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This eBook from the Gutenberg Project consists of approximately 315 pages of information about Roumania Past and Present.
Turkish exactions after Michael’s fall—­Transition from native to Greek Voivodes—­Matthew Bassarab (Wallachia) and Basilius Lupus (Moldavia)—­Their severe criminal codes—­Serban II.  (Cantacuzene)—­His good deeds—­Betrays the Turks before Vienna—­Growing power of Russia—­Treaty of Carlowitz—­Brancovano (Wallachia) and Cantemir (Moldavia) negotiate with Peter the Great—­First Russian invasion of the Principalities—­Repelled by the Turks—­Flight of Cantemir—­(Note:  Anecdote of Russian cupidity)—­Arrest and execution of Brancovano and his family—­His great treasures—­The Phanariotes—­Their origin and rise—­Massacred in Wallachia—­Second appearance—­Extortions and expulsion—­Panaiotaki, Dragoman of the Porte—­The Mavrocordatos—­Nicholas, first Phanariote Hospodar—­Suppresses the boyards’ retainers—­Constantine modifies slavery—­Mode of appointing hospodars—­The Caimakam—­Homage and servility of boyards—­Conduct of Phanariote rulers at home—­Court customs—­Reputed effeminacy—­Rapacity and exactions—­Extortions of officials—­Extravagance of princesses—­Treatment of peasantry—­Princes encourage brigandage—­Usually deposed and executed—­Corruption of clergy—­Other baneful effects of Phanariote rule—­(Note:  Divorces in Roumania to-day)—­Another view of Phanariote princes—­Their good works—­Ypsilanti, Gregory Ghika—­Nicholas Mavrojeni and his cowardly boyards—­Ennobles his horses—­Russo-Turkish wars—­Treaty of Belgrade—­Russian successes and Austrian interference—­Treaty of Kainardji—­Russian protectorate—­Cession of Bucovine to Austria—­Treaty of Jassy—­Amelioration of state of the Principalities, 1802—­French and English consuls appointed—­Russo-Turkish war and occupation—­Treaty of Bucarest—­Hetairia or Greek rising—­Rebellion in the Principalities—­Career and fate of the patriots Vladimiresco and Ypsilanti—­End of Phanariote rule—­Russian intervention and occupation—­Treaty of Adrianople and restoration of native rulers—­Patriotic efforts of Heliade and others—­Rise of Roumanian learning and art—­The year of revolutions, 1848—­Partial success of the rising in Roumania—­Suppression by Russia and Turkey—­Escape of the patriots—­Review of the benefits of Russian interference in the Principalities—­Renewed Russian aggression—­Brief history of the war of 1854-1856 between Russia and the Western Powers and Turkey—­Treaty of Paris—­Return of the patriots—­Union of the Principalities under Prince Couza—­Incidents of his reign—­His deposition—­How planned and effected—­The provisional government—­Evil influence of Couza’s conduct.

I.

The history of Moldo-Wallachia during the seventeenth century—­that is to say, from the fall of Michael to the dispossession of the native voivodes at the beginning of the eighteenth century—­possesses little interest for English readers.  Some of the more important incidents will be referred to in connection with the subsequent regime of the Greek, or, as they are called, the Phanariote rulers appointed by the Porte, and it will only be necessary to make a few brief comments upon the condition of the country, and the character of two or three of the Voivodes who reigned during the century.

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