I. 1. In Germaniae silvis sunt multa genera ferarum quae reliquis in locis non visa sint. 2. Erant itinera duo quibus Helvetii domo discedere possent. 3. Erat manus nulla, nullum oppidum, nullum praesidium quod se armis defenderet. 4. Toto frumento rapto, domi nihil erat quo mortem prohibere possent. 5. Romani Galbam ducem creaverunt et summa celeritate profecti sunt. 6. Neque erat tantae multitudinis quisquam qui morari vellet. 7. Germani non ii sunt qui adventum Caesaris vereantur. 8. Consulibus occisis erant qui vellent cum regem creare. 9. Pace facta erat nemo qui arma tradere nollet. 10. Inter Helvetios quis erat qui nobilior illo esset?
II. 1. The Romans called the city Rome. 2. The city was called Rome by the Romans. 3. The better citizens wished to choose him king. 4. The brave soldier was not the man to run. 5. There was no one to call me friend. 6. These are not the men to betray their friends. 7. There were (some) who called him the bravest of all.
[Footnote 1: Remember
that when the verb sum\ precedes its subject
it is translated _there is_, _there are_, _there were_, etc.]
[Footnote 2: erant
qui\, _there were_ (some) _who_. A wholly
indefinite antecedent of qui\ does not need to be expressed.]
[Footnote 3: A relative clause of characteristic or description.]
[Footnote 4: See Sec. 389.b.]
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Eighth Review, Lessons LXI-LXIX, Secs. 527-528
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THE CONSTRUCTIONS WITH THE CONJUNCTION CUM THE ABLATIVE OF SPECIFICATION
395. The conjunction cum\ has the following meanings and constructions:
cum TEMPORAL = when, followed by
the indicative or the subjunctive
cum CAUSAL = since, followed by the subjunctive
cum CONCESSIVE = although, followed by the subjunctive
As you observe, the mood after cum\ is sometimes indicative and sometimes subjunctive. The reason for this will be made clear by a study of the following sentences:
1. Caesarem vidi tum cum in Gallia
I saw Caesar at the time when I was in Gaul.
2. Caesar in eos impetum fecit cum
Caesar made an attack upon them when they were seeking peace.
3. Hoc erat difficile cum pauci sine
this was difficult, since only a few were without wounds.
4. Cum primi ordines fugissent, tamen
reliqui fortiter consistebant,
though the front ranks had fled, yet the rest bravely stood