form the present active infinitive we add -re to
the present stem.

a. The present infinitive of sum\ is esse\.  There is no passive.

2.  Observe that the present passive infinitive is formed from the
active by changing final -e to -i:, except in the third
conjugation, which changes final -ere to -i:.

3.  Give the active and passive present infinitives of doceo\,
sedeo\, volo\, curo\, mitto\, duco\, munio\, reperio\, iacio\,
rapio\.

175. The forms of the Present Imperative, active and passive, are as follows: 

ACTIVE[1] PASSIVE
CONJ.  SINGULAR PLURAL SINGULAR PLURAL
I. a’ma:  ama:’te ama:’re, ama:’mini:,
be thou loved be ye loved
II. mo’ne:  mone:’te mone:’re, mone:’mini:,
be thou advised be ye advised
III. re’ge re’gite re’gere, regi’mini:,
be thou ruled be ye ruled
ca’pe ca’pite ca’pere, capi’mini:,
be thou taken be ye taken
IV. au’di:  audi:’te audi:’re, audi:’mini:,
be thou heard be ye heard

1.  Observe that the second person singular of the present passive imperative is like the present active infinitive, and that both singular and plural are like the second person singular[2] and plural, respectively, of the present passive indicative.

2.  Give the present imperative, both active and passive, of the verbs
in Sec. 174.3.

    [Footnote 1:  For the sake of comparison the active is repeated from
    Sec. 161.]

    [Footnote 2:  That is, using the personal ending -re.  A form like
    ama:re\ may be either _indicative_, _infinitive_, or _imperative_.]

176. EXERCISES

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 289.

I. 1.  Tum Perseus alis ad terras multas volabit. 2.  Monstrum saevum per aquas properat et mox agros nostros vastabit. 3.  Si autem Cepheus ad oraculum properabit, oraculum ita respondebit. 4.  Quis telis Persei superabitur?  Multa monstra telis eius superabuntur. 5.  Cum curis magnis et lacrimis multis agricolae ex domiciliis caris aguntur. 6.  Multa loca vastabantur et multa oppida delebantur. 7.  Monstrum est validum, tamen superabitur. 8.  Credesne semper verbis oraculi?  Ego iis non semper credam. 9.  Parebitne Cepheus oraculo?  Verba oraculi ei persuadebunt. 10.  Si non fugiemus, oppidum capietur et oppidani necabuntur. 11.  Vocate pueros et narrate fabulam claram de monstro saevo.

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Latin for Beginners from Project Gutenberg. Public domain.
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