74. Write side by side the declension of domina\, dominus\, and pilum\. A comparison of the forms will lead to the following rules, which are of great importance because they apply to all five declensions:
a. The vocative, with a single exception (see Sec. 73.b), is like the nominative. That is, the vocative singular is like the nominative singular, and the vocative plural is like the nominative plural.
b. The nominative,
accusative, and vocative of neuter nouns are
alike, and in the plural end in -a.
c. The accusative singular
of masculines and feminines ends in
-m and the accusative plural in -s.
d. The dative and ablative plural are always alike.
e. Final -i and -o
are always long; final -a is short,
except in the ablative singular of the first declension.
75. Observe the sentences
Lesbia est bona,
Lesbia is good
Lesbia est ancilla,
Lesbia is a maidservant
We have learned (Sec. 55) that bona\, when used, as here, in the predicate to describe the subject, is called a _predicate adjective_. Similarly a _noun_, as ancilla\, used in the predicate to define the subject is called a predicate noun\.
76. RULE. Predicate Noun. A predicate noun agrees in case with the subject of the verb.
First learn the special vocabulary, p. 285.
G. Quis, Marce, est legatus cum pilo et
M. Legatus, Galba, est Sextus.
G. Ubi Sextus habitat?
M. In oppido Sextus cum filiabus habitat.
G. Amantne oppidani Sextum?
M. Amant oppidani Sextum et laudant, quod magna cum constantia pugnat.
G. Ubi, Marce, est ancilla tua? Cur non cenam parat?
M. Ancilla mea, Galba, equo legati aquam et frumentum dat.
G. Cur non servus Sexti equum domini curat?
M. Sextus et servus ad murum oppidi properant. Oppidani bellum
[Footnote 2: habitat\
is here translated _does live_. Note the
_three_ possible translations of the Latin present tense:
he is living
he does live
Always choose the translation which makes the best sense.]
[Footnote 3: Observe
that the verb paro\ means not only
_to prepare_ but also _to prepare for_, and governs the
[Illustration: LEGATUS CUM PILO ET TUBA]
Translate the questions and answer them in Latin.
1. Ubi filiae Sexti habitant? 2. Quem oppidani amant et laudant? 3. Quid ancilla equo legati dat? 4. Cuius equum ancilla curat? 5. Quis ad murum cum Sexto properat? 6. Quid oppidani parant?