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This eBook from the Gutenberg Project consists of approximately 107 pages of information about Scientific American Supplement, No. 312, December 24, 1881.

An improvement in steam-boilers, best understood by reference to the ordinary vertical form, has been introduced by Mr. T. Moy, London.  Here the flue is central, and, as shown in the accompanying illustration, is crossed by a number of horizontal water-tubes at different heights.  The ends of these tubes are embraced, within the steam chamber, by annular troughs.  At the top domed part of the boiler are two annular chambers, the outer one being intended to receive the water upon entry from the feed-pump, and to contain any sedimentary deposit which may be formed.  The water next passes, by the pipe, a, in the figure, into the inner chamber, surrounding the end of the uptake flue, whence it flows through the pipe, b, down into the first of the annular troughs above mentioned, and afterward overflows these troughs in succession until it reaches the bottom.  Mr. Moy claims to have secured by this means a boiler of quick steaming capacity, together with a reduction in the weight of metal, and considerable economy of fuel.  By the arrangement of the water in a number of shallow layers a large steaming surface is obtained, and there is a good steam space rendered available round the troughs.  The water also enters at a point where it may abstract as much heat as possible from the furnace gases before they escape; and by the separation of the top domed chamber from the rest of the boiler the operation of scaling and cleaning is facilitated.  The arrangement is also adapted to horizontal and multitubular boilers, to be fired with solid, liquid, or gaseous fuel.

[Illustration:  Improved boiler.]

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THE ELEVATED RAILWAYS OF NEW YORK.

But few persons who have not been in New York since the construction of the elevated roads, and witnessed their equipments and operations, can have any adequate idea of the extent of them, and of the people, machinery, and appurtenances required in working them.  A recent inventory discloses the fact that there are 32 miles of roadway, 161 stations, 203 engines, and 612 cars, while 3,480 trains a day are run.  There are 3,274 men employed on these roads, 309 of whom are engineers, 258 ticket agents, 231 conductors, 308 firemen, 395 guards or brakemen, 347 gatemen, 4 road inspectors, 106 porters, 33 carpenters, 27 painters, 69 car inspectors, 140 car cleaners, 40 lamp men, and 470 blacksmiths, boiler makers, and other mechanics employed on the structure and in the shops.  Most of the ticket agents are telegraph operators, but there are 13 other operators employed.  There are four double-track lines in operation.  The aggregate daily receipts vary from $14,000 to $18,000; and as many as 274,023 passengers have been carried in one day.  Engineers are paid from $3 to $3.50 per day; ticket agents, $1.75 to $2.25; conductors, $1.90 to $2.50; firemen, $1.90 to $2; guards or brakemen, $1.50 to $1.65; and gatemen, $1.20 to $1.50.  The above items do not include machinists and other employes in the workshops, or the general officers, clerks, etc.

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