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This eBook from the Gutenberg Project consists of approximately 299 pages of information about Latin for Beginners.

    [Footnote 2:  Observe that in English the indirect object often
    stands without a preposition to to mark it, especially when it
    precedes the direct object.]

LESSON VI

FIRST PRINCIPLES (Continued)

  [Special Vocabulary]

ADJECTIVES bona\, _good_ gra:ta\, pleasing magna\, _large, great_ mala\, bad, wicked parva\, _small, little_ pulchra\, beautiful, pretty so:la\, _alone_

  NOUNS
  ancil’la, _maidservant_
  Iu:lia, _Julia_

  ADVERBS[A]
  cu:r\, _why_
  
no:n\, not

  PRONOUNS
  mea\, _my_; tua\, thy, your (possesives)
  quid\, interrog. pronoun, nom. and acc. sing., _what?_

  /-ne\, the question sign, an enclitic (Sec. 16) added to the first
    word, which, in a question, is usually the verb, as amat\, _he
    loves_, but
amat’ne\? does he love? est\, _he is_; estne\?
    is he? Of course /-ne\ is not used when the sentence contains
    quis\, cu:r\, or some other interrogative word.

    [Footnote A:  An adverb is a word used to modify a verb, an
    adjective, or another adverb; as, She sings sweetly; she is
    very talented; she began to sing very early.]

48. The Ablative Case.  Another case, lacking in English but found in the fuller Latin declension, is the ab’la-tive.

49. When the nominative singular ends in -a, the ablative singular ends in -a:  and the ablative plural in -i:s.

    a. Observe that the final -a of the nominative is short, while the
    final -a:  of the ablative is long, as,

      Nom. filia
      Abl. filia: 

    b. Observe that the ablative plural is like the dative plural.

    c. Form the ablative singular and plural of the following nouns: 
    fuga\, causa\, fortuna\, terra\, aqua\, puella\, agricola\,
    
nauta\, domina\.

50. The Ablative Relation.  The ablative case is used to express the relations conveyed in English by the prepositions from, with, by, at, in.  It denotes

  1.  That from which something is separated, from which it starts, or of
  which it is deprived—­generally translated by from.

  2.  That with which something is associated or by means of which it is
  done—­translated by with or by.

  3.  The place where or the time when something happens—­translated by
  in or at.

    a. What ablative relations do you discover in the following?

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