Latin for Beginners eBook

This eBook from the Gutenberg Project consists of approximately 299 pages of information about Latin for Beginners.

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 287.

  S. Ubi es, Marce?  Ubi est Quintus?  Ubi estis, amici? 
  M. Cum Quinto, Sexte, in silva sum.  Non soli sumus; sunt in silva
    multi alii pueri. 
  S. Nunc laetus es, sed nuper non laetus eras.  Cur miser eras? 
  M. Miser eram quia amici mei erant in alio vico et eram solus.  Nunc
    sum apud socios meos.  Nunc laeti sumus et erimus. 
  S. Eratisne in ludo hodie? 
  M. Hodie non eramus in ludo, quod magister erat aeger. 
  S. Eritisne mox in ludo? 
  M. Amici mei ibi erunt, sed ego (I) non ero. 
  S. Cur non ibi eris?  Magister, saepe iratus, inopiam tuam studi
    diligentiaeque non laudat. 
  M. Nuper aeger eram et nunc infirmus sum.

125. EXERCISE

1.  You are, you were, you will be, (sing. and plur.). 2.  I am, I was, I shall be. 3.  He is, he was, he will be. 4.  We are, we were, we shall be. 5.  They are, they were, they will be.

6.  Why were you not in school to-day?  I was sick. 7.  Lately he was a sailor, now he is a farmer, soon he will be a teacher. 8.  To-day I am happy, but lately I was wretched. 9.  The teachers were happy because of the boys’ industry.

  [Illustration:  PUERI ROMANI IN LUDO]

LESSON XIX

THE FOUR REGULAR CONJUGATIONS
PRESENT ACTIVE INDICATIVE OF AMO: AND MONEO:

126. There are four conjugations of the regular verbs.  These conjugations are distinguished from each other by the final vowel of the present conjugation-stem.[1] This vowel is called the distinguishing vowel, and is best seen in the present infinitive.

[Footnote 1:  The stem is the body of a word to which the terminations are attached.  It is often identical with the base (cf.  Sec. 58).  If, however, the stem ends in a vowel, the latter does not appear in the base, but is variously combined with the inflectional terminations.  This point is further explained in Sec. 230.]

Below is given the present infinitive of a verb of each conjugation, the present stem, and the distinguishing vowel.

DISTINGUISHING
CONJUGATION    PRES.  INFIN.             PRES.  STEM    VOWEL
I.         ama:’re, to love       ama:-            a: 
II.         mone:’re, to advise    mone:-           e: 
III.         re’gere, to rule      rege-           e
IV.         audi:’re, to hear      audi-           i: 

    a. Note that the present stem of each conjugation is found by
    dropping -re, the ending of the present infinitive.

NOTE.  The present infinitive of sum\ is esse\, and es- is the present stem.

127. From the present stem are formed the present, imperfect, and future tenses.

128. The inflection of the Present Active Indicative of the first and of the second conjugation is as follows: 

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Latin for Beginners from Project Gutenberg. Public domain.
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