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This eBook from the Gutenberg Project consists of approximately 299 pages of information about Latin for Beginners.

74. Write side by side the declension of domina\, dominus\, and pilum\.  A comparison of the forms will lead to the following rules, which are of great importance because they apply to all five declensions: 

a. The vocative, with a single exception (see Sec. 73.b), is like the nominative.  That is, the vocative singular is like the nominative singular, and the vocative plural is like the nominative plural.

    b. The nominative, accusative, and vocative of neuter nouns are
    alike, and in the plural end in -a.

    c. The accusative singular of masculines and feminines ends in
    -m and the accusative plural in -s.

    d. The dative and ablative plural are always alike.

    e. Final -i and -o are always long; final -a is short,
    except in the ablative singular of the first declension.

75. Observe the sentences

  Lesbia est bona,
    Lesbia is good
  Lesbia est ancilla,
    Lesbia is a maidservant

We have learned (Sec. 55) that bona\, when used, as here, in the predicate to describe the subject, is called a _predicate adjective_.  Similarly a _noun_, as ancilla\, used in the predicate to define the subject is called a predicate noun\.

76. RULE.  Predicate Noun. A predicate noun agrees in case with the subject of the verb.

  [Illustration:  PILA]

77. DIALOGUE

GALBA AND MARCUS

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 285.

  G. Quis, Marce, est legatus cum pilo et tuba? 
  M. Legatus, Galba, est Sextus. 
  G. Ubi Sextus habitat?[2]
  M. In oppido Sextus cum filiabus habitat. 
  G. Amantne oppidani Sextum? 
  M. Amant oppidani Sextum et laudant, quod magna cum constantia pugnat. 
  G. Ubi, Marce, est ancilla tua?  Cur non cenam parat? 
  M. Ancilla mea, Galba, equo legati aquam et frumentum dat. 
  G. Cur non servus Sexti equum domini curat? 
  M. Sextus et servus ad murum oppidi properant.  Oppidani bellum
    parant.[3]

    [Footnote 2:  habitat\ is here translated _does live_.  Note the
    _three_ possible translations of the Latin present tense: 
      
habitat\
          he lives
          he is living
          he does live
    Always choose the translation which makes the best sense.]

    [Footnote 3:  Observe that the verb paro\ means not only
    _to prepare_ but also _to prepare for_, and governs the
    accusative case.]

  [Illustration:  LEGATUS CUM PILO ET TUBA]

78. CONVERSATION

Translate the questions and answer them in Latin.

1.  Ubi filiae Sexti habitant? 2.  Quem oppidani amant et laudant? 3.  Quid ancilla equo legati dat? 4.  Cuius equum ancilla curat? 5.  Quis ad murum cum Sexto properat? 6.  Quid oppidani parant?

LESSON X

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