Latin for Beginners eBook

This eBook from the Gutenberg Project consists of approximately 433 pages of information about Latin for Beginners.

I. 1.  In Germaniae silvis sunt[1] multa genera ferarum quae reliquis in locis non visa sint. 2.  Erant[1] itinera duo quibus Helvetii domo discedere possent. 3.  Erat[1] manus nulla, nullum oppidum, nullum praesidium quod se armis defenderet. 4.  Toto frumento rapto, domi nihil erat quo mortem prohibere possent. 5.  Romani Galbam ducem creaverunt et summa celeritate profecti sunt. 6.  Neque erat[1] tantae multitudinis quisquam qui morari vellet. 7.  Germani non ii sunt qui adventum Caesaris vereantur. 8.  Consulibus occisis erant qui[2] vellent cum regem creare. 9.  Pace facta erat nemo qui arma tradere nollet. 10.  Inter Helvetios quis erat qui nobilior illo esset?

II. 1.  The Romans called the city Rome. 2.  The city was called Rome by the Romans. 3.  The better citizens wished to choose him king. 4.  The brave soldier was not the man to run. 5.  There was no one [3]to call me friend. 6.  These are not the men to[4] betray their friends. 7.  There were (some) who called him the bravest of all.

    [Footnote 1:  Remember that when the verb sum\ precedes its subject
    it is translated _there is_, _there are_, _there were_, etc.]

    [Footnote 2:  erant qui\, _there were_ (some) _who_.  A wholly
    indefinite antecedent of
qui\ does not need to be expressed.]

    [Footnote 3:  A relative clause of characteristic or description.]

    [Footnote 4:  See Sec. 389.b.]

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  Eighth Review, Lessons LXI-LXIX, Secs. 527-528

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395. The conjunction cum\ has the following meanings and constructions: 

  cum TEMPORAL = when, followed by the indicative or the subjunctive
  cum CAUSAL = since, followed by the subjunctive
  cum CONCESSIVE = although, followed by the subjunctive

As you observe, the mood after cum\ is sometimes indicative and sometimes subjunctive.  The reason for this will be made clear by a study of the following sentences: 

  1.  Caesarem vidi tum cum in Gallia eram,
       I saw Caesar at the time when I was in Gaul.

  2.  Caesar in eos impetum fecit cum pacem peterent,
       Caesar made an attack upon them when they were seeking peace.

  3.  Hoc erat difficile cum pauci sine vulneribus essent,
       this was difficult, since only a few were without wounds.

  4.  Cum primi ordines fugissent, tamen reliqui fortiter consistebant,
       though the front ranks had fled, yet the rest bravely stood
       their ground

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