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This eBook from the Gutenberg Project consists of approximately 107 pages of information about Scientific American Supplement, No. 312, December 24, 1881.

I will begin by alluding to


In 1831, the steam-engine for these purposes was commonly the condensing beam engine, and was supplied with steam from boilers, known, from their shape, as wagon boilers; this shape appears to have been chosen rather for the convenience of the sweeps, who periodically went through the flues to remove the soot consequent on the imperfect combustion, than for the purpose of withstanding any internal pressure of steam.  The necessary consequence was, that the manufacturing engines of those days were compelled to work with steam of from only 31/2 lb. to 5 lb. per square inch of pressure above atmosphere.  The piston speed rarely exceeded 250 feet per minute, and as a result of the feeble pressure, and of the low rate of speed, very large cylinders indeed were needed relatively to the power obtained.  The consumption of fuel was heavy, being commonly from 7 lb. to 10 lb. per gross indicated horsepower per hour.  The governing of the engine was done by pendulum governors, revolving slowly, and not calculated to exert any greater effort than that of raising the balls at the end of the pendulum arms, thus being, as will be readily seen, very inefficient regulators.  The connection of the parts of the engine between themselves was derived from the foundation upon which the engine was supported.  Incident to the low piston speed was slowness of revolution, rendering necessary heavy fly wheels, to obtain even an approach to practical uniformity of rotation, and frequently rendering necessary also heavy trains of toothed gearing, to bring up the speed from that of the revolutions of the engine to that of the machinery it was intended to drive.

In 1881, the boilers are almost invariably cylindrical, and are very commonly internally fired, either by one flue or by two; we owe it to the late Sir William Fairbairn, President of the British Association in 1861, that the danger, which at one time existed, of the collapse of these fire flues, has been entirely removed by his application of circumferential bands.  Nowadays there are, as we know, modifications of Sir William Fairbairn’s bands, but by means of his bands, or by modifications thereof, all internally flued boilers are so strengthened that the risk of a collapse of the flue is at an end.  Boilers of this kind are well calculated to furnish—­and commonly do furnish—­steam of from 40 lb. to 80 lb. pressure above atmosphere.

The piston speed is now very generally 400 feet or more, so that, notwithstanding that there is usually a liberal expansion, the mean pressure upon the piston is increased, and this, coupled with its increased speed, enables much more power to be obtained from a given size of cylinder than was formerly obtainable.  The revolutions of the engine now are as many as from 60 to 200 per minute, and thus, with far lighter fly-wheels, uniformity of rotation is much more nearly attained.

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