[Footnote 2: Observe
that in English the indirect object often
stands without a preposition to to mark it, especially when it
precedes the direct object.]
FIRST PRINCIPLES (Continued)
ADJECTIVES bona\, _good_ gra:ta\, pleasing magna\, _large, great_ mala\, bad, wicked parva\, _small, little_ pulchra\, beautiful, pretty so:la\, _alone_
mea\, _my_; tua\, thy, your (possesives)
quid\, interrog. pronoun, nom. and acc. sing., _what?_
/-ne\, the question sign, an enclitic
(Sec. 16) added to the first
word, which, in a question, is usually the verb, as amat\, _he
loves_, but amat’ne\? does he love? est\, _he is_; estne\?
is he? Of course /-ne\ is not used when the sentence contains
quis\, cu:r\, or some other interrogative word.
[Footnote A: An adverb
is a word used to modify a verb, an
adjective, or another adverb; as, She sings sweetly; she is
very talented; she began to sing very early.]
48. The Ablative Case. Another case, lacking in English but found in the fuller Latin declension, is the ab’la-tive.
49. When the nominative singular ends in -a, the ablative singular ends in -a: and the ablative plural in -i:s.
a. Observe that the
final -a of the nominative is short, while the
final -a: of the ablative is long, as,
b. Observe that the ablative plural is like the dative plural.
c. Form the ablative
singular and plural of the following nouns:
fuga\, causa\, fortuna\, terra\, aqua\, puella\, agricola\,
50. The Ablative Relation. The ablative case is used to express the relations conveyed in English by the prepositions from, with, by, at, in. It denotes
1. That from which something is separated,
from which it starts, or of
which it is deprived—generally translated by from.
2. That with which something is associated
or by means of which it is
done—translated by with or by.
3. The place where or the time when
something happens—translated by
in or at.
a. What ablative relations do you discover in the following?