Forgot your password?  

Resources for students & teachers

This eBook from the Gutenberg Project consists of approximately 290 pages of information about The Mafulu.

II.  The Particle, Ga.

The particle ga (often g’ before a vowel) is generally used with the past tense, and is rarely absent in the positive form of the verb.  But it may be used also with the present and future.  With the present it seems to indicate reference to a preceding action in the sense of “being on the point of,” “ready to.”  With the future it has almost the sense of “go.”

Ex. Ake ga nembe na, the men have eaten the bird; amu g’anga the women are gone; naga bulitsi gatsi, I am going to go away to the garden; naga sue, I am going away.

Note (1). Ga always immediately follows the subject, except with the past of the verb ange(ge), to go, which always has g’anga.

(2).  When the subject is not a pronoun, the pronoun of the 3rd pers. sing. is often expressed.

(3). Ga never appears to be used in a negative expression.

Ex. Naga ipitsial’ uruv’ ema, I have killed with the gun a toucan; mel ul’ etsi g’anga, the child to his village has gone; Okom’ ug’ nemb’ ema, Okome has killed a bird; ake kupa me na, the men have not eaten the potatoes.

III.  Person and Number.

These are not expressed by the verb in Fuyuge.

IV.  Tense and Mode.

1.  There are three principal tenses, present, past and future.  The present is found in the indicative and imperative modes, the past in the indicative only, and the future in the indicative and subjunctive.  Besides these, there is a method of expressing the infinitive, a passive participle, and two forms of verbal adjectives.

2. Paradigm of tenses and modes.

ememe,          umbubi,         isiei,
pierce          wash            follow

Indicative present ememe umbubi isiei
Indicative past (1) ema(me) umbubi(ne) isia
Indicative past (2) emo(ne)
Indicative future ematsi(me) umbubitsi(me) isiatsi
Imperative (1) ema umbubi isia
Imperative (2) emau umbubu
Subjunctive (1) emo(le) umbubi(ne) isio(me)
Subjunctive (2) emo(me)
Infinitive ema(me) umbubi(me) isie(me)
Past participle emam(ane) umbubim(ane)
Verbal adjective (1) emabul(ane) umbubibul(ane)
Verbal adjective (2) ememond(ana)

If the Imperative be regarded as the stem, there appear to be three Conjugations, but Dr. Strong gives four based on past tense, thus:  i.  Verbs with monosyllabic roots, 2.  Verbs with roots in a, 3.  Verbs with roots in i, 4.  Verbs with roots in e.

His examples are:—­

Follow Us on Facebook