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This eBook from the Gutenberg Project consists of approximately 290 pages of information about The Mafulu.

Ex. nuni o’ gega, thou hast passed down there; di engo, let us go up; na song’ em’ aritsi, I am going to see the village; nu do sona? where have you been? (or, where do you come from?); na bulitsi sova, I have been in the garden (or, I have come from the garden).

3. Idede.

This verb has a general meaning besides the special one “to gather.”

Ex. fang’ idede, to set a trap; di yu molots’ idoma? should we make a water-pipe?

4. Ameme.

This verb has the general meaning of passing, or making anything pass, through an opening.  The object which has the opening does not take suffixes.

Ex. kupa ulin’ ama, put the potatoes in the pot; na ul’ olol’ amene, I passed it through the hole; iso nu emana? andavete, does the smoke irritate you? you are weeping.


I. Adverbs generally precede the verb which they modify.  The exceptions are the interrogative na? (is it not so?) which always comes at the end of the sentence, and _-ta_ (at first), which follows the verb.

Ex. aiti balava natsi, to-morrow bread I shall eat; aiti nu inditsi na? to-morrow I will give it you, shall I not? kuku neta, I eat the tobacco at first.

Note.—­This ta appears to be almost a conjunction, and the phrase might be translated “when I shall have smoked (eaten) the tobacco.”

II.  Adverbs of Place.

do(le)? where. a(le)), here. va(ie), there. ombatsi, underneath. gisa(le), far. ime(li)? far. kugume, near. tsi, inside. val’enga, outside. tu, on, over ibe(le), down there. o(me), up there. yo(le), there above.

III.  Adverbs of Time.

The adverbs of time are not very definite.  For example audati, “to-day, now,” means also “in a few days” or “a few days ago.”  The latter meaning is also attributed to arima, and the former to aiti.

aida? when? vomarima, day before yesterday. arima, yesterday. male(ke), formerly. malieke), formerly. audali), to-day, now. aiti(me), to-morrow. vomaiti, day after to-morrow. talele, often, for ever. dedi, just now, later (near). ido(ve), not yet (with fut.) immediately. ulsienga, later on, in the future. utsimata, later on, in the future. utsinenga, later on, in the future. kelavalage, for a time. _-ta_, at first. vo(ye, again.

IV.  Adverbs of Quantity.

dovavemunge? how much? how many? domamai? how much? how many? avevemunge, as much, so much, as many, so many. tale(le), many. apa(le), enough. kisiaka, few, little. oko, few, little. _-ta_, very. ande, very. boboi, entirely, quite. gegeto, few.

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