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This eBook from the Gutenberg Project consists of approximately 315 pages of information about Roumania Past and Present.

[Illustration:  AT THE CABARET ON A HOLIDAY.]

[Footnote 48:  Consular Reports, Roumania, 1878, pp. 965-966.  This statement applies, we believe, to what was formerly Moldavia rather than to Wallachia.  When we were in Bucarest we saw stalls in the street at which English note-paper and writing materials (if they were genuine) were sold; and one day having occasion to buy a pair of scissors we entered a shop for the purpose, and some very dear ones were shown to us.  On complaining of the price we were told they were English, but that we could obtain cheap ones of Austrian manufacture at another shop close by.  This we did, and although the scissors were doubtless inferior, it shows that English goods are liked and command higher prices.]

[Footnote 49:  See Consular Report, Roumania, 1878, pp. 966, 968, where these statements are practically confirmed.]

[Footnote 50:  Purchased by the State whilst these remarks were being written.]

[Footnote 51:  Several authors, copying one another as usual without enquiry, have estimated the population at 90,000, Aurelian having fixed it at 90,236 in 1866; but when in 1877 our Vice-Consul Bonham enquired of the Mayor of Jassy, he was told that, although no satisfactory data exist, 70,000 was nearer the mark.  In like manner the population of Galatz has been set down until lately at 80,000, although an English gentleman residing there maintained that it should be about 50,000.  That gentleman told us that according to a recent census there turned out to be only 40,000, but he questioned that result also, inasmuch as the people do not know the object of such a proceeding and fear to make returns, and moreover the census was taken at a time when many labourers and others had left the city for a season.]

[Footnote 52:  Vice-Consul Bonham’s report, 1877, p. 720.]

[Footnote 53:  Ibid. p. 721.]

CHAPTER VI.

AGRICULTURAL AND PASTORAL—­THE PEASANT PROPRIETARY OF ROUMANIA.

Cultivated acreage of Roumania—­Comparative estimates of agricultural products; waste lands, &c.—­Nature of soil—­Rotation of crops—­Agricultural implements—­Old-fashioned ploughs—­Improved machinery—­Yield of cereals—­Maize, wheat, rye, barley, &c.—­(Note:  Report of M. Jooris)—­Uncertainty as to yield per acre—­Estimates—­Quality and value of Roumanian cereals—­Slovenly cultivation—­Cost of raising cereals—­Uncertainty of estimates—­Present position of agriculture—­Discouragement of immigration—­Competition of the United States—­Cattle—­Oxen and buffaloes—­Sheep—­Wool—­Cheese, butter, &c.—­Capabilities of the soil—­Tobacco—­Cotton—­Agricultural education—­The Agricultural and Sylvicultural College of Ferestreu—­M.  Aurelian—­The grounds and buildings—­External arrangements—­Experimental growth of trees, fruits, cereals, &c.—­Number of professors and pupils—­Internal arrangements for board—­Cost of education—­Laboratory
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