The Mafulu eBook

This eBook from the Gutenberg Project consists of approximately 349 pages of information about The Mafulu.

Ex. di ango, let us go; to n’alo, speak, that I may know; go di go, go that we may go.

e.  Subjunctive.

The two forms of the subjunctive are distinguished only in composition, and have not yet been clearly understood.  The last syllable besides is rarely heard except in questions, and refers then to the interrogative form.  The subjunctive without a conjunction is used in simple phrases consisting only of subject and object.

Ex. kuku gadi, di no, roll the tobacco (make cigarette), that we may smoke (eat).

f.  Infinitive.

The forms given as infinitive are uncertain.  They may be verbal nouns.  They are used in phrases such as:  nam’ u babe, father of eating, for ‘a great eater’:  tsimilim’ u babe, father of licking, cf. andaval’ u babe, father of crying, one who causes crying.

g.  Past Participle.

This does not easily lose the final syllable when it ends a sentence.  In other cases, when it is followed by the word it qualifies it loses _-ane_, if the qualified word begins with a vowel, and _-ne_ in other cases.

Ex. iy’ ongaimane, the cut tree, indiv’ ongaima ya, or ongaim’ indi’ ya, take the broken knife, g’usangaman’ ul’ ande, the thing of death.

The past participle of some verbs has not yet been ascertained.

h.  Verbal Adjectives.

The exact difference between the two forms is not accurately ascertained.  The first seems to indicate an instrument, and is equivalent to the phrase “used for,” the second appears to indicate habitual rather than momentary use.  When qualifying persons _-onde_ is used for _-ondana_.

Ex. indi kupa fifitabula, knife for scraping potatoes; ai safatsilibula, a yam which has rotted; kulule iy’ adedondona, a hammer for striking wood; nuni oyatonde, you are only joking; nani falawa me nonde, I don’t eat bread.

In composition _-ande_, or at least _-nde_, is lost when the word qualified follows.

Ex. ai filibulanda, a yam for planting, filibula’ ai ne i, give me the yam for planting; ambe nenondana, the eatable banana, nenond’ ambe ya, take the eatable banana.

V. Negation.

The negative of the verb is formed by the particle me or mi preceding.  In the imperative it also precedes, but when emphasis is laid upon the negation mi follows.  The difference between me and mi is not clear, but me appears to be used only before verbs beginning with a consonant, and mi with other verbs.

A negative participle or infinitive does not appear.  For the verbal adjective the suffix _-ua(ne)_ is used.

Ex. Na mi alele, I do not understand; nani matsine mi engatsi, I will not put on the (shell) bracelet; mi unde, do not fear; kolose mi, do not play; me ya, do not take; nenond’ an’ ua, what is not eaten.

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The Mafulu from Project Gutenberg. Public domain.
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