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This eBook from the Gutenberg Project consists of approximately 299 pages of information about Latin for Beginners.

    [Footnote 1:  Plural.  An adjective used as a noun. (Cf. 
    Sec. 99.II.3.)]

    [Footnote 2:  Imperative.  The imperative generally stands first, as
    in English.]

* * * * *

  Third Review, Lessons XVIII-XXVI, Secs. 510-512

* * * * *

LESSON XXVII

THE PASSIVE VOICE
PRESENT, IMPERFECT, AND FUTURE INDICATIVE OF AMO: AND MONEO:

  [Special Vocabulary]

  NOUNS
  a:la, -ae\, f., _wing_
  
deus, -i:\, m., god (deity)[A]
  monstrum, -i:\, n., _omen, prodigy; monster_
   o:ra:culum, -i:, n., _oracle_

  VERB
  va:sto:, -a:re\, _lay waste, devastate_

ADJECTIVES commo:tus, -a, -um\, _moved, excited_ maximus, -a, -um\, greatest (maximum) saevus, -a, -um\, _fierce, savage_

  ADVERBS
  
ita\, thus, in this way, as follows
  tum\, _then, at that time_

    [Footnote A:  For the declension of deus\, see Sec. 468]

163. The Voices.  Thus far the verb forms have been in the active voice; that is, they have represented the subject as performing an action; as,

  The lion —–­> killed —–­> the hunter

A verb is said to be in the passive voice when it represents its subject as receiving an action; as,

  The lion <—–­ was killed <—–­ by the hunter

Note the direction of the arrows.

164. Passive Personal Endings.  In the passive voice we use a different set of personal endings.  They are as follows: 

      SINGULAR PLURAL
   1. -r, I 1. -mur, we
   2. -ris, -re, you 2. -mini:, you
   3. -tur, he, she, it 3. -ntur, they

    a. Observe that the letter -r appears somewhere in all but one
    of the endings.  This is sometimes called the passive sign.

165. PARADIGMS

amo, ama:re                   mone:o, mone:re
PRES.  STEM ama:-              PRES.  STEM mone:-

  PRESENT INDICATIVE PERSONAL
          
                                                     ENDINGS
  SINGULAR
  a’mor, I am loved mo’neor, I am advised -or[1]
  ama:’ris or ama:’re, mone:’ris or mone:’re. -ris
    you are loved you are advised or -re
  ama:’tur, he is loved mone:’tur, he is advised -tur

PLURAL ama:’mur, we are loved mone:’mur, we are advised -mur ama:’mini:, you are loved mone:’mini:, you are advised -mini aman’tur, they are loved monen’tur, they are advised -ntur

    [Footnote 1:  In the present the personal ending of the first person
    singular is -or.]

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