Latin for Beginners eBook

This eBook from the Gutenberg Project consists of approximately 299 pages of information about Latin for Beginners.

1. He is brave 1. May he be brave
Fortis est Fortis sit (idea of wishing)
2. We set out at once 2. Let us set out at once
Statim proficiscimur Statim proficiscamur
(idea of willing)
3. You hear him every day 3. You can hear him every day
Cotidie eum audis Cotidie eum audias
(idea of possibility)
4. He remained until the ship 4. He waited until the ship
arrived should arrive
Mansit dum navis pervenit Exspectavit dum navis
perveniret[1]
(idea of expectation)
5. Caesar sends men who find the 5. Caesar sends men
bridge who are to find
(or to find) the bridge
Caesar mittit homines qui Caesar homines mittit qui
pontem reperiunt pontem reperiant
(idea of purpose)

[Footnote 1:  perveniret\, imperfect subjunctive.]

NOTE.  From the sentences above we observe that the subjunctive may be used in either independent or dependent clauses; but it is far more common in the latter than in the former.

347. EXERCISE

Which verbs in the following paragraph would be in the indicative and which in the subjunctive in a Latin translation?

There have been times in the history of our country when you might be proud of being an American citizen.  Do you remember the day when Dewey sailed into Manila Bay to capture or destroy the enemy’s fleet?  You might have seen the admiral standing on the bridge calmly giving his orders.  He did not even wait until the mines should be removed from the harbor’s mouth, but sailed in at once.  Let us not despair of our country while such valor exists, and may the future add new glories to the past.

LESSON LXII

THE SUBJUNCTIVE OF PURPOSE

348. Observe the sentence

  Caesar homines mittit qui pontem reperiant,
  Caesar sends men to find the bridge

The verb reperiant\ in the dependent clause is in the subjunctive because it tells us what Caesar wants the men to do; in other words, it expresses his will and the purpose in his mind.  Such a use of the subjunctive is called the subjunctive of purpose.

349. RULE.  Subjunctive of Purpose. The subjunctive is used in a dependent clause to express the purpose of the action in the principal clause.

350. A clause of purpose is introduced as follows: 

I. If something is wanted, by

  qui:\, the relative pronoun (as above)
  
ut\, conj., in order that, that
  quo:\ (abl. of qui:\, by which), in order that, that, used when
    the purpose clause contains a comparative.  The ablative quo:\
    expresses the measure of difference. (Cf.  Sec. 317.)

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Latin for Beginners from Project Gutenberg. Public domain.
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