The Senate is elected by two colleges, being the two highest for the election of Deputies. It consists to-day of seventy-six members, and includes a number of high officials who are not elective, such as the archbishop and bishops. The qualification for a Senator is an income of 800 ducats (equal to about 376_l._) per annum, and he must have attained the age of forty years. The Senators are elected for eight years, one half retiring every four years, except in case of a dissolution of the Senate, when all must be re-elected, or, more properly speaking, a new Senate must be chosen (68 to 81). The Act of the Constitution deals with the judicial system, the Code Napoleon being in force in Roumania, with finances, army organisation, and other important matters of national interest. The Act is signed by the Prince and his Ministers: The Minister of the Interior and President of the Council, L. Catargi; the Minister of Finance, J. Bratiano; the Minister of Justice, J. Cantacuzene; the Minister of Foreign Affairs, P. Mavrogeni; the Minister of Public Worship and Instruction, C.A. Rosetti; the Minister of War, J. Ghika; the Minister of Public Works, Agriculture, and Commerce, D. Stourdza.
[Footnote 202: This abstract is made from the French translation of the Constitution; the actual divisions of the country are as follows:—
Judetu is a department or district, the head of which is a prefect. Of these there are at present thirty-two in all.
Plasa, subdivision of a Judetu, the head of which is a sub-prefect.
Comuna, a parish.
Urba, a city.
Orage, a town.]
[Footnote 203: The numbers in parentheses refer to the articles.]
[Footnote 204: A few old families have retained their titles, but many who would have the same justification for doing so have discontinued their use.]
THE PEASANT PROPRIETARY OF ROUMANIA.
The precise terms and circumstances under which the peasant proprietary was formed in Roumania, as communicated to us by Prince Jon Ghika, are as follows:—
Before the ‘Convention of Balta Liman’ between Russia and Turkey, there were three classes of peasantry: