101. You are now able to form four important rules for the ablative denoting with:
102. RULE. Ablative of Cause. Cause is denoted by the ablative without a preposition. This answers the question Because of what?
103. RULE. Ablative of Means. Means is denoted by the ablative without a preposition. This answers the question By means of what? With what?
N.B. Cum\ must never be used with the ablative expressing cause or means.
104. RULE. Ablative of Accompaniment. Accompaniment is denoted by the ablative with /cum\. This answers the question With whom?
105. RULE. Ablative of Manner. The ablative with /cum\ is used to denote the manner of an action. /Cum\ may be omitted, if an adjective is used with the ablative. This answers the question How? In what manner?
106. What uses of the ablative do you discover in the following passage, and what question does each answer?
The soldiers marched to the fort with great speed and broke down the gate with blows of their muskets. The inhabitants, terrified by the din, attempted to cross the river with their wives and children, but the stream was swollen with (or by) the rain. Because of this many were swept away by the waters and only a few, almost overcome with fatigue, with great difficulty succeeded in gaining the farther shore.
First learn the special vocabulary, p. 286.
I. The Romans prepare for War. Romani, clarus Italiae populus, bellum parant. Ex agris suis, vicis, oppidisque magno studio viri validi ad arma properant. Iam legati cum legionariis ex Italia ad Rhenum, fluvium Germaniae altum et latum, properant, et servi equis et carris cibum frumentumque ad castra Romana portant. Inopia bonorum telorum infirmi sunt Germani, sed Romani armati galeis, loricis, scutis, gladiis, pilisque sunt validi.
II. 1. The sturdy farmers of Italy labor in the fields with great diligence. 2. Sextus, the lieutenant, and (his) son Mark are fighting with the Germans. 3. The Roman legionaries are armed with long spears. 4. Where is Lesbia, your maid, Sextus? Lesbia is with my friends in Galba’s cottage. 5. Many are sick because of bad water and for lack of food. 6. The Germans, with (their) sons and daughters, are hastening with horses and wagons.
THE NINE IRREGULAR ADJECTIVES
108. There are nine irregular adjectives of the first and second declensions which have a peculiar termination in the genitive and dative singular of all genders:
MASC. FEM. NEUT. Gen. -i:us -i:us -i:us Dat. -i: -i: -i:
Otherwise they are declined like bonus, -a, -um\. Learn the list and the meaning of each: