The Mafulu eBook

This eBook from the Gutenberg Project consists of approximately 349 pages of information about The Mafulu.

Ex. na kuku nu inditsi, I will give thee tobacco; na un’ adatsi, I will strike him; ya di ong’ ando, you two are beside us.

When used before the imperative of the verb indi, to give, na becomes ne.

Ex. ne i, ne inde, give me.

2.  The forms nave and ove are rarely used.  The commonest use is with the words ete, to say, ende, also.

Ex. nav’ elete, I said; ov’ elete, he said; nav’ ende, nov’ ende, ov’ ende, I also, thou also, he also.

3.  The forms nani, nuni, etc., are employed when the verb is understood, or to indicate opposition or emphasis.

Ex. da gatsi? dini; who will go? we (will); nuni kakape ta, nani kakava, you are weak, but I am strong; nani a baibe, I am a great man.

4.  The dual is generally observed by the natives.  Adjectives used with the dual pronoun take the singular form.

Ex. dani sosonga, we (are) idle,

5.  The dual is often employed with two subjects one of which is plural.

Ex. Kakao tu, tsimani u g’anga, Kakao they two, with the policemen, have started.

When dani is used alone it is generally inclusive of the person addressed, and means “I and thou.”  If the third person is intended the name is used:  dani Okomi’ u da gatsi, we two Okomi with we will go. Yani is used in a similar way, when one of the persons referred to is not present:  ya, Dun’u yani natsi, you two Dune with you will go.  The use of the conjunction u(ne) with the second member of the subject does not appear to be constant.

6.  The pronoun of the third person singular u(ne) when it is the direct object of the verb usually follows, and often takes the form -unde.

Ex. kodigitsi mau, put it in the dish; nag’ al’ unde, I have seen him.

II.  Personal Pronouns.  Compound.

From the pronouns na, nu, etc., are derived by means of the suffix -muku, alone, the forms namuku, numuku, etc., with the meanings, “I alone, without company,” etc.

The suffix -mule, is equivalent to self, namule, numule, etc., myself, thyself, etc.

From nani, nuni, etc., come the forms:  naniende, or nanienge, etc., meaning myself in person, etc.; nanieke, nunieke, etc., from -eke, alone; naniova, etc., it is my business, nanibila, I by myself, without help. Nani endebila is more emphatic than nanibila.

Ex. numuku andola? art thou quite alone? da gatsi? uniende; who will go? he himself; nu da? nanienge; who art thou? it is myself; amed’ unieke ando, the chief is alone; ake muniova, it is the men’s business; dinieke al’ andetsi, we will stay here alone; isong’ unibila, his own rainbow appears.

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The Mafulu from Project Gutenberg. Public domain.
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