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This eBook from the Gutenberg Project consists of approximately 107 pages of information about Scientific American Supplement, No. 312, December 24, 1881.

These figures represent a series of tools which may be varied infinitely to adapt them to different purposes.  The user, if he is wide awake, is not long in discovering what angle to give the cutting edge, what shape to give the point, and what position to give the tool in relation to the work to be done.

Having had experience with hand tools it requires only a little practice and observation to apply the same principles to slide rest tools.

A few examples of this class of tools are given.  Fig. 12 is the ordinary diamond pointed tool, which should be made right and left.  The cutting edge may have a more or less acute angle, according to the work to be done, and the inclined or front end of the tool may be slightly squared or rounded, according to the work.  Fig. 13 is a separating tool, which is a little wider at the cutting edge than any where else, so that it will clear itself as it is forced into the work.

For brass this tool should be beveled downward slightly.  By giving the point the form shown in Fig. 3 it will be adapted to screw cutting.

Fig. 14 shows an inside tool for the slide rest; its point may be modified according to the work to be done.  Fig. 15 is a side tool for squaring the ends of shafts; Figs. 16, 17, 18, and 19 represent tools for brass, Fig. 16 is a round-nosed tool for brass, Fig. 17 a V shaped tool, Fig. 18 a screw thread tool, and Fig. 19 a side tool.  In boring, whether the object is cored or not, it is desirable, where the hole is not too large, to take out the first cut with a drill.  The drill for the purpose is shown in Fig. 20, the drill holder in Fig. 21, and the manner of using in Fig 22.  The drill holder, B, is held by a mortised post placed in the rest support.  The slot of the drill holder is placed exactly opposite the tail center and made secure.  The drill, which is flat, is drilled to receive the tail center, and it is kept from turning by the holder, and is kept from lateral movement and chattering by a wrench, C, which is turned so as to bind the drill in the slot of the holder.

The relative position of the tool and work is shown in Figs. 25, 26, 27, and 28; Fig. 25 shows the position for brass; Fig. 26 for iron and steel; Fig. 27 the relative position of the engine rest tool and its work; and Fig. 28 the position of the tool for soft metal and wood.

In all of these cases the point of the tool is above the center of the work.  In the matter of the adjustment of the tool, as well as in all other operations referred to, experiment is recommended as the best means of gaining valuable knowledge in the matter of turning metals.

ROTARY CUTTERS.

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