Estimate of the results which would arise in the latter case. The state, as representing the average opinion of the masses, brought to bear on scientific industrial enterprise. Illustrations.
state as sole printer and publisher. State capitalism
destroy the machinery of industrial progress just as it would
destroy the machinery by which thought and knowledge develop.
But behind the question of whether socialism could provide ability with the conditions or the machinery requisite for its exercise is the question of whether it could provide it with any adequate stimulus.
Speculative attempts to minimise it
Sidney Webb, and most modern socialists of the higher
recognise that this problem of motive underlies all others.
approach it indirectly by sociological arguments borrowed
from other philosophers, and directly by a psychology peculiar
sociological arguments by which socialists seek to
the claims of the able man.
These founded on a specific confusion of thought, which vitiated the evolutionary sociology of that second half of the nineteenth century. Illustrations from Herbert Spencer, Macaulay, Mr. Kidd, and recent socialists.
confusion in question a confusion between speculative
The individual importance of the able man, untouched by the speculative conclusions of the sociological evolutionists, as may be seen by the examples adduced in a contrary sense by Herbert Spencer. This is partially perceived by Spencer himself. Illustrations from his works.
attempts, on the part of socialistic writers, to apply
the speculative generalisations of sociology to the practical
position of individual men.
The climax of absurdity reached by Mr. Sidney Webb.
Theultimate difficulty, continued.
Ability and individual motive
individual motives of the able man as dealt with directly
They abandon their sociological ineptitudes altogether, and betake themselves to a psychology which they declare to be scientific, but which is based on no analysis of facts, and consists really of loose assumptions and false analogies.
treatment of the motives of the artist, the thinker,
religious enthusiast, and the soldier.
unscientific treatment of the soldier’s motive,
fantastic proposal based on it to transfer this motive from the
domain of war to that of industry.