Latin for Beginners eBook

This eBook from the Gutenberg Project consists of approximately 299 pages of information about Latin for Beginners.

I. 1.  Rogavit cur illae copiae relictae essent.  Responderunt illas copias esse praesidio castris. 2.  Caesar misit exploratores ad locum deligendum castris. 3.  Quisque existimavit ipsum nomen Caesaris magno terrori barbaris futurum esse. 4.  Prima luce idem exercitus proelium acre commisit, sed gravia suorum vulnera magnae curae imperatori erant. 5.  Rex respondit amicitiam populi Romani sibi ornamento et praesidio debere esse. 6.  Quis praeerat equitatui quem auxilio Caesari socii miserant? 7.  Aliquibus res secundae sunt summae calamitati et res adversae sunt miro usui. 8.  Gallis magno ad pugnam erat impedimento quod equitatus a dextro cornu premebat. 9.  Memoria pristinae virtutis non minus quam metus hostium erat nostris magno usui. 10.  Tam densa erat silva ut progredi non possent.

II. 1.  I advise you [1]to give up the plan [2]of making war upon the brave Gauls. 2.  Do you know [3]where the cavalry has chosen a place for a camp? 3.  The fear of the enemy will be of great advantage to you. 4.  Caesar left three cohorts as (for) a guard to the baggage. 5.  In winter the waves of the lake are so great [4]that they are (for) a great hindrance to ships. 6.  Caesar inflicted severe[5] punishment on those who burned the public buildings.

    [Footnote 1:  Subjunctive of purpose. (Cf.  Sec. 366.)]

    [Footnote 2:  Express by the genitive of the gerundive.]

    [Footnote 3:  Indirect question.]

    [Footnote 4:  A clause of result.]

    [Footnote 5:  gravis, -e\.]

LESSON LXXVI

VOCABULARY REVIEW :  THE GENITIVE AND ABLATIVE OF QUALITY OR DESCRIPTION

440. Review the word lists in Secs. 524, 525.

441. Observe the English sentences

  (1) A man /of\ great courage, or (2) A man /with\ great courage

  (3) A forest /of\ tall trees, or (4) A forest /with\ tall trees

Each of these sentences contains a phrase of quality or description.  In the first two a man is described; in the last two a forest.  The descriptive phrases are introduced by the prepositions of and with.

In Latin the expression of quality or description is very similar.

The prepositions of and with suggest the genitive and the ablative respectively, and we translate the sentences above

  (1) Vir magnae virtutis\, or (2) Vir magna virtute\
  (3) Silva altarum arborum\, or (4) Silva altis arboribus\

There is, however, one important difference between the Latin and the English.  In English we may say, for example, a man of courage, using the descriptive phrase without an adjective modifier. In Latin, however, an adjective modifier must always be used, as above.

a. Latin makes a distinction between the use of the two cases in that numerical descriptions of measure are in the genitive and descriptions of physical characteristics are in the ablative. Other descriptive phrases may be in either case.

442. EXAMPLES

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