Latin for Beginners eBook

This eBook from the Gutenberg Project consists of approximately 299 pages of information about Latin for Beginners.

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  First Review of Vocabulary and Grammar, Secs. 502-505

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LESSON IX

THE SECOND OR O-DECLENSION

  [Special Vocabulary]

  NOUNS
  bellum, -i:\, n., _war_ (re-bel)
  
co:nstantia, -ae\, f., firmness, constancy, steadiness
   dominus, -i:, m., master, lord (dominate)
  equus, -i:\, m., _horse_ (equine)
  
fru:mentum, -i:\, n., grain
  le:ga:tus, -i:\, m., _lieutenant, ambassador_ (legate)
  
Ma:rcus, -i:\, m., Marcus, Mark
  mu:rus, -i:\, m., _wall_ (mural)
  
oppida:nus, -i:\, m., townsman
  oppidum, -i:\, n., _town_
  
pi:lum, -i:\, n., spear (pile driver)
  servus, -i:\, m., _slave, servant_
   Sextus, -i:, m., _Sextus_

  VERBS
  cu:rat\, _he (she, it) cares for_, with acc.
  
properat\, he (she, it) hastens

70. Latin nouns are divided into five declensions.

The declension to which a noun belongs is shown by the ending of the genitive singular.  This should always be learned along with the nominative and the gender.

71. The nominative singular of nouns of the Second or O-Declension ends in -us, -er, -ir, or -um.  The genitive singular ends in -i:.

72. Gender.  Nouns in -um are neuter.  The others are regularly masculine.

73. Declension of nouns in -us and -um.  Masculines in -us and neuters in -um are declined as follows: 

dominus (BASE domin-), pi:lum (BASE pi:l-),
m., master n., spear

                  TERMINATIONS TERMINATIONS
          SINGULAR
  Nom. do’minus[1] -us pi:lum -um
  Gen. domini:  -i:  pi:li:  -i: 
  Dat. domino:  -o:  pi:lo:  -o: 
  Acc. dominum -um pi:lum -um
  Abl. domino:  -o:  pi:lo:  -o: 
  Voc. domine -e pi:lum -um

PLURAL
Nom.  domini:       -i:         pi:la       -a
Gen.  domino:’rum  -o:rum     pi:lo:’rum  -o:rum
Dat.  domini:s     -i:s       pi:li:s     -i:s
Acc.  domino:s     -o:s       pi:la       -a
Abl.  domini:s     -i:s       pi:li:s     -i:s

    [Footnote 1:  Compare the declension of domina\ and of dominus\.]

    a. Observe that the masculines and the neuters have the same
    terminations excepting in the nominative singular and the nominative
    and accusative plural.

    b. The vocative singular of words of the second declension in
    -us ends in -e, as domine\, _O master_; serve\, O slave
    This is the most important exception to the rule in Sec. 56.a.

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Latin for Beginners from Project Gutenberg. Public domain.
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