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This eBook from the Gutenberg Project consists of approximately 290 pages of information about The Mafulu.

Note.  When apa is used with a numeral it precedes it.  Ex. apa gegeto, two are sufficient.

V. Adverbs of Affirmation, Negation and Interrogation.

e, yes. akai(ge), truly. g’akai, truly. me! what! certainly! ila!  I who knows? ua(ne), not, no. na? is it not (French, n’est ce pas?). ouo! not at all, by no means. andal’ai(me)? why?

Note. Me, ouo, and ila are almost interjections.

VI.  Adverbs of Manner and Likeness.

The adverbs of manner are often replaced by noun suffixes attached to the verb, with the final i. (See Verbal Suffixes, p. 323).

unoi, together. akaumai(nge), further, beyond, besides. uneke, only. ende, also. elele, quickly. dedi, slowly fidefide, continually. kela, without reason, gratis.

Note.  When ende modifies a verb with subject in the third person, it is preceded by the pronoun ove.  Ex. nau fud’ ov’ ende fufuli, my bones (they) also ache.

Prepositions and Postpositions.

I. Prepositions.

Only two prepositions are found in Fuyuge.  These are ise, near, and ga, by.

Ex. aked’ is’ okid’ ando, the men are near the fire; ganda? ga ma! by what do you swear? by the thread.

Note. Ga, in the sense of “by,” is much used, and corresponds to a kind of oath.

II.  Postpositions.

1.  All the postpositions are used as suffixes to the words which they govern.  When the noun to which they are suffixed has a double form, the postposition is added to the short form.

Ex. uli-tsi from uli(ne) pot:  fatsi from fa(le), ground.

There are however some exceptions.

2.  When the postposition begins with a consonant, the final e of a noun changes to i.

Ex. kodigi-tsi from kodige, plate; bulitsi from bule, garden.

3.  The postpositions are often used as nouns.

Ex. balava u tsi ido asi, the inside of the loaf is still raw.

III.  List of Postpositions.

_-ai(me)_, because of, for:  ovol’ aim’ andavete, I weep for the pig.

_-a(le)_, with, by (instrumental):  isong’ al’ oki ya -andal’ a? isong’ ale, take the fire with the tongs—­with what? with the tongs; amul’ al’ ul’ese, the woman with her child; uli sond’ al’ ale, a pot with a handle.

_-ala_, to, adherent to, along:  yo’ ata yarima, hang it on the rattan; enamb’ ata malele yatsi, I will take it along the road.

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