Latin for Beginners eBook

This eBook from the Gutenberg Project consists of approximately 299 pages of information about Latin for Beginners.

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  Sixth Review, Lessons XLV-LII, Secs. 521-523

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LESSON LIII

REGULAR COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES

  [Special Vocabulary]

  aquila, -ae\, f., _eagle_ (aquiline)
  
auda:x\, gen. auda:cis\, adj., _bold, audacious_
  
celer, celeris, celere\, swift, quick (celerity).  Cf. ve:lo:x\
  
explo:rato:r, -o:ris\, m., scout, spy (explorer)
  inge:ns\, gen. ingentis\, adj., huge, vast
  medius, -a., -um\, _middle, middle part of_ (medium)
  
me:ns, mentis (-ium)\, f., mind (mental).  Cf. animus\
  
opportu:nus, -a, -um\, opportune
  quam\, adv., _than_.  With the superlative quam\ gives the force of
    as possible, as quam auda:cissimi:  viri:\, _men as bold as
    possible_
  
recens\, gen. recentis\, adj., _recent_
  
tam\, adv., so.  Always with an adjective or adverb, while ita\ is
    generally used with a verb

  quaero:, quaerere, quaesi:vi:, quaesi:tus\, _ask, inquire, seek_
    (question).  Cf.
peto:\

300. The quality denoted by an adjective may exist in either a higher or a lower degree, and this is expressed by a form of inflection called comparison.  The mere presence of the quality is expressed by the positive degree, its presence in a higher or lower degree by the comparative, and in the highest or lowest of all by the superlative.  In English the usual way of comparing an adjective is by using the suffix _-er_ for the comparative and _-est_ for the superlative; as, positive high, comparative higher, superlative highest.  Less frequently we use the adverbs more and most; as, positive beautiful, comparative more beautiful, superlative most beautiful.

In Latin, as in English, adjectives are compared by adding suffixes or by using adverbs.

301. Adjectives are compared by using suffixes as follows: 

  POSITIVE COMPARATIVE SUPERLATIVE
  cla:rus, -a, -um cla:rior, cla:ri:us cla:rissimus, -a, -um
    (bright) (brighter) (brightest)
    (BASE cla:r-)
  brevis, breve brevior, brevius brevissimus, -a, -um
    (short) (shorter) (shortest)
    (BASE brev-)
  ve:lo:x ve:lo:cior, ve:lo:cius ve:lo:cissimus, -a, -um
    (swift) (swifter) (swiftest)
    (BASE veloc-)

    a. The comparative is formed from the base of the positive by
    adding -ior masc. and fem., and -ius neut.; the superlative by
    adding /-issimus, -issima, -issimum\.

302. Less frequently adjectives are compared by using the adverbs magis\, _more_; maxime:\, most; as, ido:neus\, _suitable_; magis ido:neus\, more suitable; maxime:  ido:neus\, _most suitable._

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Latin for Beginners from Project Gutenberg. Public domain.
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