Fortn. Rev. Sept. 1905, cf. van Gennep, Mythes et Legendes.
 It cannot be said that the ordinary theory of the development of kinship in the female line is satisfactory. The consanguine relation of mother and child does not appear to be a complete answer to the question why kinship—an entirely different thing—was reckoned through the mother; the alleged uncertainty of fatherhood is in the first place closely connected with an unproven stage of promiscuity and consequently hardly a vera causa, until further evidence of such a stage has been produced; and again among the Arunta, it is rather potestas than physical fatherhood which, on their theory, determines the kinship of the child so far as the class is concerned. For the primitive group therefore we cannot assert any predominant interest of the mother in the children nor yet admit that it would necessarily be important if it were shown to exist.
 Annee Sociologique V, 104 sq.; VIII, 132 sq.; Tylor in J.A.I. XVIII, 245-272.
 Howitt, pp. 220, 225, 234, 248; cf. 159, 269.
 ib. p. 234.
 P. 30 infra.
 Ethnological Studies, p. 141.
 Howitt, pp. 193, 224, 227, 236.
 ib. p. 248, cf. 227.
 Howitt, pp. 195, 221, 177, 217.
 ib. pp. 210, 227, 252, 216, 177, 260.
 ib. p. 243.
 ib. p. 219.
 ib. pp. 232, 257, 236.
 Nor. Tr. p. 603.
 ib. pp. 77 n., 114.
 Howitt, pp. 263, 255, 198, 195.
 Howitt, p. 298.
 ib. pp. 306, 308 sq.
 Nor. Tr. p. 23.
 Howitt, p. 303.
 ib. p. 302.
 Nor. Tr. p. 524.
 Reisen. IV, 347.
 Petrie’s Reminiscences, p. 117.
 N.Q. Ethn. Bull. VIII.
 Proc. R.S. Vict. XVII, 120.
DEFINITIONS AND HISTORY.
Definitions: tribe, sub-tribe, local group, phratry,
class, totem kin.
“Blood” and “shade.” Kamilaroi type. History of Research in
Australia. General sketch.
Before proceeding to deal with the Australian facts it will be well to define the terminology to be employed, and give a brief survey of a typical organisation. Looking at the population from the territorial point of view in the first place, we find aggregates of tribes; these may be termed nations. The component tribes are friendly, one with another; they may and often do hold initiation ceremonies and other ceremonials in common; although the language is usually syntactically the same, and though they contain many words in common,