The Mafulu eBook

This eBook from the Gutenberg Project consists of approximately 290 pages of information about The Mafulu.
1.          2.          3.            4.
nen,        itede,      ongai,        bole,
eat         cut         break         leave

Present nene itede ongai bolo
Past na ita ongai bole
Future natsi itatsi ongaitsi bolatsi
Imperative nu ito ongai bo(le)
Subjunctive no ito ongai bolo
Infinitive namubabe itamubabe ongaimubabe bolamane
Past participle namane itaname ongaimane bolamane
Adjectival nab’ula(ne) itedondona ongaibula(ne) bolabula(ne)

3. Notes on the foregoing paradigms.

a. Indicative present.

Most verbs double the last syllable of the stem, which in the first conjugation always ends in e.  There are, however, some exceptions, especially among verbs in i, and those which have a verbal suffix.  The syllable _-te_ when doubled is always _-tede_.

Ex. Nag alili, I see; nani e gadi, I build (tie up) the house; nani okid’ atede, I light the fire.

b. Indicative past.

The difference between the two forms, both of which are preceded by the particle ga, is not yet clearly made out.  The ending e seems to refer to the time when the action finished, whilst _-a_ has a more general signification.

Ex. Naga ne, I have eaten, naga kupa na, I ate the potatoes.  There is another form which replaces the final syllable of the present tense by _-ua_.  Verbs in _-i_ add _-ua_ to the final syllable.  But it is uncertain whether this expresses the near past, or includes an idea of movement.

Ex. na bul’ elelua, I have just worked in the garden; nu a gadi ua, you have just tied up the fence.

c.  Indicative future.

If the syllables preceding the suffix _-tsi_ also contain _-tsi-ti_.  In monosyllabic verbs especially, a second form of the future is often found, which retains the doubling of the present tense.

Ex. etsiati, will come; nenetsi, will eat; yeyetsi, will take.  For ga with the future, see below.

d.  Imperative.

The first form of the imperative has less force than the second.  In the first conjugation the second form always terminates in _-au_, even when the first form is irregular.  The last syllable of the imperative is often lost, especially when the ending is _-li_.

Ex. aitodede, runs, imperat. aitode and aitodau; itulili, ward off, imperat. itu; bole, leaves, imperat. bole, bo, and bolau; ameme, puts, imperat. a and ama.

The imperative is only used for the second person.  In the first and third (sometimes even in the second) it is replaced by the subjunctive.

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The Mafulu from Project Gutenberg. Public domain.
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