II. In the principal sentence of
an indirect statement after verbs
of saying and mental action. The subject is in the accusative
(Secs. 416, 418, 419).
458. The subjunctive is used:
1. To denote purpose (Secs. 349, 366, 372).
2. To denote consequence or result (Secs. 385, 386).
3. In relative clauses of characteristic or description (Sec. 390).
4. In cum\ clauses of time, cause, and concession (Sec. 396).
5. In indirect questions (Sec. 432).
I. 1. Caesar, cum pervenisset, milites hortabatur ne consilium oppidi capiendi omitterent. 2. Rex, castris prope oppidum positis, misit exploratores qui cognoscerent ubi exercitus Romanus esset. 3. Nemo relinquebatur qui arma ferre posset. 4. Nuntii viderunt ingentem armorum multitudinem de muro in fossani iactam esse. 5. Dux suos transire flumen iussit. Transire autem hoc flumen erat difficillimum. 6. Romani cum hanc calamitatem moleste ferrant, tamen terga vertere recusaverunt. 7. Hoc rumore audito, tantus terror omnium animos occupavit ut ne fortissimi quidem proelium committere vellent. 8. Erant qui putarent tempus anni idoneum non esse itineri faciendo. 9. Tam acriter ab utraque parte pugnabatur ut multa milia hominum occiderentur. 10. Quid times? Timeo ne Romanis in animo sit totam Galliam superare et nobis iniurias inferre.
II. 1. Do you not see who is standing on the wall? 2. We hear that the plan of taking the town has been given up. 3. Since the Germans thought that the Romans could not cross the Rhine, Caesar ordered a bridge to be made. 4. When the bridge was finished, the savages were so terrified that they hid themselves. 5. They feared that Caesar would pursue them. 6. Caesar asked the traders what the size of the island was. 7. The traders advised him not to cross the sea. 8. He sent scouts to choose a place for a camp.
[Footnote 1: quaerere ab\.]
[Footnote 2: Not infinitive.]
[Footnote 3: Use the gerundive with ad\.]
How to Translate.\ You have already had considerable practice in translating simple Latin, and have learned that the guide to the meaning lies in the endings of the words. If these are neglected, no skill can make sense of the Latin. If they are carefully noted and accurately translated, not many difficulties remain. Observe the following suggestions:
1. Read the Latin sentence through
to the end, noting endings of
nouns, adjectives, verbs, etc.
2. Read it again and see if any of
the words you know are nominatives
or accusatives. This will often give you what may be called the
backbone of the sentence; that is, subject, verb, and object.