Latin for Beginners eBook

This eBook from the Gutenberg Project consists of approximately 299 pages of information about Latin for Beginners.

     CONJ.  I CONJ.  II CONJ.  III CONJ.  IV
     PLUPERFECT SUBJUNCTIVE PASSIVE
     SINGULAR
  1. ama:tus monitus re:ctus captus audi:tus essem
       essem essem essem essem
  2. ama:tus monitus re:ctus captus audi:tus esse:s
       esse:s esse:s esse:s esse:s
  3. ama:tus monitus re:ctus captus audi:tus esset
       esset esset esset esset
     PLURAL
  1. ama:ti:  moniti:  re:cti:  capti:  audi:ti:  esse:mus
       esse:mus esse:mus esse:mus esse:mus
  2. ama:ti:  moniti:  re:cti:  capti:  audi:ti:  esse:tis
       esse:tis esse:tis esse:tis esse:tis
  3. ama:ti:  moniti:  re:cti:  capti:  audi:ti:  essent
       essent essent essent essent

    a. In a similar way inflect the perfect and pluperfect subjunctive
    passive of curo\, iubeo\, sumo\, iacio\, munio\.

364. The perfect and pluperfect subjunctive of the irregular verb sum\ are inflected as follows: 

PERFECT PLUPERFECT fu’erim fue’rimus fuis’sem fuisse:’mus fu’eris fue’ritis fuis’se:s fuisse:’tis fu’erit fu’erint fuis’set fuis’sent

365. A substantive clause is a clause used like a noun, as,

  That the men are afraid is clear enough (clause as subject)
  He ordered them to call on him (clause as object)

We have already had many instances of infinitive clauses used in this way (cf.  Sec. 213), and have noted the similarity between Latin and English usage in this respect.  But the Latin often uses the subjunctive in substantive clauses, and this marks an important difference between the two languages.

366. RULE.  Substantive Clauses of Purpose. A substantive clause of purpose with the subjunctive is used as the object of verbs of /commanding\, /urging\, /asking\, /persuading\, or /advising\, where in English we should usually have the infinitive.

EXAMPLES

  1. The general ordered the soldiers to run
       Imperator militibus imperavit ut currerent
  2. He urged them to resist bravely
       Hortatus est ut fortiter resisterent
  3. He asked them to give the children food
       Petivit ut liberis cibum darent
  4. He will persuade us not to set out
       Nobis persuadebit ne proficiscamur
  5. He advises us to remain at home
       Monet ut domi maneamus

    a. The object clauses following these verbs all express the
    purpose or will of the principal subject that something be done or
    not done. (Cf.  Sec. 348.)

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Latin for Beginners from Project Gutenberg. Public domain.
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