Latin for Beginners eBook

This eBook from the Gutenberg Project consists of approximately 299 pages of information about Latin for Beginners.

    [Footnote 2:  Not longius\.  Why?]

    [Footnote 3:  Latin, was distant by a small space.]

    [Footnote 4:  Not the accusative.]

LESSON LIX

NUMERALS (Continued) :  THE ACCUSATIVE OF EXTENT

  [Special Vocabulary]

  agmen, agminis\, n., _line of march, column_;
    
pri:mum agmen\, the van;
    novissimum agmen\, _the rear_
  
atque\, ac\, conj., _and_; atque\ is used before vowels and
    consonants, ac\ before consonants only.  Cf. et\ and /-que\
  concilium, conci’li:\, n., _council, assembly_
  
Helve:tii:, -o:rum\, m., the Helvetii, a Gallic tribe
  passus, passu:s\, m., _a pace_, five Roman feet;
    
mi:lle passuum\, a thousand (of) paces, a Roman mile
  qua:  de:  causa:\, _for this reason, for what reason_
  
va:llum, -i:\, n., earth-works, rampart

  cado:, cadere, cecidi:, ca:su:rus\, _fall_ (decadence)
  
de:do:, de:dere, de:didi:, de:ditus\, surrender, give up;
    with a reflexive pronoun, surrender one’s self, submit, with the
    dative of the indirect object
  premo:, premere, pressi:, pressus\, _press hard, harass_
  
vexo:, vexa:re, vexa:vi:, vexa:tus\, annoy, ravage (vex)

333. Learn the first twenty of the ordinal numerals (Sec. 478).  The ordinals are all declined like bonus\.

334. The distributive numerals are declined like the plural of bonus\.  The first three are

    singuli:, -ae, -a, one each, one by one
    bi:ni:, -ae, -a, two each, two by two
    terni:, -ae, -a, three each, three by three

335. We have learned that, besides its use as object, the accusative is used to express space relations not covered by the ablative.  We have had such expressions as per plurimos annos\, _for a great many years_; per totum diem\, for a whole day.  Here the space relation is one of extent of time.  We could also say per decem pedes\, _for ten feet_, where the space relation is one of _extent of space_.  While this is correct Latin, the usual form is to use the accusative with no preposition, as,

  Vir totum diem cucurrit, the man ran for a whole day
  Caesar murum decem pedes movit, Caesar moved the wall ten feet

336. RULE.  Accusative of Extent. Duration of time and extent of space are expressed by the accusative.

    a. This accusative answers the questions how long? how far?

    b. Distinguish carefully between the accusative of time how long
    and the ablative of time when, or within which.

Select the accusatives of time and space and the ablatives of time in the following: 

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Latin for Beginners from Project Gutenberg. Public domain.
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