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Latin for Beginners eBook

This eBook from the Gutenberg Project consists of approximately 299 pages of information about Latin for Beginners.

    [Footnote 1:  Not the dative.  Why?]

    [Footnote 2:  Here the adjectives sick and wretched are used like
    nouns.]

    [Footnote 3:  Where should sunt\ stand?  Cf.  I. 2 above.]

  [Illustration:  AGRICOLA ARAT]

LESSON XV

THE ABLATIVE DENOTING WITH

  [Special Vocabulary]

NOUNS carrus, -i:\, m., _cart, wagon_ inopia, -ae\, f., want, lack; the opposite of co:pia\ studium, studi:\, n., zeal, eagerness (study)

  ADJECTIVES
  arma:tus, -a, -um\, _armed_
  
i:nfi:rmus, -a, -um\, week, feeble (infirm)
   vali’dus, -a, -um, strong, sturdy

  VERB
  ma:tu:rat\, _he (she, it) hastens._ Cf. properat

  ADVERB
  iam\, _already, now_

  /-que\, conjunction, and; an enclitic (cf.  Sec. 16) and always added
  to the second of two words to be connected, as arma tela’que\,
  _arms and weapons_.

100. Of the various relations denoted by the ablative case (Sec. 50) there is none more important than that expressed in English by the preposition with.  This little word is not so simple as it looks.  It does not always convey the same meaning, nor is it always to be translated by cum\.  This will become clear from the following sentences: 

a. Mark is feeble with (for or because of) want of food b. Diana kills the beasts with (or by) her arrows c. Julia is with Sextus d. The men fight with great steadiness
a. In sentence a, with want (of food) gives the cause of Mark’s feebleness.  This idea is expressed in Latin by the ablative without a preposition, and the construction is called the ablative of cause\: 

      Marcus est infirmus inopia cibi

b. In sentence b, with (or by) her arrows tells by means of what\ Diana kills the beasts.  This idea is expressed in Latin by the ablative without a preposition, and the construction is called the ablative of means\: 

      Diana sagittis suis feras necat

c. In sentence c we are told that Julia is not alone, but in company with\ Sextus.  This idea is expressed in Latin by the ablative with the preposition cum\, and the construction is called the ablative of accompaniment\: 

      Iulia est cum Sexto

d. In sentence d we are told how the men fight.  The idea is one of manner\.  This is expressed in Latin by the ablative with cum\, unless there is a modifying adjective present, in which case cum\ may be omitted.  This construction is called the ablative of manner\: 

      Viri (cum) constantia magna pugnant

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