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This eBook from the Gutenberg Project consists of approximately 299 pages of information about Latin for Beginners.

30. Learn the following verbs and write the plural of each.  The personal pronouns he, she, it, etc., which are necessary in the inflection of the English verb, are not needed in the Latin, because the personal endings take their place.  Of course, if the verb’s subject is expressed we do not translate the personal ending by a pronoun; thus nauta pugnat\ is translated _the sailor fights_, not _the sailor he fights_.

ama-t he (she, it) loves, is loving, does love (amity, amiable) labo:’ra-t " " " labors, is laboring, does labor nu:ntia-t[2] " " " announces, is announcing, does announce porta-t " " " carries, is carrying, does carry (porter) pugna-t " " " fights, is fighting, does fight (pugnacious)

    [Footnote 2:  The u in nu:ntio:\ is long by exception. 
    (Cf.  Sec. 12.2.)]

31. EXERCISES

I. 1.  The daughter loves, the daughters love. 2.  The sailor is carrying, the sailors carry. 3.  The farmer does labor, the farmers labor. 4.  The girl is announcing, the girls do announce. 5.  The ladies are carrying, the lady carries.

II. 1.  Nauta pugnat, nautae pugnant. 2.  Puella amat, puellae amant. 3.  Agricola portat, agricolae portant. 4.  Filia laborat, filiae laborant. 5.  Nauta nuntiat, nautae nuntiant. 6.  Dominae amant, domina amat.

  [Illustration:  DOMINA]

LESSON III

FIRST PRINCIPLES (Continued)

32. Declension of Nouns.  We learned above (Secs. 19, 20) the difference between the subject and object, and that in English they may be distinguished by the order of the words.  Sometimes, however, the order is such that we are left in doubt.  For example, the sentence The lady her daughter loves might mean either that the lady loves her daughter, or that the daughter loves the lady.

1.  If the sentence were in Latin, no doubt could arise, because the subject and the object are distinguished, not by the order of the words, but by the endings of the words themselves.  Compare the following sentences: 

  Domina filiam amat
  Filiam domina amat
  Amat filiam domina
  Domina amat filiam
    The lady loves her daughter

  Filia dominam amat
  Dominam filia amat
  Amat dominam filia
  Filia amat dominam
    The daughter loves the lady

a. Observe that in each case the subject of the sentence ends in -a and the object in -am.  The form of the noun shows how it is used in the sentence, and the order of the words has no effect on the essential meaning.
2.  As stated above (Sec. 23), this change of ending is called declension\, and each different ending produces what is called a case\.  When we decline a noun, we give all its different cases,
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