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This eBook from the Gutenberg Project consists of approximately 299 pages of information about Latin for Beginners.

34. EXERCISE

Pronounce the following words and give their general meaning.  Then give the number and case, and the use of each form.  Where the same form stands for more than one case, give all the possible cases and uses.

1.  Silva, silvas, silvam. 2.  Fugam, fugae, fuga. 3.  Terrarum, terrae, terras. 4.  Aquas, causam, lunas. 5.  Filiae, fortunae, lunae. 6.  Iniurias, agricolarum, aquarum. 7.  Iniuriarum, agricolae, puellas. 8.  Nautam, agricolas, nautas. 9.  Agricolam, puellam, silvarum.

LESSON IV

FIRST PRINCIPLES (Continued)

  [Special Vocabulary]

  [See Transcriber’s Note at beginning of text.]

  NOUNS
  dea\, _goddess_ (deity)
   Dia:’na, _Diana_
  
fera\, a wild beast (fierce)
   La:to:’na, Latona
  sagit’ta\, _arrow_

  VERBS
  est\, _he (she, it) is_; sunt\, they are
  necat\, _he (she, it) kills, is killing, does kill_

  CONJUNCTION[A]
  et\, _and_

  PRONOUNS
  quis\, interrog. pronoun, nom. sing., _who?_
  
cuius\ (pronounced c[oo]i’y[oo]s, two syllables), interrog.
    pronoun, gen. sing., whose?

    [Footnote A:  A conjunction is a word which connects words, parts
    of sentences, or sentences.]

35. We learned from the table (Sec. 33) that the Latin nominative, genitive, and accusative correspond, in general, to the nominative, possessive, and objective in English, and that they are used in the same way.  This will be made even clearer by the following sentence: 

  Filia agricolae nautam amat,
    the farmer’s daughter (or the daughter of the farmer)
    loves the sailor

What is the subject? the direct object?  What case is used for the subject? for the direct object?  What word denotes the possessor?  In what case is it?

36. RULE.  Nominative Subject. The subject of a finite verb is in the Nominative and answers the question Who? or What?

37. RULE.  Accusative Object. The direct object of a transitive verb is in the Accusative and answers the question Whom? or What?

38. RULE.  Genitive of the Possessor. The word denoting the owner or possessor of something is in the Genitive and answers the question Whose?

  [Illustration:  DIANA SAGITTAS PORTAT ET FERAS NECAT]

39. EXERCISES

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 283.

I. 1.  Diana est dea. 2.  Latona est dea. 3.  Diana et Latona sunt deae. 4.  Diana est dea lunae. 5.  Diana est filia Latonae. 6.  Latona Dianam amat. 7.  Diana est dea silvarum. 8.  Diana silvam amat. 9.  Diana sagittas portat. 10.  Diana feras silvae necat. 11.  Ferae terrarum pugnant.

For the order of words imitate the Latin above.

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