Latin for Beginners eBook

This eBook from the Gutenberg Project consists of approximately 299 pages of information about Latin for Beginners.

    [Footnote 1:  Why is this word used instead of hostes\?]

    [Footnote 2:  Use the superlative of gravis\.]

    [Footnote 3:  Accusative.  In a comparison the noun after quam\ is in
    the same case as the one before it.]

N.B.  Beginning at this point, the selections for reading will be found near the end of the volume. (See p. 197.)

LESSON LIV

IRREGULAR COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES
THE ABLATIVE WITH COMPARATIVES WITHOUT QUAM

  [Special Vocabulary]

  alacer, alacris, alacre\, _eager, spirited, excited_ (alacrity)
  
celerita:s, -a:tis\, f., speed (celerity)
  cla:mor, cla:mo:ris\, m., _shout, clamor_
  
le:nis, le:ne\, mild, gentle (lenient)
  mulier, muli’eris\, f., _woman_
  
multitu:do:, multitu:dinis\, f., multitude
  ne:mo\, dat. ne:mini:\, acc. ne:minem\ (gen. nu:lli:us\, abl.
    nu:llo:\, from nu:llus\), no plur., m. and f., no one
  no:bilis, no:bile\, _well known, noble_
  
noctu:\, adv. (an old abl.), by night (nocturnal)
  statim\, adv., _immediately, at once_
  
subito:\, adv., suddenly
  tardus, -a, -um\, _slow_ (tardy)
  
cupio:, cupere, cupi:vi:, cupi:tus\, desire, wish (cupidity)

307. The following six adjectives in -lis form the comparative regularly; but the superlative is formed by adding -limus to the base of the positive.  Learn the meanings and comparison.

POSITIVE COMPARATIVE SUPERLATIVE facilis, -e, easy facilior, -ius facillimus, -a, -um difficilis, -e, hard difficilior, -ius difficillimus, -a, -um similis, -e, like similior, -ius simillimus, -a, -um dissimilis, -e, unlike dissimilior, -ius dissimillimus, -a, -um gracilis, -e, slender gracilior, -ius gracillimus, -a, -um humilis, -e, low humilior, -ius humillimus, -a, -um

308. From the knowledge gained in the preceding lesson we should translate the sentence Nothing is brighter than the sun

  Nihil est clarius quam sol

But the Romans, especially in negative sentences, often expressed the comparison in this way,

  Nihil est clarius sole

which, literally translated, is Nothing is brighter away from the sun; that is, starting from the sun as a standard, nothing is brighter.  This relation is expressed by the separative ablative sole\.  Hence the rule

309. RULE.  Ablative with Comparatives. The comparative degree, if /quam\ is omitted, is followed by the separative ablative.

310. EXERCISES

First learn the special vocabulary, p. 296.

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Latin for Beginners from Project Gutenberg. Public domain.
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