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This eBook from the Gutenberg Project consists of approximately 299 pages of information about Latin for Beginners.

387. Purpose and Result Clauses Compared.  There is great similarity in the expression of purpose and of result in Latin.  If the sentence is affirmative, both purpose and result clauses may be introduced by ut\; but if the sentence is negative, the purpose clause has ne:\ and the result clause ut no:n\.  Result clauses are often preceded in the main clause by such words as tam\, ita\, sic\ (so), and these serve to point them out.  Compare

    a. Tam graviter vulneratus est ut caperetur
      He was so severely wounded that he was captured
    b. Graviter vulneratus est ut caperetur
      He was severely wounded in order that he might be captured

Which sentence contains a result clause, and how is it pointed out?

388. EXERCISES

I. 1.  Fit, fiet, ut fiat, fiebamus. 2.  Fio, fies, ut fierent, fieri, fiunt. 3.  Fietis, ut fiamus, fis, fiemus. 4.  Milites erant tam tardi ut ante noctem in castra non pervenirent. 5.  Sol facit ut omnia sint pulchra. 6.  Eius modi pericula erant ut nemo proficisci vellet. 7.  Equites hostium cum equitatu nostro in itinere contenderunt, ita tamen[1] ut nostri omnibus in partibus superiores essent. 8.  Virtus militum nostrorum fecit ut hostes ne unum quidem[2] impetum sustinerent. 9.  Homines erant tam audaces ut nullo modo contineri possent. 10.  Spatium erat tam parvum ut milites tela iacere non facile possent. 11.  Hoc proelio facto barbari ita perterriti sunt ut ab ultimis gentibus legati ad Caesarem mitterentur. 12.  Hoc proelium factum est ne legati ad Caesarem mitterentur.

    [Footnote 1:  ita tamen\, _with such a result however_.]

    [Footnote 2:  ne:  ... quidem\, _not even_.  The emphatic word is
    placed between.]

II. 1.  It will happen, they were being made, that it may happen. 2.  It happens, he will be made, to happen. 3.  They are made, we were being made, lest it happen. 4.  The soldiers are so brave that they conquer. 5.  The soldiers are brave in order that they may conquer. 6.  The fortification was made so strong that it could not be taken. 7.  The fortification was made strong in order that it might not be taken. 8.  After the town was taken,[3] the townsmen feared that they would be made slaves. 9.  What state is so weak that it is unwilling to defend itself?

    [Footnote 3:  Ablative absolute.]

LESSON LXIX

THE SUBJUNCTIVE OF CHARACTERISTIC OR DESCRIPTION
THE PREDICATE ACCUSATIVE

389. Akin to the subjunctive of consequence or result is the use of the subjunctive in clauses of characteristic or description.

This construction is illustrated in the following sentences: 

  1.  Quis est qui suam domum non amet? who is there who does not love
  his own home?

  2.  Erant qui hoc facere nollent, there were (some) who were
  unwilling to do this.

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